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TUCoPS :: Phreaking General Information :: phreakmn.txt

The Official Phreaker's Manual





1



                        The Official Phreaker's Manual





















                     The Official Phreaker's Manual   V1.1
                                Updated 2/14/87
                 Compiled, Wordprocessed, and Distributed by:
                                  The Jammer
                                      and
                                Jack the Ripper

































                                    Page 1




                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                 Introduction

   What precedes this introduction is what I have termed "The Official
Phreakers Manual", while it may not be.  Many times I have been on a BBS, which
has files claiming to have summed up all the ways to phreak in the U.S. and
abroad, well those were pretty lame and a couple pages long.  Now after many
relentless hours of work, I have done it.  This is an informative file and the
authors of this and the authors from which I have gathered information, take
absolutely NO responsibility and are not liable for, under any circumstances
for damage, direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential.

    Warning: Use of this material may shorten your life in the free world!

   Ok enough of the bullshit, I readily admit that this is mainly a compilation
of available phreak material and public resources.  What I have done is to
gather it all together and edit, compile, check for errors, put in a readable
form, and finally to write what I know without echoing what others have said.
I have set this up that it is good for all levels of phreaks, going from novice
to advanced, and references and tables for easy reference in the back.
   This manual is constantly being updated!  If you have any contributions or
corrections or comments, please leave messages to me (Jack the Ripper) on any
BBS's I am on (probably where you got it).  Thanks!





































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

    **********************************************************************

                               Table of Contents

    **********************************************************************


I....... 005 Chapter 1
I.1..... 006 Glossary of Phreaking terms
I.2..... 010 Glossary of Phreaking terms cont.
I.3..... 017 Boxes and Electronic Toll Fraud
I.4..... 020 How to be a Real Phreak
I.5..... 026 Basic Telecommunications I, A Phreaks guide

II...... 031 Chapter 2
II.1.... 033 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 1
II.2.... 041 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 2
II.3.... 050 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 3
II.4.... 058 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 4
II.5.... 062 The History of ESS
II.6.... 064 History of British Phreaking
II.7.... 067 Bad as Shit, an adventure story

III..... 069 Chapter 3
III.1... 070 Phreaking Cosmos
III.2... 072 Cosmos Revamped
III.3... 073 Telenet
III.4... 075 Phreaking AT&T Cards
III.5... 076 AT&T Forgery
III.6... 078 Dealing with Operators
III.7... 079 How to set up a Conference Call
III.8... 081 Fone tapping
III.9... 083 Fone tapping cont.
III.10.. 085 Tracing, how dangerous is it
III.11.. 086 How to avenge yourself
III.12.. 088 Interesting things to do on Step lines
III.13.. 089 Busted, An account of the Private Sector bust

IV...... 092 Chapter 4
IV.1.... 093 Basic Telecommunications II, Special #'s, Loops, Ani
IV.2.... 101 Basic Telecommunications III, Direct Dialing, International
IV.3.... 106 Basic Telecommunications IV, Telefone Hierarchy
IV.4.... 113 Basic Telecommunications V, Subscriber fone electronics
IV.5.... 120 Basic Telecommunications VI, Fortress fones

V....... 123 Chapter 5
V.1..... 124 Basic Telecommunications VII, Blue Boxing
V.2..... 132 Better Homes & Blue Boxing, Part 1
V.3..... 136 Better Homes & Blue Boxing, Part 2
V.4..... 141 Better Homes & Blue Boxing, Part 3
V.5..... 145 More on Blue Boxing by Fred Stienbeck
V.6..... 146 Verification, Remob, etc., Is it possible?
V.7..... 148 Equal Access and the American Dream, Another great article
V.8..... 160 Equal access and Autodialing Modems
V.9..... 161 ISDN, it will change telecommunications for ever
V.10.... 163 ISDN, an article from Proto
V.11.... 165 MCI Services what they are and how they are useful


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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

    **********************************************************************

                                  Appendixes

    **********************************************************************


Appendix I...... 170 Reference tables and access lists
Appendix I.1.... 171 Country Codes
Appendix I.2.... 173 Country Codes cont.
Appendix I.3.... 176 Country Codes cont.
Appendix I.4.... 181 Max Access ports (Dialups)
Appendix I.5.... 182 Metro Fone Access ports
Appendix I.6.... 183 Area Codes
Appendix I.7.... 185 Tac Dialups around the country
Appendix I.8.... 193 Test numbers around the country
Appendix I.9.... 196 What a TSPS operators console looks like

Appendix II..... 197 Box plans
Appendix II.1... 198 How to make an Infinity transmitter
Appendix II.2... 203 How to make a silver box

                 204 Protection Page




































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                   Chapter 1

   Ok this chapter will cover the basic vocabulary of phreaking, it is a fairly
long list, though not totally complete.  After the vocab, will be some of the
general rules for phreaking.  Most of the rules are protection from the police
and AT&T, but others are grammatical rules.  These are not as important to your
freedom, but many a phreak will think you are a twelve year old if you start
talking like, "Hey dudz!^$(&, just got the latest warez! trade u for some
soft/docs. Checkul8r".  Well you get the point, here's your vocab list...


















































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

    ......................................................................
    ......................................................................
    .                        The Bell Glossary -                        ..
    .                               by                                  ..
    .                         /X<X     /X<X                             ..
    .                        </X>X>ad </X>X>arvin                       ..
    ......................................................................
    ......................................................................

ACD: Automatic Call Distributor - A system that automatically distributes calls
to operator pools (providing services such as intercept and directory
assistance), to airline ticket agents, etc.

Administration: The tasks of record-keeping, monitoring, rearranging,
prediction need for growth, etc.

AIS: Automatic Intercept System - A system employing an audio-response unit
under control of a processor to automatically provide pertinent info to callers
routed to intercept.

Alert: To indicate the existence of an incoming call, (ringing).

ANI: Automatic Number Identification - Often pronounced "Annie," a facility for
automatically identify the number of the calling party for charging purposes.

Appearance: A connection upon a network terminal, as in "the line has two
network appearances."

Attend: The operation of monitoring a line or an incoming trunk for off-hook or
seizure, respectively.

Audible: The subdued "image" of ringing transmitted to the calling party during
ringing; not derived from the actual ringing signal in later systems.

Backbone Route: The route made up of final-group trunks between end offices in
different regional center areas.

BHC: Busy Hour Calls - The number of calls placed in the busy hour.

Blocking: The ratio of unsuccessful to total attempts to use a facility;
expresses as a probability when computed a priority.

Blocking Network: A network that, under certain conditions, may be unable to
form a transmission path from one end of the network to the other. In general,
all networks used within the Bell Systems are of the blocking type.

Blue Box: Equipment used fraudulently to synthesize signals, gaining access to
the toll network for the placement of calls without charge.

BORSCHT Circuit: A name for the line circuit in the central office. It
functions as a mnemonic for the functions that must be performed by the
circuit: Battery, Overvoltage, Ringing, Supervision, Coding, Hybrid, and
Testing.

Busy Signal: (Called-line-busy) An audible signal which, in the Bell System,
comprises 480hz and 620hz interrupted at 60IPM.

Bylink: A special high-speed means used in crossbar equipment for routing calls

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

incoming from a step-by-step office. Trunks from such offices are often
referred to as "bylink" trunks even when incoming to noncrossbar offices; they
are more properly referred to as "dc incoming trunks." Such high-speed means
are necessary to assure that the first incoming pulse is not lost.

Cable Vault: The point which phone cable enters the Central Office building.

CAMA: Centralized Automatic Message Accounting - Pronounced like Alabama.

CCIS: Common Channel Interoffice Signaling - Signaling information for trunk
connections over a separate, nonspeech data link rather that over the trunks
themselves.

CCITT: International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee- An
International committee that formulates plans and sets standards for
intercountry communication means.

CDO: Community Dial Office - A small usually rural office typically served by
step-by-step equipment.

CO: Central Office - Comprises a switching network and its control and support
equipment. Occasionally improperly used to mean "office code."

Centrex: A service comparable in features to PBX service but implemented with
some (Centrex CU) or all (Centrex CO) of the control in the central office. In
the later case, each station's loop connects to the central office.

Customer Loop: The wire pair connecting a customer's station to the central
office.

DDD: Direct Distance Dialing - Dialing without operator assistance over the
nationwide intertoll network.

Direct Trunk Group: A trunk group that is a direct connection between a given
originating and a given terminating office.

EOTT: End Office Toll Trunking - Trunking between end offices in different toll
center areas.

ESB: Emergency Service Bureau - A centralized agency to which 911 "universal"
emergency calls are routed.

ESS: Electronic Switching System - A generic term used to identify as a class,
stored-program switching systems such as the Bell System's No.1 No.2, No.3,
No.4, or No.5.

ETS: Electronic Translation Systems - An electronic replacement for the card
translator in 4A Crossbar systems. Makes use of the SPC 1A Processor.

False Start: An aborted dialing attempt.

Fast Busy: (often called reorder) - An audible busy signal interrupted at twice
the rate of the normal busy signal; sent to the originating station to indicate
that the call blocked due to busy equipment.

Final Trunk Group: The trunk group to which calls are routed when available
high-usage trunks overflow; these groups generally "home" on an office next
highest in the hierarchy.

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual


Full Group: A trunk group that does not permit rerouting off-contingent foreign
traffic; there are seven such offices.

Glare: The situation that occurs when a two-way trunk is seized more or less
simultaneously at both ends.

High Usage Trunk Group: The appellation for a trunk group that has alternate
routes via other similar groups, and ultimately via a final trunk group to a
higher ranking office.

Intercept: The agency (usually an operator) to which calls are routed when made
to a line recently removed from a service, or in some other category requiring
another station, such as an Emergence Interrupt.

Junctor: A wire or circuit connection between networks in the same office. The
functional equivalent to an intraoffice trunk.

MF: Multifrequency - The method of signaling over a trunk making use of the
simultaneous application of two out of six possible frequencies.

NPA: Numbering Plan Area.

ONI: Operator Number Identification - The use of an operator in a CAMA office
to verbally obtain the calling number of a call originating in an office not
equipped with ANI.

PBX: Private Branch Exchange - (PABX: Private Automatic Branch Exchange) An
telephone office serving a private customer, Typically , access to the outside
telephone network is provided.

Permanent Signal: A sustained off-hook condition without activity (no dialing
or ringing or completed connection); such a condition tends to tie up
equipment, especially in earlier systems. Usually accidental, but sometimes
used intentionally by customers in high-crime-rate areas to thwart off
burglars.

POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service - Basic service with no extra "frills".

ROTL: Remote Office Test Line - A means for remotely testing trunks.

RTA: Remote Trunk Arrangement - An extension to the TSPS system permitting its
services to be provided up to 200 miles from the TSPS site.

SF: Single Frequency. A signaling method for trunks: 2600hz is impressed upon
idle trunks.

Supervise: To monitor the status of a call.

SxS: (Step-by-Step or Strowger switch) - An electromechanical office type
utilizing a gross-motion stepping switch as a combination network and
distributed control.

Talkoff: The phenomenon of accidental synthesis of a machine-intelligible

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

signal by human voice causing an unintended response. "whistling a tone".

Trunk: A path between central offices; in general 2-wire for interlocal, 4-wire
for intertoll.

TSPS: Traffic Service Position System - A system that provides, under stored-
program control, efficient operator assistance for toll calls. It does not
switch the customer, but provides a bridge connection to the operator.

X-bar: (Crossbar) - An electromechanical office type utilizing a "fine-motion"
coordinate switch and a multiplicity of central controls (called markers).
There are four varieties:
        No.1 Crossbar: Used in large urban office application; (1938)
        No 3 Crossbar: A small system started in (1974).
        No.4A/4M Crossbar: A 4-wire toll machine; (1943).
        No.5 Crossbar: A machine originally intended for relatively small
suburban applications; (1948)
        Crossbar Tandem: A machine used for interlocal office switching.









































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

         ============================================================
                               _  _        _______
                              | X/ |      / _____/
                              |_||_|etal / /hop
                              __________/ /
                             /___________/
                                 (314) 432-0756

                               Proudly Presents

                      The MCI Telecommunications Glossary

                            Part I Volume I (A - D)

                           Typed by Knight Lightning

         ============================================================

- A -

A & B LEADS: Designation of leads derived from the midpoints of the two 2-wire
pairs comprising a 4-wire circuit.

ABBREVIATED DIALING: The ability of a telephone user to reach frequently called
numbers by using less than seven digits. Synonym:   Speed Dialing

ACCESS CHARGE: A fee paid for the use of local lines.

ACCESS CODE: A digit or number of digits required to be connected to a private
line arranged for dial access.

ACCESS LINE: A telephone circuit which connects a customer location to a
network switching center.

AIRLINE MILEAGE: Calculated point-to-point mileage between terminal
facilities.

ALL TRUNKS BUSY (ATB): A single tone interrupted at a 120 ipm (impulses per
minute) rate to indicate all lines or trunks in a routing group are busy.

ALTERNATE ROUTE: A secondary communications path used to reach a destination if
the primary path is unavailable.

ALTERNATE USE: The ability to switch communications facilities from one type of
service to another, i.e., voice to data, etc.

ALTERNATE VOICE DATA (AVD): A single transmission facility which can be used
for either voice or data.

AMERICAN STANDARD CODE
FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE
(ASCII): An 8 level code developed for the interchange of information between
data processing and communications systems.

ANALOG SIGNAL: A signal in the form of a continuous varying physical quantity,
e.g., voltage which reflects variations in some quantity, e.g., loudness in the
human voice.


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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

ANNUNICATOR: An audible intercept device that states the condition or
restrictions associated with circuits or procedures.

ANSWER BACK: An electrical and/or visual indication to the calling or sending
end that the called or received station is on the line.

ANSWER SUPERVISION: An off-hook signal transmitted toward the calling end of a
switched connection when the called party answers.

AREA CODE: Synonym: Numbering Plan Area (NPA). A three digit number identifying
more than 150 geographic areas of the United States and Canada which permits
direct distance dialing on the telephone system. A similar global numbering
plan has been established for international subscriber dialing.

ATTENDANT POSITION: A telephone switchboard operator's position. It provides
either automatic (cordless) or manual (plug and jack) operator controls for
incoming and/or outgoing telephone calls.

ATTENUATION: A general term used to denote the decrease in power between that
transmitted and that received due to loss through equipment, lines, or other
transmission devices. It is usually expressed as a ration in db (decibel).


(B) ENTRANCE INTO THE DDD TOLL NETWORK MAY BE EFFECTED BY A PRETEXT CALL TO ANY
OTHER TOLL-FREE # SUCH AS UNIVERSAL DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE (555-1212) OR ANY # IN
THE INWATS NETWORK, EITHER INTER-STATE OR INTRA-STATE, WORKING OR NON-WORKING.

