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TUCoPS :: Phreaking Technical System Info :: wb900.txt

Splitting Phone Lines - The BT WB900 Digital Exchange Unit




Spliting phone lines. The British Telecom
Wb9OO digital exchange unit.

by hybrid
(hybrid@phunc.com)
(darkcyde.8m.com/hybrid/hybrid.htm)


WB9OO is a system designed by BT to split a line into two carriers. This way
two seperate BT customers can use the same line with privacy, in other words
two seperate incoming/outgoing calls can be made on 1 subscriber loop
similtaniously. Basicaly, the hardware BT have devoloped to allow this kind
of loop is called _WB9OO 1+1 Carrier System, and consists of 1 exchange unit,
1 customer unit and a filter, all of which I will explain later. The exchange
unit is designed to be attached to the Main Distribution Frame (MDF). The
idea is that the standard line pair is attached to the filter at the
Destination Point (DP). The filter and the DP WB9OO equipment is installed on
the customers premisis, usually hidden away somewhere. In order for two
people to use the same line, the two subscribers are split into differnet
catigories, one of them being the _Audio Customer_ the other being the
_Carrier Customer_. The audio customer will use normal speech and carrier
freqencys, wile the carrier customer would use a higher carrier freqency,
operating well above the standard audio freqency range. Lets take a look at
this setup a little closser...

Remember: * The audio customer and carrier customer use the SAME line *
            (SIMILTANIOUSLY with SEPERATE call setups and routes)

******************
The Audio Customer
******************

The audio customers part of the line is basicaly the same as a standard phone
line, implementing DC signals with the normal 25 Hz which makes the phone
ring. The customers voice patterns will use the audio freqency band, hence
the name. Here a filter is implemented which is designed to stop the audio
freqncys interfering with the carrier customers freqencys and equipment. As
said before, this filter is fitted at the Destination Point of the
subscribers line.

********************
The Carrier Customer
********************

Listen up, heres the whole emphasis of this file, the carrier customer.
Basicaly, as I said before, the audio and carrier customers are on the same
line or cable pair, but the carrier customer is on a higher freqency. Here,
simple science is implemented and Amplitude Modulation (AM) is deployed to
provide the line split. Here the signals and speech from the customer to the
exchange (TXD) are modulated on a 40 kHz carrier. From the exchange to the
subsciber, the carrier is modulated at a steady 64 kHz. Lets take another
look at this subsciber line setup...


  Carrier Customer
  ________________
 |   _    ____    |
 |  |-|--|----|::::::::::::::.
 | -|-|--| b) | | |         ||    a) Customer Adapter
 |  | |  |____| | |         ||    b) Customer WB9OO unit
 |  |_|a)       | |         ||                              -------> Carrier
 |   |__________| |         ||                             |         Customer
 |________________|         ||                             |         Exchange
                            ||                             |
                            ||                             |
                            ||                             | WB9OO (exchange)
 This is the                ||                          ___|____
 part of the WB9OO          ||                         |        |   This part
 system which           ----||----                     |        |   of the
 is fitted at the      |    ||    | Cable Pair/SL      |        |   WB9OO is
 subsciber[s]          |    ::::::|::::::::::::::::::::|::::::  |   fitted at 
 home.                 |____||____|                    |        |   the local
                            || Filter                  |        |   exchange.
   Audio Customer           ||                         |________|
  ________________          ||                             |
 |                |         ||                             |
 |                |         ||                             |
 |                |         ||                              -------> Audio
 |    :::::[]:::::|::::::::::|                                       Customer
 |                |                                                  Exchange
 |                |                          -------> External
 |________________|                          -------> Network.


****************************************
Outgoing calls from the carrier customer
****************************************

When the customer places a call, 40 kHz is transmitted to the line. 40 kHz is
well outside the audio freqency range and will not interfere with the audio
customers telephone equipment. This 40 kHz will be detected by the WB9OO unit
at the exchange, and will then create a DC loop for the call to procede.
Similtaniously a 64 kHz tone is transmitted to the customers line from the
exchange itself (modualted dialtone).

**************************************
Incoming calls to the carrier customer
**************************************

If the carrier customer is called by someone, the WB9OO exchange unit detects
the ringing current, and the 64 kHz carrier is activated and then modualted
to the normal 25 Hz ringing current.

************
Interfernece
************

As on most freqency dependant electrical equipment, the WB9OO exchange units
can be 'interfered with'. The customer, and exchange units are suseptable to
freqnecys in the following bands: 36-44 kHz - 60-68 kHz.

******************
System componments
******************

exchange unit WB9OO/1-/7                [obsolete]
exchagen unit WB9OO/8                   [for anolouge and TXD exchanges
                                         made by Telespec]
exchange unit WB9OO/9                   [for analouge and TXD exchanges made
                                         by STC]
mounting unit WB9OO/9                   [for 10 exchange units]
exchange unit WB9OO adapter1            [for exchange unit types 1/7 when
                                         connected to TXD suitable for
                                         mountings with green PCB runners]
exchange unit WB9OO adapter2            [TXD suitable for mountings with
                                         black or no runners]
power units                             [for 50 V / 12 V]
subscribers unit WB9OO/a/6              [obsolete]
--------------
filter unit                             [security filter]

***********************************
Underground filter unit connections
***********************************



                ____________________________
               |                            |
               |                            |
               |                            |
               |                            |
               |        Filter Unit         |
               |                            |
               |                            |
               |____________________________|
                           ||||||
                           ||||||
                           ||||||   orange wire
                           ||||||_______________________| |_____________
                           |||||    white wire                 Audio Customer
                           |||||________________________| |_____________
                           ||||
                           ||||     green wire
                           ||||______________________| |________________
                           |||      white wire               Carrier Customer
                           |||_______________________| |________________
     blue                  ||
    ___________| |_________||
     white                  |   <----------The customer loop/cable pair
    ___________| |__________|



********************************************************
Testing this kind of loop setup at the exchange and line
********************************************************

Any UK phreak worth his/her weight in pbx's should have resonable knowledge
of BT line testing techn1que. In this setup the audio and carrier customers
are tested in differnt ways, these tests are performed from the local
exchange using a technique called test selecting. Also from the Main
Distrobution Frame and remote equipment located away from the exchange itself. The usuall
BT testing facilitys are deployed in this scenario, SALT (for the audio
customer) FRB (ringback for both audio and carrier customers) and howler
tests.

**************
Vulnerablittys
**************

As far as I can tell the only real obvious security issue with this type of
customer loop setup is via physical phreaking, ie- the use of a beige box or
interception of carrier loop from local distrobution points. The customers
equipment comes in many flavours, ranging from drop wires on poles, wall
mountings and underground filters. If a WB9OO distrobution box is located and
riged up, it would be possible to have the use of two lines instead of one.
I'm lazy, so you won't find me climbing any telegraph poles with my beige box
although one of the most common instalations for this type of equipment is in
well built up areas such as apartment buildings, where the WB9OO units would
all be coupled to together (knowing BT thrown together), here it's just a
case of pic'n'mix. Anyway, I'm not encouraging you to participate in such
fraudualant activitys :p Just wait until telephony over the national grid
comes into play, try beige boxing then.... Hope you enjoyed this article,
and play saftly kids.


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