(C) ENTRANCE INTO THE DDD TOLL NETWORK MAY ALSO BE IN THE FORM OF "SHORT HAUL"
CALLING. A "SHORT HAUL" CALL IS A CALL TO ANY # WHICH WILL RESULT IN A LESSER
AMOUNT OF TOLL CHARGES THAN THE CHARGES FOR THE CALL TO BE COMPLETED BY THE
BLUE BOX. FOR EXAMPLE, A CALL TO  BIRMINGHAM FROM ATLANTA MAY COST $.80 FOR THE
FIRST 3 MINUTES WHILE A CALL FROM ATLANTA TO LOS ANGELES IS $1.85 FOR 3
MINUTES. THUS, A SHORT HAUL, 3-MINUTE CALL TO BIRMINGHAM FROM ATLANTA, SWITCHED
BY USE OF A BLUE BOX TO LOS ANGELES, WOULD RESULT IN A NET FRAUD OF $2.65 FOR A
3 MINUTE CALL.

(D) A BLUE BOX MAY BE WIRED INTO THE TELEPHONE LINE OR ACOUSTICALLY CONNECTED
TO THE HANDSET. THE BLUE BOX MAY EVEN BE BUILT INSIDE A REGULAR TOUCH-TONE
PHONE, USING THE PHONE'S PUSH BUTTONS FOR THE BLUE BOX'S SIGNALLING TONES.

(E) A MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDING MAY BE USED TO RECORD THE BLUE BOX TONES
REPRESENTATIVE OF SPECIFIC PHONE #'S. SUCH A TAPE RECORDING COULD BE USED IN
LIEU OF
A BLUE BOX TO FRAUDULENTLY PLACE CALLS TO THE PHONE #'S RECORDED ON THE
MAGNETIC TAPE.

     ALL BLUE BOXES, EXCEPT "DIAL PULSE" OR "ROTARY SF" BLUE BOXES, MUST HAVE
THE FOLLOWING 4 COMMON OPERATING CAPABILITIES:

(A) IT MUST HAVE SIGNALLING CAPABILITY IN THE FORM OF A 2600HZ TONE. THE TONE
IS USED BY THE TOLL NETWORK TO INDICATE, EITHER BY ITS PRESENCE OR ITS ABSENCE,
AN "ON HOOK" (IDLE) OR "OFF HOOK" (BUSY) CONDITION OF THE TRUNK.

(B) THE BLUE BOX MUST HAVE A "KP" TONES THAT UNLOCKS OR READIES THE
MULTI-FREQUENCY RECEIVER AT THE CALLED END TO RECEIVE THE TONES CORRESPONDING
TO THE CALLED PHONE #.

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(C) THE TYPICAL BLUE BOX MUST BE ABLE TO EMIT MF TONES WHICH ARE USED TO
TRANSMIT PHONE #'S OVER THE TOLL NETWORK. EACH DIGIT OF A PHONE # IS
REPRESENTED BY A COMBINATION OF 2 TONES. FOR EXAMPLE, THE DIGIT 2 IS X-MITTED
BY A COMBINATION OF 700HZ AND 1100HZ.

(D) THE BLUE BOX MUST HAVE AN "ST" KEY WHICH CONSISTS OF A COMBINATION OF 2
TONES THAT TELL THE EQUIPMENT AT THE CALLED END THAT ALL DIGITS HAVE BEEN SENT
AND THAT THE EQUIPMENT SHOULD START SWITCHING THE CALL TO THE CALLED NUMBER.

   THE "DIAL PULSER" OR "ROTARY SF" BLUE BOX REQUIRES ONLY A DIAL WITH A
SIGNALLING CAPABILITY TO PRODUCE A 2600HZ TONE.

*BLACK BOX*
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

     THIS ETF DEVICE IS SO-NAMED BECAUSE OF THE COLOR OF THE FIRST ONE FOUND.
IT VARIES IN SIZE AND USUALLY HAS ONE OR TWO SWITCHES OR BUTTONS.  ATTACHED TO
THE TELEPHONE LINE OF A CALLED PARTY, THE BLACK BOX PROVIDES TOLL-FREE CALLING
*TO* THAT PARTY'S LINE. A BLACK BOX USER INFORMS OTHER PERSONS BEFOREHAND THAT
THEY WILL NOT BE CHARGED FOR ANY CALL PLACED TO HIM. THE USER THEN OPERATES THE
DEVICE CAUSING A "NON-CHARGE" CONDITION  ("NO ANSWER" OR "DISCONNECT") TO BE
RECORDED ON THE TELEPHONE COMPANY'S BILLING EQUIPMENT. A BLACK BOX IS
RELATIVELY SIMPLE TO CONSTRUCT AND IS MUCH LESS SOPHISTICATED THAN A BLUE BOX.

*CHEESE BOX*
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

  ITS DESIGN MAY BE CRUDE OR VERY SOPHISTICATED. ITS SIZE VARIES; ONE WAS FOUND
THE SIZE OF A HALF-DOLLAR.  A CHEESE BOX IS USED MOST OFTEN BY BOOKMAKERS OR
BETTERS TO PLACE WAGERS WITHOUT DETECTION FROM A REMOTE LOCATION. THE DEVICE
INTER-CONNECTS 2 PHONE LINES, EACH HAVING DIFFERENT #'S BUT EACH TERMINATING AT
THE SAME LOCATION. IN EFFECT, THERE ARE 2 PHONES AT THE SAME LOCATION WHICH ARE
LINKED TOGETHER THROUGH A CHEESE BOX. IT IS USUALLY FOUND IN AN UNOCCUPIED
APARTMENT CONNECTED TO A PHONE JACK OR CONNECTING BLOCK. THE BOOKMAKER, AT SOME
REMOTE LOCATION, DIALS ONE OF THE NUMBERS AND STAYS ON THE LINE. VARIOUS
BETTORS DIAL THE OTHER NUMBER BUT ARE AUTOMATICALLY CONNECTED WITH THE
BOOKMAKER BY MEANS OF THE CHEESE BOX INTER-CONNECTION. IF, IN ADDITION TO A
CHEESE BOX, A BLACK BOX IS INCLUDED IN THE ARRANGEMENT, THE COMBINED EQUIPMENT
WOULD PERMIT TOLL-FREE CALLING ON EITHER LINE TO THE OTHER LINE. IF A POLICE
RAID WERE CONDUCTED AT THE TERMINATING POINT OF THE CONVERSATIONS -THE LOCATION
OF THE CHEESE BOX- THERE WOULD BE NO EVIDENCE OF GAMBLING ACTIVITY. THIS DEVICE
IS SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY. LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN ADVISED
THAT WHEN UNUSUAL DEVICES ARE FOUND ASSOCIATED WITH TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS THE
PHONE COMPANY SECURITY REPRESENTATIVES SHOULD BE CONTACTED TO ASSIST IN
IDENTIFICATION. (THIS PROBABLY WOULD BE GOOD FOR A BBS , ESPECIALLY WITH THE
BLACK BOX SET UP. AND IF YOU EVER DECIDED TO TAKE THE BOARD DOWN, YOU WOULDN'T
HAVE TO CHANGE YOUR PHONE #. IT ALSO MAKES IT SO YOU YOURSELF CANNOT BE TRACED.
I AM NOT SURE ABOUT CALLING OUT FROM ONE THOUGH)

*RED BOX*
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

  THIS DEVICE IT COUPLED ACOUSTICALLY TO THE HANDSET TRANSMITTER OF A
SINGLE-SLOT COIN TELEPHONE. THE DEVICE EMITS SIGNALS IDENTICAL TO THOSE TONES
EMITTED WHEN COINS ARE DEPOSITED. THUS, LOCAL OR TOLL CALLS MAY BE PLACED
WITHOUT THE ACTUAL DEPOSIT OF COINS.


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                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/
                       /-/                           /-/
                       /-/      Phreaker's           /-/
                       /-/       PhunHouse           /-/
                       /-/                           /-/
                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/
                       /-/   By:                     /-/
                       /-/       The Traveler        /-/
                       /-/                           /-/
                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/
                       /-/                           /-/
                       /-/  Call:                    /-/
                       /-/   Brainstorm BBS          /-/
                       /-/   612/345-2815 (300/1200) /-/
                       /-/                           /-/
                       /-/   Little America          /-/
                       /-/   507/289-8211 (300)      /-/
                       /-/                           /-/
                       /-/ Tell 'em Traveler sent ya /-/
                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/

 The long awaited prequil to Phreaker's Guide has finally arrived. Conceived
from the boredom and loneliness that could only be derived from: The Traveler!
But now, he has returned in full strength (after a small vacation) and is here
to 'World Premiere' the new files everywhere.
 Stay cool. This is the prequil to the first one, so just relax. This is not
made to be an exclusive ultra elite file, so kinda calm down and watch in the
background if you are too cool for it...

/-/   Phreak Dictionary   /-/

 Here you will find some of the basic but necessary terms that should be known
by any phreak who wants to be respected at all...

 Phreak [fr'eek]:1.  The action of using mischevious and mostly illegal ways
in order to not pay for some sort of telecommunications  bill, order, transfer,
or other service. It often involves usage of highly illegal boxes and machines
in order to defeat the security that is set up to avoid this sort of
happening.
 [fr'eaking]. v. 2.  A person who uses the above methods of destruction and
chaos in order to make a better life for all. A true phreaker will not not go
against his fellows or narc on people who have ragged on him or do anything
termed to be dishonorable to phreaks.
 [fr'eek]. n.    3.  A certain code or dialup useful in the action of being a
phreak. (Example: "I hacked a new metro phreak last night.")

 Switching System
 [Swich'ing sis'tem]: 1.  There are 3 main switching systems currently employed
in the US, and a few other systems will be mentioned as background.
A) SxS:  This system was invented in 1918 and was employed in over half of the
country until 1978. It is a very basic system that is a general waste of energy
and hard work on the linesman. A good way to identify this is that it requires
a coin in the phone booth before it will give you a dial tone, or that no call
waiting, call forwarding, or any other such service is available. Stands for:
Step by Step

B) XB:   This switching system was first employed in 1978 in order to take care
of most of the faults of SxS switching. Not only is it more efficient, but it

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

also can support different services in various forms. XB1 is Crossbar Version
1. That is very limited and is hard to distinguish from SxS except by direct
view of the wiring involved. Next up was XB4, Crossbar Version 4. With this
system, some of the basic things like DTMF that were not available with SxS can
be accomplished. For the final stroke of XB, XB5 was created. This is a service
that can allow DTMF plus most 800 type services (which were not always
available...) Stands for: Crossbar.
C) ESS:  A nightmare in telecom. In vivid color, ESS is a pretty bad thing to
have to stand up to. It is quite simple to identify. Dialing 911 for
emergencies, and ANI [see ANI below] are the most common facets of the dread
system. ESS has the capability to list in a person's caller log what number was
called, how long the call took, and even the status of the conversation (modem
or otherwise.) Since ESS has been employed, which has been very recently, it
has gone through many kinds of revisions. The latest system to date is ESS 11a,
that is employed in Washington D.C. for security reasons. ESS is truly trouble
for any phreak, because it is 'smarter' than the other systems. For instance,
if on your caller log they saw 50 calls to 1-800-421-9438, they would be able
to do a CN/A [see Loopholes below] on your number and determine whether you are
subscribed to that service or not. This makes most calls a hazard, because
although 800 numbers appear to be free, they are recorded on your caller log
and then right before you receive your bill it deletes the billings for them.
But before that they are open to inspection, which is one reason why extended
use of any code is dangerous under ESS. Some of the boxes [see Boxing below]
are unable to function in ESS. It is generally a menace to the true phreak.
Stands For: Electronic Switching System. because they could appear on a filter
somewhere or maybe it is just nice to know them any ways.
             A) SSS: Strowger Switching System. First non-operator system
available.
             B) WES: Western Electronics Switching. Used about 40 years ago
with some minor places out west.
  Boxing [Boks'-ing]: 1)  The use of personally designed boxes that emit or
cancel electronical impulses that allow simpler acting while phreaking. Through
the use of separate boxes, you can accomplish most feats possible with or
without the control of an operator.
                      2)  Some boxes and their functions are listed below. Ones
marked with '*' indicate that they are not operatable in ESS.
    *Black Box: Makes it seem to the phone company that the phone was never
picked up.

      Blue Box:  Emits a 2600hz tone that allows you to do such things as stack
a trunk line, kick the operator off line, and others.

       Red Box:  Simulates the noise of a quarter, nickel, or dime being
dropped into a payphone.

    Cheese Box:  Turns your home phone into a pay phone to throw off traces (a
red box is usually needed in order to call out.)

    *Clear Box:  Gives you a dial tone on some of the old SxS payphones without
putting in a coin.

into phone lines and extract by eavesdropping, or crossing wires, etc.
    Purple Box:  Makes all calls made out from your house seem to be local
calls.
 ANI [ANI]: 1)  Automatic Number Identification. A service available on ESS
that allows a phone service [see Dialups below] to record the number that any
certain code was dialed from along with the number that was called and print

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

both of these on the customer bill. 950 dialups [see Dialups below] are all
designed just to use ANI. Some of the services do not have the proper equipment
to read the ANI impulses yet, but it is impossible to see which is which
without being busted or not busted first.
 Dialups
 [dy'l'ups]: 1)  Any local or 800 extended outlet that allows instant access to
any service such as MCI, Sprint, or AT&T that from there can be used by
handpicking or using a program to reveal other peoples codes which can then be
used moderately until they find out about it and you must switch to another
code (preferably before they find out about it.)
             2)  Dialups are extremely common on both senses. Some dialups
reveal the company that operates them as soon as you hear the tone. Others are
much harder and some you may never be able to identify. A small list of
dialups:
                   1-800-421-9438 (5 digit codes)
                   1-800-547-6754 (6 digit codes)
                   1-800-345-0008 (6 digit codes)
                   1-800-734-3478 (6 digit codes)
                   1-800-222-2255 (5 digit codes)
             3)  Codes: Codes are very easily accessed procedures when you call
a dialup. They will give you some sort of tone. If the tone does not end in 3
seconds, then punch in the code and immediately following the code, the number
you are dialing but strike the '1' in the beginning out first. If the tone does
end, then punch in the code when the tone ends. Then, it will give you another
tone. Punch in the number you are dialing, or a '9'. If you punch in a '9' and
the tone stops, then you messed up a little. If you punch in a tone and the
tone continues, then simply dial then number you are calling without the '1'.
             4)  All codes are not universal. The only type that I know of that
is truly universal is Metrophone. Almost every major city has a local Metro
dialup (for Philadelphia, (215)351-0100/0126) and since the codes are
universal, almost every phreak has used them once or twice. They do not employ
ANI in any outlets that I know of, so feel free to check through your books and
call 555-1212 or, as a more devious manor, subscribe yourself. Then, never use
your own code. That way, if they check up on you due to your caller log, they
can usually find out that you are subscribed. Not only that but you could set a
phreak hacker around that area and just let it hack away, since they usually
group them, and, as a bonus, you will have their local dialup.
             5)  950's. They seem like a perfectly cool phreakers dream. They
are free from your house, from payphones, from everywhere, and they host all of
the major long distance companies (950-1044 <MCI>, 950-1077 <Sprint>, 950-1088
<Skylines>, 950-1033 <Us Telecom>.) Well, they aren't. They were designed for
ANI. That is the point, end of discussion.

 A phreak dictionary. If you remember all of the things contained on that file
up there, you may have a better chance of doing whatever it is you do. This
next section is maybe a little more interesting...

Blue Box Plans:
---------------

   These are some blue box plans, but first, be warned, there have been 2600hz
tone detectors out on operator trunk lines since XB4. The idea behind it is to
use a 2600hz tone for a few very naughty functions that can really make your
day lighten up. But first, here are the plans, or the heart of the file:

==============================================
700  :   1   :   2   :   4   :   7   :  11   :
900  :   +   :   3   :   5   :   8   :  12   :

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1100 :   +   :   +   :   6   :   9   :  KP   :
1300 :   +   :   +   :   +   :  10   :  KP2  :
1500 :   +   :   +   :   +   :   +   :  ST   :
     : 700   : 900   :1100   :1300   :1500   :
==============================================

 Stop! Before you diehard users start piecing those little tone tidbits
together, there is a simpler method. If you have an Apple-Cat with a program
like Cat's Meow IV, then you can generate the necessary tones, the 2600hz tone,
the KP tone, the KP2 tone, and the ST tone through the dial section. So if you
have that I will assume you can boot it up and it works, and I'll do you the
favor of telling you and the other users what to do with the blue box now that
you have somehow constructed it.
 The connection to an operator is one of the most well known and used ways of
having fun with your blue box. You simply dial a TSPS (Traffic Service
Positioning Station, or the operator you get when you dial '0') and blow a
2600hz tone through the line. Watch out! Do not dial this direct! After you
have done that, it is quite simple to have fun with it. Blow a KP tone to start
a call, a ST tone to stop it, and a 2600hz tone to hang up. Once you have
connected to it, here are some fun numbers to call with it:

0-700-456-1000  Teleconference (free, because you are the operator!)
(Area code)-101 Toll Switching
(Area code)-121 Local Operator (hehe)
(Area code)-131 Information
(Area code)-141 Rate & Route
(Area code)-181 Coin Refund Operator
(Area code)-11511 Conference operator (when you dial 800-544-6363)

 Well, those were the tone matrix controllers for the blue box and some other
helpful stuff to help you to start out with. But those are only the functions
with the operator. There are other k-fun things you can do with it...
 More advanced Blue Box Stuff:
   Oops. Small mistake up there. I forgot tone lengths. Um, you blow a tone
pair out for up to 1/10 of a second with another 1/10 second for silence
between the digits. KP tones should be sent for 2/10 of a second. One way to
confuse the 2600hz traps is to send pink noise over the channel (for all of you
that have decent BSR equalizers, there is major pink noise in there...)
Using the operator functions is the use of the 'inward' trunk line. That is
working it from the inside. From the 'outward' trunk, you can do such things as
make emergency breakthrough calls, tap into lines, busy all of the lines in any
trunk (called 'stacking'), enable or disable the TSPS's, and for some 4a
systems you can even re-route calls to anywhere.

 All right. The one thing that every complete phreak guide should not be
without is blue box plans, since they were once a vital part of phreaking.
Another thing that every complete file needs is a complete listing of all of
the 800 numbers around so you can have some more fun.

/-/   800 Dialup Listings  /-/

1-800-345-0008 (6)   1-800-547-6754 (6)
1-800-245-4890 (4)   1-800-327-9136 (4)
1-800-526-5305 (8)   1-800-858-9000 (3)
1-800-437-9895 (7)   1-800-245-7508 (5)
1-800-343-1844 (4)   1-800-322-1415 (6)
1-800-437-3478 (6)   1-800-325-7222 (6)


                                    Page 23




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 All right, set Cat Hacker 1.0 on those numbers and have a fuck of a day. That
is enough with 800 codes, by the time this gets around to you I dunno what
state those codes will be in, but try them all out anyways and see what you
get. On some 800 services now, they have an operator who will answer and ask
you for your code, and then your name. Some will switch back and forth between
voice and tone verification, you can never be quite sure which you will be up
against.
 Armed with this knowledge you should be having a pretty good time phreaking
now. But class isn't over yet, there are still a couple important rules that
you should know. If you hear continual clicking on the line, then you should
assume that an operator is messing with something, maybe even listening in on
you. It is a good idea to call someone back when the phone starts doing that.
If you were using a code, use a different code and/or service to call him
back.
 A good way to detect if a code has gone bad or not is to listen when the
number has been dialed. If the code is bad you will probably hear the phone
ringing more clearly and more quickly than if you were using a different code.
If someone answers voice to it then you can immediately assume that it is an
operative for whatever company you are using. The famed '311311' code for Metro
is one of those. You would have to be quite stupid to actually respond, because
whoever you ask for the operator will always say 'He's not in right now, can I
have him call you back?' and then they will ask for your name and phone number.
Some of the more sophisticated companies will actually give you a carrier on a
line that is supposed to give you a carrier and then just have garbage flow
across the screen like it would with a bad connection. That is a feeble effort
to make you think that the code is still working and maybe get you to dial
someone's voice... a good test for the carrier trick is to dial a number that
will give you a carrier that you have never dialed with that code before, that
will allow you to determine whether the code is good or not.
 For our next section, a lighter look at some of the things that a phreak
should not be without. A vocabulary. A few months ago, it was a quite strange
world for the modem people out there. But now, a phreaker's vocabulary is
essential if you wanna make a good impression on people when you post what you
know about certain subjects.

/-/    Vocabulary    /-/

 - Do not misspell except certain exceptions:
      phone -> fone
      freak -> phreak
 - Never substitute 'z's for 's's. (i.e. codez -> codes)
 - Never leave many characters after a post (i.e. Hey Dudes!#!@#@!#!@)
 - NEVER use the 'k' prefix (k-kool, k-rad, k-whatever)
 - Do not abbreviate. (I got lotsa wares w/ docs)
 - Never substitute '0' for 'o' (r0dent, l0zer).
 - Forget about ye old upper case, it looks ruggyish.

 All right, that was to relieve the tension of what is being drilled into your
minds at the moment.. now, however, back to the teaching course. Here are some
things you should know about phones and billings for phones, etc.

 LATA:  Local Access Transference Area. Some people who live in large cities or
areas may be plagued by this problem. For instance, let's say you live in the
215 area code under the 542 prefix (Ambler, Fort Washington). If you went to
dial in a basic Metro code from that area, for instance, 351-0100, that might
not be counted under unlimited local calling because it is out of your LATA.
For some LATA's, you have to dial a '1' without the area code before you can
dial the phone number. That could prove a hassle for us all if you didn't

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realize you would be billed for that sort of call. In that way, sometimes, it
is better to be safe than sorry and phreak.
 The Caller Log: In ESS regions, for every household around, the phone company
has something on you called a Caller Log. This shows every single number that
you dialed, and things can be arranged so it showed every number that was
calling to you. That's one main disadvantage of ESS, it is mostly computerized
so a number scan could be done like that quite easily. Using a dialup is an
easy way to screw that, and is something worth remembering. Anyways, with the
caller log, they check up and see what you dialed. Hmm... you dialed 15
different 800 numbers that month. Soon they find that you are subscribed to
none of those companies. But that is not the only thing. Most people would
imagine "But wait! 800 numbers don't show up on my phone bill!". To those
people, it is a nice thought, but 800 numbers are picked up on the caller log
until right before they are sent off to you. So they can check right up on you
before they send it away and can note the fact that you fucked up slightly and
called one too many 800 lines.

Right now, after all of that, you should have a pretty good idea of how to grow
up as a good phreak. Follow these guidelines, don't show off, and don't take
unnecessary risks when phreaking or hacking.

File Level:5

  /-/    Credits   /-/

 To The Videosmith- for setting me straight on some shit.
 To The Linesman- for telling me to upload it to his AE line.
 To Modern Mutant- for making me into a phreaking freak.
 To Jack the Nibbler- for the basis of the blue box plans.

 By using your new k-koool (hehe) phreaking knowledge, call a couple of these
BBS's around the country:

 /---------------------------------X
 |      Bulletin Board List        |
 |     ---------------------       |
 |     215/844-8836                |
 | 7 Cities of Gold (3/12) 10megs  |
 |     307/382-4006                |
 | Brainstorm BBS  (3/12)          |
 |     612/345-2815                |
 | Metal Shop  (3/12)              |
 |     314/432-0756                |
 X---------------------------------/

 Stay free! And watch out soon for Deep Thought, somewhere in 215, that will be
a nice BBS that Ace of Spades and I will run. You will be the first to find out
about it, trust me...

Later,

The Traveler
Zer0-g






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          ************ << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> ************
          *                                                        *
          *            $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$           *
          *            %$  BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS   $%           *
          *            $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$           *
          *                        PART I                          *
          *                                                        *
          **********************************************************


HOW TO BE A REAL PHREAK
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN THE PHONE PHREAK SOCIETY THERE ARE CERTAIN VALUES THAT EXIST IN ORDER TO
BE A TRUE PHREAK, THESE ARE BEST SUMMED UP BY THE MAGICIAN:

       "MANY PEOPLE THINK OF PHONE PHREAKS AS SLIME, OUT TO RIP OFF BELL FOR
ALL SHE IS WORTH. NOTHING COULD BE FURTHER FROM THE TRUTH!  GRANTED, THERE ARE
SOME WHO GET THEIR KICKS BY MAKING FREE CALLS; HOWEVER, THEY ARE NOT TRUE PHONE
PHREAKS. REAL PHONE PHREAKS ARE 'TELECOMMUNICATIONS HOBBYISTS' WHO EXPERIMENT,
PLAY WITH AND LEARN FROM THE PHONE SYSTEM. OCCASIONALLY THIS EXPERIMENTING, AND
A NEED TO COMMUNICATE WITH OTHER PHREAKS ( WITH-OUT GOING BROKE), LEADS TO FREE
CALLS. THE FREE CALLS ARE BUT A SMALL SUBSET OF A TRUE PHONE PHREAKS
ACTIVITIES."

THE PHONE PHREAK'S TEN COMMANDMENTS
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

REPRINTED FROM TAP ISSUE #86. (TAP, ROOM 603, 147 W 42 STREET, NEW YORK, NY
10036) SEND A SASE FOR THEIR INFO SHEET AND TELL THEM THAT BIOC AGENT 003 TOLD
YOU ABOUT IT.)


I.     BOX THOU NOT OVER THINE HOME TELEPHONE WIRES, FOR THOSE WHO DOEST MUST
SURELY BRING THE WRATH OF THE CHIEF SPECIAL AGENT DOWN UPON THY HEADS.

II.    SPEAKEST THOU NOT OF IMPORTANT MATTERS OVER THINE HOME TELEPHONE WIRES,
FOR TO DO SO IS TO RISK THINE RIGHT OF FREEDOM.

III.   USE NOT THINE OWN NAME WHEN SPEAKING TO OTHER PHREAKS, FOR THAT EVERY
THIRD PHREAK IS AN FBI AGENT IS WELL KNOWN.

IV.    LET NOT OVERLY MANY PEOPLE KNOW THAT THY BE A PHREAK, AS TO DO SO IS TO
USE THINE OWN SELF AS A SACRIFICIAL LAMB.

V.     IF THOU BE IN SCHOOL, STRIVE TO GET THIN SELF GOOD GRADES, FOR THE
AUTHORITIES WELL KNOW THAT SCHOLARS NEVER BREAK THE LAW.

VI.    IF THOU WORKEST, TRY TO BE A EMPLOYEE, AND IMPRESSEST THINE BOSS WITH
THINE ENTHUSIASM, FOR IMPORTANT EMPLOYEES ARE OFTEN SAVED BY THEIR OWN BOSSES.

VII.   STOREST THOU NOT THINE STOLEN GOODS IN THINE OWN HOME, FOR THOSE WHO DO
ARE SURELY NON-BELIEVERS IN THE BELL SYSTEM SECURITY FORCES, AND ARE NOT LONG
FOR THIS WORLD.

VIII.  ATTRACTEST THOU NOT THE ATTENTION OF THE AUTHORITIES, AS THE LESS
NOTICEABLE THOU ART, THE BETTER.


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IX.    MAKEST SURE THINE FRIENDS ARE INSTANT AMNESIACS AND WILL NOT REMEMBER
THAT THOU HAVE CALLED ILLEGALLY, FOR THEIR COOPERATION WITH THE AUTHORITIES
WILL SURELY LESSEN THINE TIME FOR FREEDOM ON THIS EARTH.

X.     SUPPORTEST THOU TAP, AS IT IS THINE NEWSLETTER, AND WITHOUT IT, THY WORK
WILL BE FAR MORE LIMITED.

CN/A NUMBERS
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    CUSTOMER NAME & ADDRESS BUREAUS EXIST SO THAT AUTHORIZED BELL EMPLOYEES MAY
OBTAIN THE NAME & ADDRESS OF ANY CUSTOMER IN THE BELL SYSTEM BY GIVING THE CN/A
OPERATOR THE CUSTOMER'S TEL-#. ALL CUSTOMERS ARE MAINTAINED ON FILE INCLUDING
UNLISTED #'S. THESE BUREAUS HAVE MANY USES FOR PHREAKS.
    HERE IS HOW AN EMPLOYEE MIGHT GO ABOUT CALLING CN/A:
"HI, THIS IS JOHN DOE FROM THE MIAMI RESIDENTIAL SERVICE CENTER, CAN I HAVE THE
CUSTOMERS NAME AT (123) 555-1212."

    THE EMPLOYEES USUALLY USE THESE FOR CHECKING WHO BELONGS TO A # THAT
SOMEONE CLAIMED THEY DIDN'T CALL.IF YOU SOUND CHEERY AND NATURAL THE OPERATOR
WILL NEVER ASK ANY QUESTIONS. IF YOU DON'T SOUND LIKE A MATURE ADULT, DON'T USE
IT!  ALWAYS PRACTICE FIRST & SO YOU DON'T SCREW UP AND MAKE THE OPERATOR
SUSPICIOUS.  USE NAME THAT SOUNDS REAL, NOT YOUR PIRATE NAME EITHER!  ALSO SAY
THAT YOU ARE FRO A CITY THAT IS FAR AWAY FROM THE ONE THAT YOU ARE CALLING.

    THE CN/A NUMBER FOR THE NY AREA & VICINITY (212, 315, 516, 518, 607, 716, &
914), IS 518/471-8111, AND IS OPEN DURING BUSINESS HOURS. DON'T ABUSE
IT!!!!!!!

AT&T NEWSLINES
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    AT&T NEWSLINES ARE NUMBERS AT AREA PHONE OFFICES THAT TELCO EMPLOYEES CALL
TO FIND OUT THE LATEST INFO ON NEW TECHNOLOGY, STOCKS, ETC.  THE RECORDED
REPORTS RANGE FROM VERY BORING TO VERY INTERESTING.

HERE ARE A FEW OF THE NUMBERS:

 *(201) 483-3800 NJ  (518) 471-2272 NY
  (203) 771-4920 CN  (717) 255-5555 PA
  (212) 393-2151 NY  (717) 787-1031 PA
  (516) 234-9941 NY *(914) 948-8100 NY

    SOME OF THESE NUMBERS ARE TOLL-FREE, BUT YOU CAN'T ALWAYS COUNT ON IT.

* THESE NUMBERS ARE NOT ALWAYS UP!

NUMBERS FROM OTHER AREAS ARE AVAILABLE BY REQUEST FROM F)BIOC  L)AGENT 003.

ANI NUMBERS
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    ANI NUMBERS IDENTIFY THE PHONE NUMBER THAT YOU ARE CALLING FROM. IT IS
USEFUL WHEN PLAYING IN CANS (THOSE BIG SILVER BOXES ON TELEPHONE POLES) TO FIND
OUT THE # OF THE LINE.  IT IS ALSO GOOD TO FIND OUT THE # OF A PHONE THAT
DOESN'T HAVE IT PRINTED ON IT.  IN THE 914 AREA CODE THE ANI # IS 990.  IF YOU
JUST HAVE TO DIAL THE LAST 4 DIGITS FOR A LOCAL #, IE CONGERS (268), DIAL
1-990-1111, WHERE 1111 ARE DUMMY DIGITS THERE IS ALSO A LESS USEFUL TYPE OF

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ANI# WHICH WILL IDENTIFY THE AREA CODE & EXCHANGE.  IT IS NXX-9901, WHERE 'NXX'
IS THE EXCHANGE.  IN THE 212 & 516 AREA CODES THE ANI # IS 958.

PHREAK NEWSLETTER
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    TAP IS THE "OFFICIAL" PHONE PHREAK NEWSLETTER, AND HAS EXISTED SINCE 1971.
EACH 4 PAGE ISSUE IS CRAMMED FULL OF INFORMATION ON PHONE PHREAKING, COMPUTER
PHREAKING, FREE GAS, FREE ELECTRICITY, FREE POSTAGE, BREAKING & ENTERING INFO,
ETC.  IT IS LARGELY PHONE PHREAK ORIENTED, HOWEVER.

    A 10 ISSUE SUBSCRIPTION COSTS $8.00, IF YOU GET A BULK RATE SEALED ENVELOPE
SUBSCRIPTION.  I WOULD RECOMMEND THE FIRST CLASS SUBSCRIPTION, WHICH IS $10.

    AS OF THIS WRITING (7-16-83), THE CURRENT ISSUE IS #86, AND ISSUE #50 IS 8
PAGES INSTEAD OF THE USUAL 4. BACK ISSUES ARE $0.75 EACH, AND ISSUE #50 IS
$1.50.  A BRIEF INDEX TO THE FIRST 80 ISSUES IS AVAILABLE FOR A SASE, OR FREE
WITH A SUBSCRIPTION ORDER. TAP IS NON-PROFIT, AND IN DESPERATE NEED OF MATERIAL
(ARTICLES), MONEY, AND VOLUNTEERS.

TAP
ROOM 603
147 WEST 42ND STREET
NEW YORK, NY 10036

BELIEVE ME:  IT WILL BE THE BEST $10 YOU WILL EVER SPEND...

BLACK BOX
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THE  BLACK  BOX  IS  A  DEVICE  THAT ATTACHED TO A CALLED PARTIES PHONE
THAT ALLOWS  HIM/HER  TO  RECEIVE  FREE LONG DISTANCE CALLS FROM FRIENDS WHO
CALL.

    YOU ONLY NEED  2 PARTS:  A SPST  TOGGLE SWITCH  AND  A 10,000  OHM (10  K),
1/2 WATT,  10%  RESISTOR.  ANY  ELECTRONICS PLACE SHOULD HAVE THESE.

    NOW, CUT TWO PIECES OF WIRE, ABOUT 6 INCHES, AND ATTACH THESE TO THE TWO
SCREWS ON THE SWITCH. TURN YOUR NORMAL DDSIDE DOWN AND UNSCREW THE 2 SCREWS.
LOCATE THE "F" AND "RR" SCREWS ON THE NETWORK BOX. WRAP THE RESISTOR BETWEEN
THESE 2 SCREWS AND MAKE SURE THAT THE WIRES TOUCH ONLY THE PROPER TERMINALS!
NOW CONNECT ONE WIRE FROM THE SWITCH TO THE RR TERMINAL. FINALLY, ATTACH THE
REMAINING WIRE TO THE GREEN WIRE (DISCONNECT IT FROM ITS TERMINAL). NOW BRING
THE SWITCH OUT THE REAR OF THE PHONE AND CLOSE IT UP. PUT THE SWITCH IN A
POSITION WHERE YOU GET A DIAL TONE, MARK THIS NORMAL. MARK THE OTHER SIDE
FREE.

  WHEN YOUR FRIENDS CALL (AT A PREARRANGED TIME), QUICKLY LIFT &  DROP THE
RECEIVER AS FAST AS POSSIBLE. THIS WILL STOP THE RINGING, IF NOT TRY AGAIN. IT
IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU DO IT FAST! NOW PUT THE SWITCH IN THE FREE POSITION
AND PICK UP THE PHONE. KEEP ALL CALLS SHORT & UNDER  15 MINUTES.

   WHEN SOMEONE CALLS YOU LONG-DISTANCE, THEY ARE BILLED FROM THE MOMENT YOU
ANSWER. THE TELCO KNOWS WHEN YOU ANSWER DUE TO A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF VOLTAGE THAT
FLOWS WHEN YOU PICK UP THE PHONE. HOWEVER, THE RESISTOR CUTS DOWN ON THE
VOLTAGE SO IT IS BELOW THE BILLING RANGE BUT SUFFICIENT ENOUGH TO OPERATE THE
MOUTHPIECE. ANSWERING THE PHONE FOR A FRACTION OF A SECOND STOPS THE RING BUT
IT IS NOT ENOUGH FOR BILLING TO START. IF THE PHONE IS ANSWERED FOR EVEN ONE

                                    Page 28




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FULL SECOND, BILLING WILL START AND YOU WILL BE CUT OFF WHEN YOU HANG UP AND
SWITCH TO FREE.

WARNING:  BELL CAN RANDOMLY LOOK FOR BLACK BOXES SO BE CAREFUL!

 _____________________________________
|                                     |
---BLUE WIRE-->>F<                    |
|              | |                    |
--WHITE WIRE---/ |                    |
|                |                    |
|            RESISTOR                 |
|                |                    |
|                |                    |
|              >RR<-------SWITCH--X   |
|                                 |   |
----GREEN WIRE--------------------/   |
|                                     |
|_____________________________________|

DIAL LOCKS
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN AN OFFICE OR SOMEWHERE AND WANTED TO MAKE A FREE FONE
CALL BUT SOME ASSHOLE PUT A LOCK ON THE FONE TO PREVENT OUT-GOING CALLS? FRET
KNOWLEDGE!

    THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO BEAT THIS OBSTACLE, FIRST PICK THE LOCK, I DON'T HAVE
THE TIME TO TEACH LOCKSMITHING SO WE GO TO THE SECOND METHOD WHICH TAKES
ADVANTAGE OF TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS.

    TO BE AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE, WHEN YOU PICK UP THE FONE YOU COMPLETE A
CIRCUIT KNOW AS A LOCAL LOOP.  WHEN YOU HANG-UP YOU BREAK THE CIRCUIT.  WHEN
YOU DIAL (PULSE) IT ALSO BREAKS THE CIRCUIT BUT NOT LONG ENOUGH TO HANG UP!  SO
YOU CAN "PUSH-DIAL."  TO DO THIS YOU >>> RAPIDLY <<< DEPRESS THE SWITCHHOOK.
FOR EXAMPLE, TO DIAL AN OPERATOR (AND THEN GIVE HER THE NUMBER YOU WANT CALLED)
>>> RAPIDLY <<< & >>> EVENLY <<< DEPRESS THE SWITCHHOOK 10 TIMES.  TO DIAL
634-1268, DEPRESS 6 X'S PAUSE, THEN 3 X'S, PAUSE, THEN 4X'S, ETC.  IT TAKES A
LITTLE PRACTICE BUT YOU'LL GET THE HANG OF IT.  TRY  PRACTICING WITH YOUR OWN #
SO YOU'LL GET A BUSY TONE WHEN RIGHT.  IT'LL ALSO WORK ON TOUCH-TONE(TM) SINCE
A DTMF LINE WILL ALSO ACCEPT PULSE.  ALSO, NEVER DEPRESS THE SWITCHHOOK FOR
MORE THAN A SECOND OR IT'LL HANG-UP!

    FINALLY, REMEMBER THAT YOU HAVE JUST AS MUCH RIGHT TO THAT FONE AS THE
ASSHOLE WHO PUT THE LOCK ON IT!

EXCHANGE SCANNING
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    ALMOST EVERY EXCHANGE IN THE BELL SYSTEM HAS TEST #'S AND OTHER "GOODIES"
SUCH AS LOOPS WITH DIAL-UPS. THESE "GOODIES" ARE USUALLY FOUND BETWEEN 9900 AND
9999 IN YOUR LOCAL EXCHANGE.  IF YOU HAVE THE TIME AND INITIATIVE, SCAN YOUR
EXCHANGE AND YOU MAY BECOME LUCKY!

HERE ARE MY FINDINGS IN THE 914-268 EXCHANGE:



                                    Page 29




                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

9900 - ANI (SEE SEPARATE BULLETIN)
9901 - ANI (SEE SEPARATE BULLETIN)
9927 - OSC. TONE (POSSIBLE TONE SIDE OF A LOOP)
9936 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CENTRAL OFFICE
9937 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CENTRAL OFFICE
9941 - COMPUTER (DIGITAL VOICE TRANSMISSION?)
9960 - OSC. TONE (TONE SIDE LOOP) MAY ALSO BE A COMPUTER IN SOME EXCHANGES
9961 - NO RESPONSE (OTHER END OF LOOP?)
9962 - NO RESPONSE (OTHER END OF LOOP?)
9963 - NO RESPONSE (OTHER END OF LOOP?)
9966 - COMPUTER (SEE 9941)
9968 - TONE THAT DISAPPEARS--RESPONDS TO CERTAIN TOUCH-TONE KEYS

    MOST OF THE NUMBERS BETWEEN 9900 & 9999 WILL RING OR GO TO A "WHAT #,
PLEASE?" OPERATOR.

HAVE PHUN AND REMEMBER IT'S ONLY A LOCAL CALL!

TOUCH-TONE & FREE CALLS
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO MAKE FREE CALLS (SPRINT, MCI, ETC.) USING A ROTARY
PHONE.  THEY ARE:

1.  USE A NUMBER THAT ACCEPTS VOICE AS WELL AS DTMF. SUCH A # IS (800)
521-8400. AS OF WRITING THIS, A CODE WAS 00717865.

  A) IF USING VOICE, WAIT FOR THE COMPUTER TO SAY, "AUTHORIZATION #, PLEASE."
THEN SAY EACH DIGIT SLOWLY, IT WILL BEEP AFTER EACH DIGIT IS  SAID. AFTER EVERY
GROUP OF DIGITS, IT WILL REPEAT WHAT YOU HAVE SAID, THEN SAY YES IF IT IS
CORRECT, OTHERWISE SAY NO. IF THE ACCESS CODE IS CORRECT, IT WILL THANK YOU AND
ASK FOR THE DESTINATION #, THEN SAY THE AREA CODE + NUMBER AS ABOVE. ANOTHER
SUCH # IS (800) 245-8173, WHICH HAS A 6 DIGIT ACCESS CODE. (NOTE: IF USING
TOUCH-TONE ON THIS #, ENTER THE CODE IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE TONE STOPS.)

2.  HOOK UP A TOUCH-TONE FONE INTO YOUR ROTARY FONE. ATTACH THE RED WIRE FROM
THE TOUCH-TONE FONE TO THE "R" TERMINAL INSIDE THE FONE ON THE NETWORK BOX.
THEN HOOK THE GREEN WIRE TO THE "B" TERMINAL. TO USE THIS DIAL THE # USING
ROTARY & THEN USE THE TOUCH-TONE FOR THE CODES. (DON'T HANG UP THE ROTARY FONE
WHILE DOING THIS THOUGH!) IF THIS DOESN'T WORK THEN REVERSE THE 2  WIRES.
(NOTE:IF YOUR LINE CAN ACCEPT TOUCH-TONE BUT YOU HAVE A ROTARY FONE THEN YOU
CAN HOOK UP A TONE FONE DIRECTLY FOR ALL CALLS BUT THIS USUALLY ISN'T THE
CASE.) SUCH AS RADIO SHACK'S 43-138.

OTHER ALTERNATIVES
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

4.  USE A CHARGE-A-CALL FONE.  (THESE ALSO MAKE GREAT EXTENSIONS IF YOU REMOVE
IT USING A HEX WRENCH WITH A HOLE IN THE MIDDLE ON THE CENTER SCREW!)--(THESE
FONES, FOR THE BENEFIT OF THOSE WHO DON'T KNOW, ARE BLUE WITH NO COIN SLOTS).

5.  USE A PAY FONE THAT WANTS YOUR MONEY BEFORE THE DIAL TONE. PUT IN YOUR
DIME, DIAL THE #; IF IT'S AN 800 # THEN YOUR DIME WILL COME BACK, IMMEDIATELY
PUT A DIME BACK IN (IT'LL COME BACK WHEN YOU HANG UP!) IF IT IS A TONE FIRST
FONE AND IT DISCONNECTS THE KEYPAD (SOME DON'T) THEN FIND ANOTHER FONE.




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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                   Chapter 2

   Well now we know a little vocabulary, and now its into history, Phreak
history.  Back at MIT in 1964 arrived a student by the name of Stewart Nelson,
who was extremely interested in the telephone.  Before entering MIT, he had
built autodialers, cheese boxes, and many more gadgets.  But when he came to
MIT he became even more interested in "fone-hacking" as they called it.  After
a little while he naturally started using the PDP-1, the schools computer at
that time, and from there he decided that it would be interesting to see
whether the computer could generate the frequencies required for blue boxing.
The hackers at MIT were not interested in ripping off Ma Bell, but just
exploring the telephone network.  Stew (as he was called) wrote a program to
generate all the tones and set off into the vast network.
   Now there were more people phreaking than the ones at MIT.  Most people have
heard of Captain Crunch (No not the cereal), he also discovered how to take
rides through the fone system, with the aid of a small whistle found in a
cereal box (can we guess which one?).  By blowing this whistle, he generated
the magical 2600hz and into the mouthpiece it sailed, giving him complete
control over the system.  I have heard rumors that at one time he made about
1/4 of the calls coming out of San Francisco.  He got famous fast.  He made the
cover of people magazine and was interviewed several times (as you'll soon
see).  Well he finally got caught after a long adventurous career.  After he
was caught he was put in jail and was beaten up quite badly because he would
not teach other inmates how to box calls.  After getting out, he joined Apple
computer and is still out there somewhere.
   Then there was Joe the Whistler, blind form the day he was born.  He could
whistle a perfect 2600hz tone.  It was rumored phreaks used to call him to tune
their boxes.
   Well that was up to about 1970, then from 1970 to 1979, phreaking was mainly
done by college students, businessmen and anyone who knew enough about
electronics and the fone company to make a 555 Ic to generate those magic
tones.  Businessmen and a few college students mainly just blue box to get free
calls.  The others were still there, exploring 800#'s and the new ESS systems.
ESS posed a big problem for phreaks then and even a bigger one now.  ESS was
not widespread, but where it was, blue boxing was next to impossible except for
the most experienced phreak.  Today ESS is installed in almost all major cities
and blue boxing is getting harder and harder.
   1978 marked a change in phreaking, the Apple ][, now a computer that was
affordable, could be programmed, and could save all that precious work on a
cassette.  Then just a short while later came the Apple Cat modem.  With this
modem, generating all blue box tones was easy as writing a program to count
form one to ten (a little exaggerated).  Pretty soon programs that could
imitate an operator just as good as the real thing were hitting the community,
TSPS and Cat's Meow, are the standard now and are the best.
   1982-1986: LD services were starting to appear in mass numbers.  People now
had programs to hack LD services, telephone exchanges, and even passwords.  By
now many phreaks were getting extremely good and BBS's started to spring up
everywhere, each having many documentations on phreaking for the novice.  Then
it happened, the movie War Games was released and mass numbers of sixth grade
to all ages flocked to see it.  The problem wasn't that the movie was bad, it
was that now EVERYONE wanted to be a hacker/phreak.  Novices came out in such
mass numbers, that bulletin boards started to be busy 24 hours a day.  To this
day, they still have not recovered.  Other problems started to occur, novices
guessed easy passwords on large government computers and started to play
around...  Well it wasn't long before they were caught, I think that many
people remember the 414-hackers.  They were so stupid as to say "yes" when the
computer asked them whether they'd like to play games.  Well at least it takes
the heat off the real phreaks/hacker/krackers.

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   After a little history, how about a little thrill?  I don't know if this
story is true but it sure is as bad as shit!

























































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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *
         *                                                           *
         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *
         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *
         *                                                           *
         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *
         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *
         *                                                           *
         *                  (First of four files)                    *
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

Dudes... These four files contain the story, "Secrets of the Little Blue Box",
by Ron Rosenbaum.

-A story so incredible it may even make you feel sorry for the phone company-

Printed in the October 1971 issue of Esquire Magazine.  If you happen to be in
a library and come across a collection of Esquire magazines, the October 1971
issue is the first issue printed in the smaller format.  The story begins on
page 116 with a picture of a blue box.
                                      --One Farad Cap, Atlantic Anarchist Guild


The Blue Box Is Introduced: Its Qualities Are Remarked

I am in the expensively furnished living room of Al Gilbertson (His real name
has been changed.), the creator of the "blue box." Gilbertson is holding one of
his shiny black-and-silver "blue boxes" comfortably in the palm of his hand,
pointing out the thirteen little red push buttons sticking up from the console.
He is dancing his fingers over the buttons, tapping out discordant beeping
electronic jingles.  He is trying to explain to me how his little blue box does
nothing less than place the entire telephone system of the world, satellites,
cables and all, at the service of the blue-box operator, free of charge.

"That's what it does.  Essentially it gives you the power of a super operator.
You seize a tandem with this top button," he presses the top button with his
index finger and the blue box emits a high-pitched cheep, "and like that" --
cheep goes the blue box again -- "you control the phone company's long-distance
switching systems from your cute little Princes phone or any old pay phone.
And you've got anonymity.  An operator has to operate from a definite location:
the phone company knows where she is and what she's doing.  But with your
beeper box, once you hop onto a trunk, say from a Holiday Inn 800 (toll-free)
number, they don't know where you are, or where you're coming from, they don't
know how you slipped into their lines and popped up in that 800 number.  They
don't even know anything illegal is going on.  And you can obscure your origins
through as many levels as you like.  You can call next door by way of White
Plains, then over to Liverpool by cable, and then back here by satellite.  You
can call yourself from one pay phone all the way around the world to a pay
phone next to you.  And you get your dime back too."

"And they can't trace the calls?  They can't charge you?"

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"Not if you do it the right way.  But you'll find that the free-call thing
isn't really as exciting at first as the feeling of power you get from having
one of these babies in your hand.  I've watched people when they first get hold
of one of these things and start using it, and discover they can make
connections, set up crisscross and zigzag switching patterns back and forth
across the world.  They hardly talk to the people they finally reach.  They say
hello and start thinking of what kind of call to make next.  They go a little
crazy."  He looks down at the neat little package in his palm.  His fingers are
still dancing, tapping out beeper patterns.

"I think it's something to do with how small my models are.  There are lots of
blue boxes around, but mine are the smallest and most sophisticated
electronically.  I wish I could show you the prototype we made for our big
syndicate order."

He sighs.  "We had this order for a thousand beeper boxes from a syndicate
front man in Las Vegas.  They use them to place bets coast to coast, keep lines
open for hours, all of which can get expensive if you have to pay.  The deal
was a thousand blue boxes for $300 apiece. Before then we retailed them for
$1500 apiece, but $300,000 in one lump was hard to turn down.  We had a
manufacturing deal worked out in the Philippines.  Everything ready to go.
Anyway, the model I had ready for limited mass production was small enough to
fit inside a flip-top Marlboro box.  It had flush touch panels for a keyboard,
rather than these unsightly buttons, sticking out.  Looked just like a tiny
portable radio.  In fact, I had designed it with a tiny transistor receiver to
get one AM channel, so in case the law became suspicious the owner could switch
on the radio part, start snapping his fingers, and no one could tell anything
illegal was going on. I thought of everything for this model -- I had it lined
with a band of thermite which could be ignited by radio signal from a tiny
button transmitter on your belt, so it could be burned to ashes instantly in
case of a bust.  It was beautiful.  A beautiful little machine.  You should
have seen the faces on these syndicate guys when they came back after trying it
out.  They'd hold it in their palm like they never wanted to let it go, and
they'd say, 'I can't believe it.  I can't believe it.'  You probably won't
believe it until you try it."

The Blue Box Is Tested: Certain Connections Are Made

About eleven o'clock two nights later Fraser Lucey has a blue box in the palm
of his left hand and a phone in the palm of his right.  He is standing inside a
phone booth next to an isolated shut-down motel off Highway 1.  I am standing
outside the phone booth.

Fraser likes to show off his blue box for people.  Until a few weeks ago when
Pacific Telephone made a few arrests in his city, Fraser Lucey liked to bring
his blue box (This particular blue box, like most blue boxes, is not blue.
Blue boxes have come to be called "blue boxes" either because 1) The first blue
box ever confiscated by phone-company security men happened to be blue, or 2)
To distinguish them from "black boxes."  Black boxes are devices, usually a
resistor in series, which, when attached to home phones, allow all incoming
calls to be made without charge to one's caller.) to parties.  It never failed:
a few cheeps from his device and Fraser became the center of attention at the
very hippest of gatherings, playing phone tricks and doing request numbers for
hours.  He began to take orders for his manufacturer in Mexico.  He became a
dealer.

Fraser is cautious now about where he shows off his blue box.  But he never

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gets tired of playing with it.  "It's like the first time every time," he tells
me.

Fraser puts a dime in the slot.  He listens for a tone and holds the receiver
up to my ear.  I hear the tone. Fraser begins describing, with a certain
practiced air, what he does while he does it. "I'm dialing an 800 number now.
Any 800 number will do.  It's toll free. Tonight I think I'll use the ----- (he
names a well-know rent-a-car company) 800 number.  Listen, It's ringing.  Here,
you hear it?  Now watch."  He places the blue box over the mouthpiece of the
phone so that the one silver and twelve black push buttons are facing up toward
me.  He presses the silver button -- the one at the top -- and I hear that
high-pitched beep. "That's 2600 cycles per second to be exact," says Lucey.
"Now, quick. listen."  He shoves the earpiece at me.  The ringing has vanished.
The line gives a slight hiccough, there is a sharp buzz, and then nothing but
soft white noise.

"We're home free now," Lucey tells me, taking back the phone and applying the
blue box to its mouthpiece once again.  "We're up on a tandem, into a
long-lines trunk.  Once you're up on a tandem, you can send yourself anywhere
you want to go."  He decides to check out London first.  He chooses a certain
pay phone located in Waterloo Station.  This particular pay phone is popular
with the phone-phreaks network because there are usually people walking by at
all hours who will pick it up and talk for a while.

of the box. "That's Key Pulse.  It tells the tandem we're ready to give it
instructions.  First I'll punch out KP 182 START, which will slide us into the
overseas sender in White Plains."  I hear a neat clunk-cheep.  "I think we'll
head over to England by satellite. Cable is actually faster and the connection
is somewhat better, but I like going by satellite.  So I just punch out KP Zero
44.  The Zero is supposed to guarantee a satellite connection and 44 is the
country code for England.  Okay... we're there.  In Liverpool actually.  Now
all I have to do is punch out the London area code which is 1, and dial up the
pay phone.  Here, listen, I've got a ring now."

I hear the soft quick purr-purr of a London ring.  Then someone picks up the
phone.

"Hello," says the London voice.

"Hello.  Who's this?" Fraser asks.

"Hello.  There's actually nobody here.  I just picked this up while I was
passing by.  This is a public phone.  There's no one here to answer actually."

"Hello.  Don't hang up.  I'm calling from the United States."

"Oh.  What is the purpose of the call?  This is a public phone you know."

"Oh.  You know.  To check out, uh, to find out what's going on in London.  How
is it there?"

"Its five o'clock in the morning.  It's raining now."

"Oh.  Who are you?"

The London passerby turns out to be an R.A.F. enlistee on his way back to the
base in Lincolnshire, with a terrible hangover after a thirty-six-hour pass.

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He and Fraser talk about the rain.  They agree that it's nicer when it's not
raining.  They say good-bye and Fraser hangs up.  His dime returns with a nice
clink.

"Isn't that far out," he says grinning at me.  "London, like that."

Fraser squeezes the little blue box affectionately in his palm.  "I told ya
this thing is for real.  Listen, if you don't mind I'm gonna try this girl I
know in Paris.  I usually give her a call around this time.  It freaks her out.
This time I'll use the ------ (a different rent-a-car company) 800 number and
we'll go by overseas cable, 133; 33 is the country code for France, the 1 sends
you by cable.  Okay, here we go.... Oh damn.  Busy.  Who could she be talking
to at this time?"

A state police car cruises slowly by the motel.  The car does not stop, but
Fraser gets nervous.  We hop back into his car and drive ten miles in the
opposite direction until we reach a Texaco station locked up for the night.  We
pull up to a phone booth by the tire pump. Fraser dashes inside and tries the
Paris number.  It is busy again.

"I don't understand who she could be talking to.  The circuits may be busy.
It's too bad I haven't learned how to tap into lines overseas with this thing
yet."

Fraser begins to phreak around, as the phone phreaks say.  He dials a leading
nationwide charge card's 800 number and punches out the tones that bring him
the time recording in Sydney, Australia.  He beeps up the weather recording in
Rome, in Italian of course.  He calls a friend in Boston and talks about a
certain over-the-counter stock they are into heavily.  He finds the Paris
number busy again.  He calls up "Dial a Disc" in London, and we listen to
Double Barrel by David and Ansil Collins, the number-one hit of the week in
London.  He calls up a dealer of another sort and talks in code.  He calls up
Joe Engressia, the original blind phone-phreak genius, and pays his respects.
There are other calls.  Finally Fraser gets through to his young lady in
Paris.

They both agree the circuits must have been busy, and criticize the Paris
telephone system.  At two-thirty in the morning Fraser hangs up, pockets his
dime, and drives off, steering with one hand, holding what he calls his "lovely
little blue box" in the other.

You Can Call Long Distance For Less Than You Think

"You see, a few years ago the phone company made one big mistake," Gilbertson
explains two days later in his apartment.  "They were careless enough to let
some technical journal publish the actual frequencies used to create all their
multi-frequency tones.  Just a theoretical article some Bell Telephone
Laboratories engineer was doing about switching theory, and he listed the tones
in passing.  At ----- (a well-known technical school) I had been fooling around
with phones for several years before I came across a copy of the journal in the
engineering library.  I ran back to the lab and it took maybe twelve hours from
the time I saw that article to put together the first working blue box.  It was
bigger and clumsier than this little baby, but it worked."

It's all there on public record in that technical journal written mainly by
Bell Lab people for other telephone engineers.  Or at least it was public.
"Just try and get a copy of that issue at some engineering-school library now.
Bell has had them all red-tagged and withdrawn from circulation," Gilbertson

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tells me.

"But it's too late.  It's all public now.  And once they became public the
technology needed to create your own beeper device is within the range of any
twelve-year-old kid, any twelve-year-old blind kid as a matter of fact.  And he
can do it in less than the twelve hours it took us.  Blind kids do it all the
time.  They can't build anything as precise and compact as my beeper box, but
theirs can do anything mine can do."

"How?"

"Okay.  About twenty years ago A.T.&T. made a multi-billion-dollar decision to
operate its entire long-distance switching system on twelve electronically
generated combinations of twelve master tones. Those are the tones you
sometimes hear in the background after you've dialed a long-distance number.
They decided to use some very simple tones -- the tone for each number is just
two fixed single-frequency tones played simultaneously to create a certain beat
frequency.  Like 1300 cycles per second and 900 cycles per second played
together give you the tone for digit 5.  Now, what some of these phone phreaks
have done is get themselves access to an electric organ.  Any cheap family
home-entertainment organ.  Since the frequencies are public knowledge now --
one blind phone phreak has even had them recorded in one of the talking books
for the blind -- they just have to find the musical notes on the organ which
correspond to the phone tones.  Then they tape them.  For instance, to get Ma
Bell's tone for the number 1, you press down organ keys FD5 and AD5 (900 and
700 cycles per second) at the same time.  To produce the tone for 2 it's FD5
and CD6 (1100 and 700 c.p.s).  The phone phreaks circulate the whole list of
notes so there's no trial and error anymore."

He shows me a list of the rest of the phone numbers and the two electric organ
keys that produce them.

"Actually, you have to record these notes at 3 3/4 inches-per-second tape speed
and double it to 7 1/2 inches-per-second when you play them back, to get the
proper tones," he adds.

"So once you have all the tones recorded, how do you plug them into the phone
system?"

"Well, they take their organ and their cassette recorder, and start banging out
entire phone numbers in tones on the organ, including country codes, routing
instructions, 'KP' and 'Start' tones.  Or, if they don't have an organ, someone
in the phone-phreak network sends them a cassette with all the tones recorded,
with a voice saying 'Number one,' then you have the tone, 'Number two,' then
the tone and so on.  So with two cassette recorders they can put together a
series of phone numbers by switching back and forth from number to number. Any
idiot in the country with a cheap cassette recorder can make all the free calls
he wants."

"You mean you just hold the cassette recorder up the mouthpiece and switch in a
series of beeps you've recorded?  The phone thinks that anything that makes
these tones must be its own equipment?"

"Right.  As long as you get the frequency within thirty cycles per second of
the phone company's tones, the phone equipment thinks it hears its own voice
talking to it.  The original granddaddy phone phreak was this blind kid with
perfect pitch, Joe Engressia, who used to whistle into the phone.  An operator
could tell the difference between his whistle and the phone company's

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electronic tone generator, but the phone company's switching circuit can't tell
them apart.  The bigger the phone company gets and the further away from human
operators it gets, the more vulnerable it becomes to all sorts of phone
phreaking."

A Guide for the Perplexed

"But wait a minute," I stop Gilbertson.  "If everything you do sounds like
phone-company equipment, why doesn't the phone company charge you for the call
the way it charges its own equipment?"

"Okay.  That's where the 2600-cycle tone comes in.  I better start from the
beginning."

The beginning he describes for me is a vision of the phone system of the
continent as thousands of webs, of long-line trunks radiating from each of the
hundreds of toll switching offices to the other toll switching offices.  Each
toll switching office is a hive compacted of thousands of long-distance tandems
constantly whistling and beeping to tandems in far-off toll switching offices.

The tandem is the key to the whole system.  Each tandem is a line with some
relays wih the capability of signalling any other tandem in any other toll
switching office on the continent, either directly one-to-one or by programming

a roundabout route through several other tandems if all the direct routes are
busy.  For instance, if you want to call from New York to Los Angeles and
traffic is heavy on all direct trunks between the two cities, your tandem in
New York is programmed to try the next best route, which may send you down to a
tandem in New Orleans, then up to San Francisco, or down to a New Orleans
tandem, back to an Atlanta tandem, over to an Albuquerque tandem and finally up
to Los Angeles.

When a tandem is not being used, when it's sitting there waiting for someone to
make a long-distance call, it whistles.  One side of the tandem, the side
"facing" your home phone, whistles at 2600 cycles per second toward all the
home phones serviced by the exchange, telling them it is at their service,
should they be interested in making a long-distance call.  The other side of
the tandem is whistling 2600 c.p.s. into one or more long-distance trunk lines,
telling the rest of the phone system that it is neither sending nor receiving a
call through that trunk at the moment, that it has no use for that trunk at the
moment.

"When you dial a long-distance number the first thing that happens is that you
are hooked into a tandem.  A register comes up to the side of the tandem facing
away from you and presents that side with the number you dialed.  This sending
side of the tandem stops whistling 2600 into its trunk line.  When a tandem
stops the 2600 tone it has been sending through a trunk, the trunk is said to
be "seized," and is now ready to carry the number you have dialed -- converted
into multi-frequency beep tones -- to a tandem in the area code and central
office you want.

Now when a blue-box operator wants to make a call from New Orleans to New York
he starts by dialing the 800 number of a company which might happen to have its
headquarters in Los Angeles.  The sending side of the New Orleans tandem stops
sending 2600 out over the trunk to the central office in Los Angeles, thereby
seizing the trunk.  Your New Orleans tandem begins sending beep tones to a
tandem it has discovered idly whistling 2600 cycles in Los Angeles.  The
receiving end of that L.A. tandem is seized, stops whistling 2600, listens to
the beep tones which tell it which L.A. phone to ring, and starts ringing the

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800 number.  Meanwhile a mark made in the New Orleans office accounting tape
notes that a call from your New Orleans phone to the 800 number in L.A. has
been initiated and gives the call a code number. Everything is routine so far.

But then the phone phreak presses his blue box to the mouthpiece and pushes the
over the line again and
assumes that New Orleans has hung up because the trunk is whistling as if idle.
The L.A. tandem immediately ceases ringing the L.A. 800 number.  But as soon as
the phreak takes his finger off the 2600 button, the L.A. tandem assumes the
trunk is once again being used because the 2600 is gone, so it listens for a
new series of digit tones - to find out where it must send the call.

Thus the blue-box operator in New Orleans now is in touch with a tandem in L.A.
which is waiting like an obedient genie to be told what to do next.  The
blue-box owner then beeps out the ten digits of the New York number which tell
the L.A. tandem to relay a call to New York City.  Which it promptly does.  As
soon as your party picks up the phone in New York, the side of the New Orleans
tandem facing you stops sending 2600 cycles to you and stars carrying his voice
to you by way of the L.A. tandem.  A notation is made on the accounting tape
that the connection has been made on the 800 call which had been initiated and
noted earlier.  When you stop talking to New York a notation is made that the
800 call has ended.

At three the next morning, when the phone company's accounting computer starts
reading back over the master accounting tape for the past day, it records that
a call of a certain length of time was made from your New Orleans home to an
L.A. 800 number and, of course, the accounting computer has been trained to
ignore those toll-free 800 calls when compiling your monthly bill.

"All they can prove is that you made an 800 toll-free call," Gilbertson the
inventor concludes.  "Of course, if you're foolish enough to talk for two hours
on an 800 call, and they've installed one of their special anti-fraud computer
programs to watch out for such things, they may spot you and ask why you took
two hours talking to Army Recruiting's 800 number when you're 4-F.

But if you do it from a pay phone, they may discover something peculiar the
next day -- if they've got a blue-box hunting program in their computer -- but
you'll be a long time gone from the pay phone by then.  Using a pay phone is
almost guaranteed safe."

"What about the recent series of blue-box arrests all across the country -- New
York, Cleveland, and so on?" I asked.  "How were they caught so easily?"

"From what I can tell, they made one big mistake: they were seizing trunks
using an area code plus 555-1212 instead of an 800 number. Using 555 is easy to
detect because when you send multi-frequency beep tones of 555 you get a charge
for it on your tape and the accounting computer knows there's something wrong
when it tries to bill you for a two-hour call to Akron, Ohio, information, and
it drops a trouble card which goes right into the hands of the security agent
if they're looking for blue-box user.

"Whoever sold those guys their blue boxes didn't tell them how to use them
properly, which is fairly irresponsible.  And they were fairly stupid to use
them at home all the time.

"But what those arrests really mean is than an awful lot of blue boxes are
flooding into the country and that people are finding them so easy to make that

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they know how to make them before they know how to use them.  Ma Bell is in
trouble."

And if a blue-box operator or a cassette-recorder phone phreak sticks to pay
phones and 800 numbers, the phone company can't stop them?

"Not unless they change their entire nationwide long-lines technology, which
will take them a few billion dollars and twenty years.  Right now they can't do
a thing.  They're screwed."

+-- End first file of four --+
















































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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *
         *                                                           *
         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *
         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *
         *                                                           *
         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *
         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *
         *                                                           *
         *                  (Second of four files)                   *
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

Captain Crunch Demonstrates His Famous Unit

There is an underground telephone network in this country.  Gilbertson
discovered it the very day news of his activities hit the papers. That evening
his phone began ringing.  Phone phreaks from Seattle, from Florida, from New
York, from San Jose, and from Los Angeles began calling him and telling him
about the phone-phreak network.  He'd get a call from a phone phreak who'd say
nothing but, "Hang up and call this number."

When he dialed the number he'd find himself tied into a conference of a dozen
phone phreaks arranged through a quirky switching station in British Columbia.
They identified themselves as phone phreaks, they demonstrated their homemade
blue boxes which they called "M-Fers" (for "multi-frequency," among other
things) for him, they talked shop about phone-phreak devices.  They let him in
on their secrets on the theory that if the phone company was after him he must
be trustworthy.  And, Gilbertson recalls, they stunned him with their technical
sophistication.

I ask him how to get in touch with the phone-phreak network.  He digs around
through a file of old schematics and comes up with about a dozen numbers in
three widely separated area codes.

"Those are the centers," he tells me.  Alongside some of the numbers he writes
in first names or nicknames: names like Captain Crunch, Dr. No, Frank Carson
(also a code word for a free call), Marty Freeman (code word for M-F device),
Peter Perpendicular Pimple, Alefnull, and The Cheshire Cat.  He makes checks
alongside the names of those among these top twelve who are blind.  There are
five checks.

I ask him who this Captain Crunch person is.

"Oh.  The Captain.  He's probably the most legendary phone phreak.  He calls
himself Captain Crunch after the notorious Cap'n Crunch 2600 whistle."
(Several years ago, Gilbertson explains, the makers of Cap'n Crunch breakfast
cereal offered a toy-whistle prize in every box as a treat for the Cap'n Crunch
set.  Somehow a phone phreak discovered that the toy whistle just happened to
produce a perfect 2600-cycle tone.  When the man who calls himself Captain
Crunch was transferred overseas to England with his Air Force unit, he would
receive scores of calls from his friends and "mute" them -- make them free of
charge to them -- by blowing his Cap'n Crunch whistle into his end.)

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"Captain Crunch is one of the older phone phreaks," Gilbertson tells me.  "He's
an engineer who once got in a little trouble for fooling around with the phone,
but he can't stop.  Well, they guy drives across country in a Volkswagen van
with an entire switchboard and a computerized super-sophisticated M-F-er in the
back.  He'll pull up to a phone booth on a lonely highway somewhere, snake a
cable out of his bus, hook it onto the phone and sit for hours, days sometimes,
sending calls zipping back and forth across the country, all over the
world...."

Back at my motel, I dialed the number he gave me for "Captain Crunch" and asked
for G---- T-----, his real name, or at least the name he uses when he's not
dashing into a phone booth beeping out M-F tones faster than a speeding bullet
and zipping phantomlike through the phone company's long-distance lines.

When G---- T----- answered the phone and I told him I was preparing a story for
Esquire about phone phreaks, he became very indignant.

"I don't do that.  I don't do that anymore at all.  And if I do it, I do it for
one reason and one reason only.  I'm learning about a system.  The phone
company is a System.  A computer is a System, do you understand?  If I do what
I do, it is only to explore a system. Computers, systems, that's my bag.  The
phone company is nothing but a computer."

A tone of tightly restrained excitement enters the Captain's voice when he
starts talking about systems.  He begins to pronounce each syllable with the
hushed deliberation of an obscene caller.

"Ma Bell is a system I want to explore.  It's a beautiful system, you know, but
Ma Bell screwed up.  It's terrible because Ma Bell is such a beautiful system,
but she screwed up.  I learned how she screwed up from a couple of blind kids
who wanted me to build a device.  A certain device.  They said it could make
free calls.  I wasn't interested in free calls.  But when these blind kids told
me I could make calls into a computer, my eyes lit up.  I wanted to learn about
computers.  I wanted to learn about Ma Bell's computers.  So I build the little
device, but I built it wrong and Ma Bell found out.  Ma Bell can detect things
like that.  Ma Bell knows.  So I'm strictly rid of it now.  I don't do it.
Except for learning purposes."  He pauses. "So you want to write an article.
Are you paying for this call?  Hang up and call this number."  He gives me a
number in a area code a thousand miles away of his own.  I dial the number.

"Hello again.  This is Captain Crunch.  You are speaking to me on a toll-free
loop-around in Portland, Oregon.  Do you know what a toll-free loop around is?
I'll tell you.

He explains to me that almost every exchange in the country has open test
numbers which allow other exchanges to test their connections with it.  Most of
these numbers occur in consecutive pairs, such as 302 956-0041 and 302
956-0042.  Well, certain phone phreaks discovered that if two people from
anywhere in the country dial the two consecutive numbers they can talk together
just as if one had called the other's number, with no charge to either of them,
of course.

"Now our voice is looping around in a 4A switching machine up there in Canada,
zipping back down to me," the Captain tells me.  "My voice is looping around up
there and back down to you.  And it can't ever cost anyone money.  The phone
phreaks and I have compiled a list of many many of these numbers.  You would be
surprised if you saw the list.  I could show it to you.  But I won't.  I'm out

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of that now.  I'm not out to screw Ma Bell.  I know better.  If I do anything
it's for the pure knowledge of the System.  You can learn to do fantastic
things.  Have you ever heard eight tandems stacked up?  Do you know the sound
of tandems stacking and unstacking?  Give me your phone number.  Okay. Hang up
now and wait a minute."

Slightly less than a minute later the phone rang and the Captain was on the
line, his voice sounding far more excited, almost aroused.

"I wanted to show you what it's like to stack up tandems.  To stack up
tandems." (Whenever the Captain says "stack up" it sounds as if he is licking
his lips.)

"How do you like the connection you're on now?" the Captain asks me. "It's a
raw tandem.  A raw tandem.  Ain't nothin' up to it but a tandem.  Now I'm going
to show you what it's like to stack up.  Blow off.  Land in a far away place.
To stack that tandem up, whip back and forth across the country a few times,
then shoot on up to Moscow.

"Listen," Captain Crunch continues.  "Listen.  I've got line tie on my
switchboard here, and I'm gonna let you hear me stack and unstack tandems.
Listen to this.  It's gonna blow your mind."

First I hear a super rapid-fire pulsing of the flutelike phone tones, then a
pause, then another popping burst of tones, then another, then another.  Each
burst is followed by a beep-kachink sound.

"We have now stacked up four tandems," said Captain Crunch, sounding somewhat
remote.  "That's four tandems stacked up.  Do you know what that means?  That
means I'm whipping back and forth, back and forth twice, across the country,
before coming to you.  I've been known to stack up twenty tandems at a time.
Now, just like I said, I'm going to shoot up to Moscow."

There is a new, longer series of beeper pulses over the line, a brief silence,
then a ring.

"Hello," answers a far-off voice.

"Hello.  Is this the American Embassy Moscow?"

Moscow?"

"Okay?"

"Well, yes, how are things there?"

"Oh.  Well, everything okay, I guess."

"Okay.  Thank you."

They hang up, leaving a confused series of beep-kachink sounds hanging in
mid-ether in the wake of the call before dissolving away.

The Captain is pleased.  "You believe me now, don't you?  Do you know what I'd

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like to do?  I'd just like to call up your editor at Esquire and show him just
what it sounds like to stack and unstack tandems. I'll give him a show that
will blow his mind.  What's his number?

I ask the Captain what kind of device he was using to accomplish all his feats.
The Captain is pleased at the question.

"You could tell it was special, couldn't you?"  Ten pulses per second. That's
faster than the phone company's equipment.  Believe me, this unit is the most
famous unit in the country.  There is no other unit like it.  Believe me."

"Yes, I've heard about it.  Some other phone phreaks have told me about it."

"They have been referring to my, ahem, unit?  What is it they said? Just out of
curiosity, did they tell you it was a highly sophisticated computer-operated
unit, with acoustical coupling for receiving outputs and a switch-board with
multiple-line-tie capability?  Did they tell you that the frequency tolerance
is guaranteed to be not more than .05 percent?  The amplitude tolerance less
than .01 decibel?  Those pulses you heard were perfect.  They just come faster
than the phone company. Those were high-precision op-amps.  Op-amps are
instrumentation amplifiers designed for ultra-stable amplification, super-low
distortion and accurate frequency response.  Did they tell you it can operate
in temperatures from -55 degrees C to +125 degrees C?"

I admit that they did not tell me all that.

"I built it myself," the Captain goes on.  "If you were to go out and buy the
components from an industrial wholesaler it would cost you at least $1500.  I
once worked for a semiconductor company and all this didn't cost me a cent.  Do
you know what I mean?  Did they tell you about how I put a call completely
around the world?  I'll tell you how I did it.  I M-Fed Tokyo inward, who
connected me to India, India connected me to Greece, Greece connected me to
Pretoria, South Africa, South Africa connected me to South America, I went from
South America to London, I had a London operator connect me to a New York
operator, I had New York connect me to a California operator who rang the phone
next to me.  Needless to say I had to shout to hear myself.  But the echo was
far out.  Fantastic.  Delayed.  It was delayed twenty seconds, but I could hear
myself talk to myself."

"You mean you were speaking into the mouthpiece of one phone sending your voice
around the world into your ear through a phone on the other side of your head?"
I asked the Captain.  I had a vision of something vaguely autoerotic going on,
in a complex electronic way.

"That's right," said the Captain.  "I've also sent my voice around the world
one way, going east on one phone, and going west on the other, going through
cable one way, satellite the other, coming back together at the same time,
ringing the two phones simultaneously and picking them up and whipping my
voice both ways around the world back to me. Wow.  That was a mind blower."

"You mean you sit there with both phones on your ear and talk to yourself
around the world," I said incredulously.

"Yeah.  Um hum.  That's what I do.  I connect the phone together and sit there
and talk."

"What do you say?  What do you say to yourself when you're connected?"


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"Oh, you know.  Hello test one two three," he says in a low-pitched voice.

"Hello test one two three," he replied to himself in a high-pitched voice.

"Hello test one two three," he repeats again, low-pitched.

"Hello test one two three," he replies, high-pitched.

"I sometimes do this: Hello Hello Hello Hello, Hello, hello," he trails off and
breaks into laughter.

Why Captain Crunch Hardly Ever Taps Phones Anymore

Using internal phone-company codes, phone phreaks have learned a simple method
for tapping phones.  Phone-company operators have in front of them a board that
holds verification jacks.  It allows them to plug into conversations in case of
emergency, to listen in to a line to determine if the line is busy or the
circuits are busy.  Phone phreaks have learned to beep out the codes which lead
them to a verification operator, tell the verification operator they are
switchmen from some other area code testing out verification trunks. Once the
operator hooks them into the verification trunk, they disappear into the board
for all practical purposes, slip unnoticed into any one of the 10,000 to
100,000 numbers in that central office without the verification operator
knowing what they're doing, and of course without the two parties to the
connection knowing there is a phantom listener present on their line.

Toward the end of my hour-long first conversation with him, I asked the Captain
if he ever tapped phones.

"Oh no.  I don't do that.  I don't think it's right," he told me firmly.  "I
have the power to do it but I don't... Well one time, just one time, I have to
admit that I did.  There was this girl, Linda, and I wanted to find out... you
know.  I tried to call her up for a date. I had a date with her the last
weekend and I thought she liked me.  I called her up, man, and her line was
busy, and I kept calling and it was still busy.  Well, I had just learned about
this system of jumping into lines and I said to myself, 'Hmmm.  Why not just
see if it works. It'll surprise her if all of a sudden I should pop up on her
line. It'll impress her, if anything.'  So I went ahead and did it.  I M-Fed
into the line.  My M-F-er is powerful enough when patched directly into the
mouthpiece to trigger a verification trunk without using an operator the way
the other phone phreaks have to.

"I slipped into the line and there she was talking to another boyfriend.
Making sweet talk to him.  I didn't make a sound because I was so disgusted.
So I waited there for her to hang up, listening to her making sweet talk to the
other guy.  You know.  So as soon as she hung up I instantly M-F-ed her up and
all I said was, 'Linda, we're through.'  And I hung up.  And it blew her head
off.  She couldn't figure out what the hell happened.

"But that was the only time.  I did it thinking I would surprise her, impress
her.  Those were all my intentions were, and well, it really kind of hurt me
pretty badly, and... and ever since then I don't go into verification trunks."

Moments later my first conversation with the Captain comes to a close.

"Listen," he says, his spirits somewhat cheered, "listen.  What you are going
to hear when I hang up is the sound of tandems unstacking. Layer after layer of
tandems unstacking until there's nothing left of the stack, until it melts away

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into nothing.  Cheep, cheep, cheep, cheep," he concludes, his voice descending
to a whisper with each cheep.

He hangs up.  The phone suddenly goes into four spasms: kachink cheep. Kachink
cheep kachink cheep kachink cheep, and the complex connection has wiped itself
out like the Cheshire cat's smile.

The MF Boogie Blues

The next number I choose from the select list of phone-phreak alumni, prepared
for me by the blue-box inventor, is a Memphis number.  It is the number of Joe
Engressia, the first and still perhaps the most accomplished blind phone
phreak.

Three years ago Engressia was a nine-day wonder in newspapers and magazines all
over America because he had been discovered whistling free long-distance
connections for fellow students at the University of South Florida.  Engressia
was born with perfect pitch: he could whistle phone tones better than the
phone-company's equipment.

Engressia might have gone on whistling in the dark for a few friends for the
rest of his life if the phone company hadn't decided to expose him.  He was
warned, disciplined by the college, and the whole case became public.  In the
months following media reports of his talent, Engressia began receiving strange
calls.   There were calls from a group of kids in Los Angeles who could do some
very strange things with the quirky General Telephone and Electronics circuitry
in L.A. suburbs.  There were calls from a group of mostly blind kids in ----,
California, who had been doing some interesting experiments with Cap'n Crunch
whistles and test loops.  There was a group in Seattle, a group in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, a few from New York, a few scattered across the country.  Some
of them had already equipped themselves with cassette and electronic M-F
devices.  For some of these groups, it was the first time they knew of the
others.

The exposure of Engressia was the catalyst that linked the separate
phone-phreak centers together.  They all called Engressia.  They talked to him
about what he was doing and what they were doing.  And then he told them -- the
scattered regional centers and lonely independent phone phreakers -- about each
other, gave them each other's numbers to call, and within a year the scattered
phone-phreak centers had grown into a nationwide underground.

Joe Engressia is only twenty-two years old now, but along the phone-phreak
network he is "the old man," accorded by phone phreaks something of the
reverence the phone company bestows on Alexander Graham Bell.  He seldom needs
to make calls anymore.  The phone phreaks all call him and let him know what
new tricks, new codes, new techniques they have learned.  Every night he sits
like a sightless spider in his little apartment receiving messages from every
tendril of his web.  It is almost a point of pride with Joe that they call
him.

But when I reached him in his Memphis apartment that night, Joe Engressia was
lonely, jumpy and upset.

"God, I'm glad somebody called.  I don't know why tonight of all nights I don't
get any calls.  This guy around here got drunk again tonight and propositioned
me again.  I keep telling him we'll never see eye to eye on this subject, if
you know what I mean.  I try to make light of it, you know, but he doesn't get
it.  I can head him out there getting drunker and I don't know what he'll do

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next.  It's just that I'm really all alone here, just moved to Memphis, it's
the first time I'm living on my own, and I'd hate for it to all collapse now.
But I won't go to bed with him.  I'm just not very interested in sex and even
if I can't see him I know he's ugly.

"Did you hear that?  That's him banging a bottle against the wall outside.
He's nice.  Well forget about it.  You're doing a story on phone phreaks?
Listen to this.  It's the MF Boogie Blues.

Sure enough, a jumpy version of Muskrat Ramble boogies its way over the line,
each note one of those long-distance phone tones.  The music stops.  A huge
roaring voice blasts the phone off my ear: "AND THE QUESTION IS..." roars the
voice, "CAN A BLIND PERSON HOOK UP AN AMPLIFIER ON HIS OWN?"

The roar ceases.  A high-pitched operator-type voice replaces it. "This is
Southern Braille Tel. & Tel.  Have tone, will phone."

This is succeeded by a quick series of M-F tones, a swift "kachink" and a deep
reassuring voice: "If you need home care, call the visiting-nurses association.
First National time in Honolulu is 4:32 p.m."

Joe back in his Joe voice again: "Are we seeing eye to eye? 'Si, si,' said the
blind Mexican.  Ahem.  Yes.  Would you like to know the weather in Tokyo?"

This swift manic sequence of phone-phreak vaudeville stunts and blind-boy jokes
manages to keep Joe's mind off his tormentor only as long as it lasts.

"The reason I'm in Memphis, the reason I have to depend on that homosexual guy,
is that this is the first time I've been able to live on my own and make phone
trips on my own.  I've been banned from all central offices around home in
Florida, they knew me too well, and at the University some of my fellow
scholars were always harassing me because I was on the dorm pay phone all the
time and making fun of me because of my fat ass, which of course I do have,
it's my physical fatness program, but I don't like to hear it every day, and if
I can't phone trip and I can't phone phreak, I can't imagine what I'd do, I've
been devoting three quarters of my life to it.

"I moved to Memphis because I wanted to be on my own as well as because it has
a Number 5 crossbar switching system and some interesting little independent
phone-company districts nearby and so far they don't seem to know who I am so I
can go on phone tripping, and for me phone tripping is just as important as
phone phreaking."

Phone tripping, Joe explains, begins with calling up a central-office switch
room.  He tells the switchman in a polite earnest voice that he's a blind
college student interested in telephones, and could he perhaps have a guided
tour of the switching station?  Each step of the tour Joe likes to touch and
feel relays, caress switching circuits, switchboards, crossbar arrangements.

So when Joe Engressia phone phreaks he feels his way through the circuitry of
the country garden of forking paths, he feels switches shift, relays shunt,
crossbars swivel, tandems engage and disengage even as he hears -- with perfect
pitch -- his M-F pulses make the entire Bell system dance to his tune.

Just one month ago Joe took all his savings out of his bank and left home, over
the emotional protests of his mother.  "I ran away from home almost," he likes
to say.  Joe found a small apartment house on Union Avenue and began making
phone trips.  He'd take a bus a hundred miles south in Mississippi to see some

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old-fashioned Bell equipment still in use in several states, which had been
puzzling.  He'd take a bus three hundred miles to Charlotte, North Carolina, to
look at some brand-new experimental equipment.  He hired a taxi to drive him
twelve miles to a suburb to tour the office of a small phone company with some
interesting idiosyncrasies in its routing system.  He was having the time of
his life, he said, the most freedom and pleasure he had known.

In that month he had done very little long-distance phone phreaking from his
own phone.  He had begun to apply for a job with the phone company, he told me,
and he wanted to stay away from anything illegal.

"Any kind of job will do, anything as menial as the most lowly operator.
That's probably all they'd give me because I'm blind.  Even though I probably
know more than most switchmen.  But that's okay.  I want to work for Ma Bell.
I don't hate Ma Bell the way Gilbertson and some phone phreaks do.  I don't
want to screw Ma Bell.  With me it's the pleasure of pure knowledge.  There's
something beautiful about the system when you know it intimately the way I do.
But I don't know how much they know about me here.  I have a very intuitive
feel for the condition of the line I'm on, and I think they're monitoring me
off and on lately, but I haven't been doing much illegal.  I have to make a few
calls to switchmen once in a while which aren't strictly legal, and once I took
an acid trip and was having these auditory hallucinations as if I were trapped
and these planes were dive-bombing me, and all of sudden I had to phone phreak
out of there.  For some reason I had to call Kansas City, but that's all."

A Warning Is Delivered

At this point -- one o'clock in my time zone -- a loud knock on my motel-room
door interrupts our conversation.  Outside the door I find a uniformed security
guard who informs me that there has been an "emergency phone call" for me while
I have been on the line and that the front desk has sent him up to let me
know.

Two seconds after I say good-bye to Joe and hang up, the phone rings.

"Who were you talking to?" the agitated voice demands.  The voice belongs to
Captain Crunch.  "I called because I decided to warn you of something.  I
decided to warn you to be careful.  I don't want this information you get to
get to the radical underground.  I don't want it to get into the wrong hands.
What would you say if I told you it's possible for three phone phreaks to
saturate the phone system of the nation.  Saturate it.  Busy it out.  All of
it.  I know how to do this.  I'm not gonna tell.  A friend of mine has already
saturated the trunks between Seattle and New York.  He did it with a
computerized M-F-er hitched into a special Manitoba exchange.  But there are
other, easier ways to do it."

Just three people?  I ask.  How is that possible?

"Have you ever heard of the long-lines guard frequency?  Do you know about
stacking tandems with 17 and 2600?  Well, I'd advise you to find out about it.
I'm not gonna tell you.  But whatever you do, don't let this get into the hands
of the radical underground."

(Later Gilbertson, the inventor, confessed that while he had always been
skeptical about the Captain's claim of the sabotage potential of trunk-tying
phone phreaks, he had recently heard certain demonstrations which convinced him
the Captain was not speaking idly. "I think it might take more than three
people, depending on how many machines like Captain Crunch's were available.

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But even though the Captain sounds a little weird, he generally turns out to
know what he's talking about.")

"You know," Captain Crunch continues in his admonitory tone, "you know the
younger phone phreaks call Moscow all the time.  Suppose everybody were to call
Moscow.  I'm no right-winger.  But I value my life.  I don't want the Commies
coming over and dropping a bomb on my head. That's why I say you've got to be
careful about who gets this information."

The Captain suddenly shifts into a diatribe against those phone phreaks who
don't like the phone company.

"They don't understand, but Ma Bell knows everything they do.  Ma Bell knows.
Listen, is this line hot?  I just heard someone tap in.  I'm not paranoid, but
I can detect things like that.  Well, even if it is, they know that I know that
they know that I have a bulk eraser.  I'm very clean."  The Captain pauses,
evidently torn between wanting to prove to the phone-company monitors that he
does nothing illegal, and the desire to impress Ma Bell with his prowess.  "Ma
Bell knows how good I am.  And I am quite good.  I can detect reversals, tandem
switching, everything that goes on on a line.  I have relative pitch now.  Do
you know what that means?  My ears are a $20,000 piece of equipment.  With my
ears I can detect things they can't hear with their equipment.  I've had
employment problems.  I've lost jobs.  But I want to show Ma Bell how good I
am.  I don't want to screw her, I want to work for her.  I want to do good for
her.  I want to help her get rid of her flaws and become perfect.  That's my
number-one goal in life now."  The Captain concludes his warnings and tells me
he has to be going.  "I've got a little action lined up for tonight," he
explains and hangs up.

Before I hang up for the night, I call Joe Engressia back.  He reports that his
tormentor has finally gone to sleep -- "He's not blind drunk, that's the way I
get, ahem, yes; but you might say he's in a drunken stupor."  I make a date to
visit Joe in Memphis in two days.

+-- End second file of four --+
























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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *
         *                                                           *
         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *
         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *
         *                                                           *
         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *
         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *
         *                                                           *
         *                  (Third of four files)                    *
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

A Phone Phreak Call Takes Care of Business

The next morning I attend a gathering of four phone phreaks in  ----- (a
California suburb).  The gathering takes place in a comfortable split-level
home in an upper-middle-class subdivision.  Heaped on the kitchen table are the
portable cassette recorders, M-F cassettes, phone patches, and line ties of the
four phone phreaks present.  On the kitchen counter next to the telephone is a
shoe-box-size blue box with thirteen large toggle switches for the tones.  The
parents of the host phone phreak, Ralph, who is blind, stay in the living room
with their sighted children.  They are not sure exactly what Ralph and his
friends do with the phone or if it's strictly legal, but he is blind and they
are pleased he has a hobby which keeps him busy.

The group has been working at reestablishing the historic "2111" conference,
reopening some toll-free loops, and trying to discover the dimensions of what
seem to be new initiatives against phone phreaks by phone-company security
agents.

It is not long before I get a chance to see, to hear, Randy at work. Randy is
known among the phone phreaks as perhaps the finest con man in the game.  Randy
is blind.  He is pale, soft and pear-shaped, he wears baggy pants and a wrinkly
nylon white sport shirt, pushes his head forward from hunched shoulders
somewhat like a turtle inching out of its shell.  His eyes wander, crossing and
recrossing, and his forehead is somewhat pimply.  He is only sixteen years
old.

But when Randy starts speaking into a telephone mouthpiece his voice becomes so
stunningly authoritative it is necessary to look again to convince yourself it
comes from a chubby adolescent Randy.  Imagine the voice of a crack oil-rig
foreman, a tough, sharp, weather-beaten Marlboro man of forty.  Imagine the
voice of a brilliant performance-fund gunslinger explaining how he beats the
Dow Jones by thirty percent.  Then imagine a voice that could make those two

He is speaking to a switchman in Detroit.  The phone company in Detroit had
closed up two toll-free loop pairs for no apparent reason, although heavy use
by phone phreaks all over the country may have been detected.  Randy is telling
the switchman how to open up the loop and make it free again:

"How are you, buddy.  Yeah. I'm on the board in here in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and

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we've been trying to run some tests on your loop-arounds and we find'em busied
out on both sides.... Yeah, we've been getting a 'BY' on them, what d'ya say,
can you drop cards on 'em?  Do you have 08 on your number group?  Oh that's
okay, we've had this trouble before, we may have to go after the circuit.  Here
lemme give 'em to you: your frame is 05, vertical group 03, horizontal 5,
vertical file 3.  Yeah, we'll hang on here.... Okay, found it?  Good.  Right,
yeah, we'd like to clear that busy out.  Right.  All you have to do is look for
your key on the mounting plate, it's in your miscellaneous trunk frame.  Okay?
Right.  Now pull your key from NOR over the LCT.  Yeah. I don't know why that
happened, but we've been having trouble with that one.  Okay.  Thanks a lot
fella.  Be seein' ya."

Randy hangs up, reports that the switchman was a little inexperienced with the
loop-around circuits on the miscellaneous trunk frame, but that the loop has
been returned to its free-call status.

Delighted, phone phreak Ed returns the pair of numbers to the active-status
column in his directory.  Ed is a superb and painstaking researcher.  With
almost Talmudic thoroughness he will trace tendrils of hints through soft-wired
mazes of intervening phone-company circuitry back through complex linkages of
switching relays to find the location and identity of just one toll-free loop.
He spends hours and hours, every day, doing this sort of thing.  He has somehow
compiled a directory of eight hundred "Band-six in-WATS numbers" located in
over forty states.  Band-six in-WATS numbers are the big 800 numbers -- the
ones that can be dialed into free from anywhere in the country.

Ed the researcher, a nineteen-year-old engineering student, is also a superb
technician.  He put together his own working blue box from scratch at age
seventeen.  (He is sighted.)  This evening after distributing the latest issue
of his in-WATS directory (which has been typed into Braille for the blind phone
phreaks), he announces he has made a major new breakthrough:

"I finally tested it and it works, perfectly. I've got this switching matrix
which converts any touch-tone phone into an M-F-er."

The tones you hear in touch-tone phones are not the M-F tones that operate the
long-distance switching system.  Phone phreaks believe A.T.&T. had deliberately
equipped touch tones with a  different set of frequencies to avoid putting the
six master M-F tones in the hands of every touch-tone owner.  Ed's complex
switching matrix puts the six master tones, in effect put a blue box, in the
hands of every touch-tone owner.

Ed shows me pages of schematics, specifications and parts lists. "It's not easy
to build, but everything here is in the Heathkit catalog."

Ed asks Ralph what progress he has made in his attempts to reestablish a
long-term open conference line for phone phreaks.  The last big conference --
the historic "2111" conference -- had been arranged through an unused Telex
test-board trunk somewhere in the innards of a 4A switching machine in
Vancouver, Canada.  For months phone phreaks could M-F their way into
Vancouver, beep out 604 (the Vancouver area code) and then beep out 2111 (the
internal phone-company code for Telex testing), and find themselves at any
time, day or night, on an open wire talking with an array of phone phreaks from
coast to coast, operators from Bermuda, Tokyo and London who are phone-phreak
sympathizers, and miscellaneous guests and technical experts.  The conference
was a massive exchange of information.  Phone phreaks picked each other's
brains clean, then developed new ways to pick the phone company's brains clean.
Ralph gave M F Boogies concerts with his home-entertainment-type electric

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organ, Captain Crunch demonstrated his round-the-world prowess with his
notorious computerized unit and dropped leering hints of the "action" he was
getting with his girl friends.  (The Captain lives out or pretends to live out
several kinds of fantasies to the gossipy delight of the blind phone phreaks
who urge him on to further triumphs on behalf of all of them.)  The somewhat
rowdy Northwest phone-phreak crowd let their bitter internal feud spill over
into the peaceable conference line, escalating shortly into guerrilla warfare;
Carl the East Coast international tone relations expert demonstrated newly
opened direct M-F routes to central offices on the island of Bahrein in the
Persian Gulf, introduced a new phone-phreak friend of his in Pretoria, and
explained the technical operation of the new Oakland-to Vietnam linkages.
(Many phone phreaks pick up spending money by M-F-ing calls from relatives to
Vietnam G.I.'s, charging $5 for a whole hour of trans-Pacific conversation.)

Day and night the conference line was never dead.  Blind phone phreaks all over
the country, lonely and isolated in homes filled with active sighted brothers
and sisters, or trapped with slow and unimaginative blind kids in straitjacket
schools for the blind, knew that no matter how late it got they could dial up
the conference and find instant electronic communion with two or three other
blind kids awake over on the other side of America.  Talking together on a
phone hookup, the blind phone phreaks say, is not much different from being
there together. Physically, there was nothing more than a two-inch-square wafer
of titanium inside a vast machine on Vancouver Island.  For the blind kids
>there< meant an exhilarating feeling of being in touch, through a kind of
skill and magic which was peculiarly their own.

Last April 1, however, the long Vancouver Conference was shut off. The phone
phreaks knew it was coming.  Vancouver was in the process of converting from a
step-by-step system to a 4A machine and the 2111 Telex circuit was to be wiped
out in the process.  The phone phreaks learned the actual day on which the
conference would be erased about a week ahead of time over the phone company's
internal-news-and-shop-talk recording.

For the next frantic seven days every phone phreak in America was on and off
the 2111 conference twenty-four hours a day.  Phone phreaks who were just
learning the game or didn't have M-F capability were boosted up to the
conference by more experienced phreaks so they could get a glimpse of what it
was like before it disappeared.  Top phone phreaks searched distant area codes
for new conference possibilities without success.  Finally in the early morning
of April 1, the end came.

"I could feel it coming a couple hours before midnight," Ralph remembers.  "You
could feel something going on in the lines.  Some static began showing up, then
some whistling wheezing sound.  Then there were breaks.  Some people got cut
off and called right back in, but after a while some people were finding they
were cut off and couldn't get back in at all.  It was terrible.  I lost it
about one a.m., but managed to slip in again and stay on until the thing
died... I think it was about four in the morning.  There were four of us still
hanging on when the conference disappeared into nowhere for good.  We all tried
to M-F up to it again of course, but we got silent termination.  There was
nothing there."

The Legendary Mark Bernay Turns Out To Be "The Midnight Skulker"

Mark Bernay.  I had come across that name before.  It was on Gilbertson's
select list of phone phreaks.  The California phone phreaks had spoken of a
mysterious Mark Bernay as perhaps the first and oldest phone phreak on the West
Coast.  And in fact almost every phone phreak in the West can trace his origins

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either directly to Mark Bernay or to a disciple of Mark Bernay.

It seems that five years ago this Mark Bernay (a pseudonym he chose for
himself) began traveling up and down the West Coast pasting tiny stickers in
phone books all along his way.  The stickers read something like "Want to hear
an interesting tape recording? Call these numbers."  The numbers that followed
were toll-free loop-around pairs. When one of the curious called one of the
numbers he would hear a tape recording pre-hooked into the loop by Bernay which
explained the use of loop-around pairs, gave the numbers of several more, and
ended by telling the caller, "At six o'clock tonight this recording will stop
and you and your friends can try it out.  Have fun."

"I was disappointed by the response at first," Bernay told me, when I finally
reached him at one of his many numbers and he had dispensed with the usual "I
never do anything illegal" formalities which experienced phone phreaks open
most conversations.

"I went all over the coast with these stickers not only on pay phones, but I'd
throw them in front of high schools in the middle of the night, I'd leave them
unobtrusively in candy stores, scatter them on main streets of small towns.  At
first hardly anyone bothered to try it out.  I would listen in for hours and
hours after six o'clock and no one came on.  I couldn't figure out why people
wouldn't be interested.  Finally these two girls in Oregon tried it out and
told all their friends and suddenly it began to spread."

Before his Johny Appleseed trip Bernay had already gathered a sizable group of
early pre-blue-box phone phreaks together on loop-arounds in Los Angeles.
Bernay does not claim credit for the original discovery of the loop-around
numbers.  He attributes the discovery to an eighteen-year-old reform school kid
in Long Beach whose name he forgets and who, he says, "just disappeared one
day."  When Bernay himself discovered loop-arounds independently, from clues in
his readings in old issues of the Automatic Electric Technical Journal, he
found dozens of the reform-school kid's friends already using them. However, it
was one of Bernay's disciples in Seattle that introduced phone phreaking to
blind kids.  The Seattle kid who learned about loops through Bernay's recording
told a blind friend, the blind kid taught the secret to his friends at a winter
camp for blind kids in Los Angeles.  When the camp session was over these kids
took the secret back to towns all over the West.  This is how the original
blind kids became phone phreaks.  For them, for most phone phreaks in general,
it was the discovery of the possibilities of loop-arounds which led them on to
far more serious and sophisticated phone-phreak methods, and which gave them a
medium for sharing their discoveries.

A year later a blind kid who moved back east brought the technique to a blind
kids' summer camp in Vermont, which spread it along the East Coast.  All from a
Mark Bernay sticker.

Bernay, who is nearly thirty years old now, got his start when he was fifteen
and his family moved into an L.A. suburb serviced by General Telephone and
Electronics equipment.  He became fascinated with the differences between Bell
and G.T.&E. equipment.  He learned he could make interesting things happen by
carefully timed clicks with the disengage button.  He learned to interpret
subtle differences in the array of clicks, whirrs and kachinks he could hear on
his lines.  He learned he could shift himself around the switching relays of
the L.A. area code in a not-too-predictable fashion by interspersing his own
hook-switch clicks with the clicks within the line. (Independent phone
companies -- there are nineteen hundred of them still left, most of them tiny
island principalities in Ma Bell's vast empire -- have always been favorites

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

with phone phreaks, first as learning tools, then as Archimedes platforms from
which to manipulate the huge Bell system.  A phone phreak in Bell territory
will often M-F himself into an independent's switching system, with switching
idiosyncrasies which can give him marvelous leverage over the Bell System.

"I have a real affection for Automatic Electric Equipment," Bernay told me.
"There are a lot of things you can play with.  Things break down in interesting
ways."

Shortly after Bernay graduated from college (with a double major in chemistry
and philosophy), he graduated from phreaking around with G.T.&E. to the Bell
System itself, and made his legendary sticker-pasting journey north along the
coast, settling finally in Northwest Pacific Bell territory.  He discovered
that if Bell does not break down as interestingly as G.T.&E., it nevertheless
offers a lot of "things to play with."

Bernay learned to play with blue boxes.  He established his own personal
switchboard and phone-phreak research laboratory complex.  He continued his
phone-phreak evangelism with ongoing sticker campaigns. He set up two recording
numbers, one with instructions for beginning phone phreaks, the other with
latest news and technical developments (along with some advanced instruction)
gathered from sources all over the country.

These days, Bernay told me, he had gone beyond phone-phreaking itself. "Lately
I've been enjoying playing with computers more than playing with phones.  My
personal thing in computers is just like with phones, I guess -- the kick is in
finding out how to beat the system, how to get at things I'm not supposed to
know about, how to do things with the system that I'm not supposed to be able
to do."

As a matter of fact, Bernay told me, he had just been fired from his
computer-programming job for doing things he was not supposed to be able to do.
he had been working with a huge time-sharing computer owned by a large
corporation but shared by many others.  Access to the computer was limited to
those programmers and corporations that had been assigned certain passwords.
And each password restricted its user to access to only the one section of the
computer cordoned off from its own information storager.  The password system
prevented companies and individuals from stealing each other's information.

"I figured out how to write a program that would let me read everyone else's
password," Bernay reports.  "I began playing around with passwords.  I began
letting the people who used the computer know, in subtle ways, that I knew
their passwords.  I began dropping notes to the computer supervisors with hints
that I knew what I know. I signed them 'The Midnight Skulker.'  I kept getting
cleverer and cleverer with my messages and devising ways of showing them what I
could do. I'm sure they couldn't imagine I could do the things I was showing
them.  But they never responded to me.  Every once in a while they'd change the
passwords, but I found out how to discover what the new ones were, and I let
them know.  But they never responded directly to the Midnight Skulker.  I even
finally designed a program which they could use to prevent my program from
finding out what it did.  In effect I told them how to wipe me out, The
Midnight Skulker.  It was a very clever program.  I started leaving clues about
myself.  I wanted them to try and use it and then try to come up with something
to get around that and reappear again.  But they wouldn't play.  I wanted to
get caught.  I mean I didn't want to get caught personally, but I wanted them
to notice me and admit that they noticed me.  I wanted them to attempt to
respond, maybe in some interesting way."


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Finally the computer managers became concerned enough about the threat of
information-stealing to respond.  However, instead of using The Midnight
Skulker's own elegant self-destruct program, they called in their security
personnel, interrogated everyone, found an informer to identify Bernay as The
Midnight Skulker, and fired him.

"At first the security people advised the company to hire me full-time to
search out other flaws and discover other computer freaks.  I might have liked
that.  But I probably would have turned into a double double agent rather than
the double agent they wanted.  I might have resurrected The Midnight Skulker
and tried to catch myself.  Who knows?  Anyway, the higher-ups turned the whole
idea down."

You Can Tap the F.B.I.'s Crime Control Computer in the Comfort of Your Own
Home, Perhaps

Computer freaking may be the wave of the future.  It suits the phone-phreak
sensibility perfectly.  Gilbertson, the blue-box inventor and a lifelong phone
phreak, has also gone on from phone-phreaking to computer-freaking.  Before he
got into the blue-box business Gilbertson, who is a highly skilled programmer,
devised programs for international currency arbitrage.

But he began playing with computers in earnest when he learned he could use his
blue box in tandem with the computer terminal installed in his apartment by the
instrumentation firm he worked for.  The print-out terminal and keyboard was
equipped with acoustical coupling, so that by coupling his little ivory
Princess phone to the terminal and then coupling his blue box on that, he could
M-F his way into other computers with complete anonymity, and without charge;
program and re-program them at will; feed them false or misleading information;
tap and steal from them.  He explained to me that he taps computers by busying
out all the lines, then going into a verification trunk, listening into the
passwords and instructions one of the time sharers uses, and them M-F-ing in
and imitating them.  He believes it would not be impossible to creep into the
F.B.I's crime control computer through a local police computer terminal and
phreak around with the F.B.I.'s memory banks.  He claims he has succeeded in
re-programming a certain huge institutional computer in such a way that it has
cordoned off an entire section of its circuitry for his personal use, and at
the same time conceals that arrangement from anyone else's notice.  I have been
unable to verify this claim.

Like Captain Crunch, like Alexander Graham Bell (pseudonym of a
disgruntled-looking East Coast engineer who claims to have invented the black
box and now sells black and blue boxes to gamblers and radical heavies), like
most phone phreaks, Gilbertson began his career trying to rip off pay phones as
a teenager.  Figure them out, then rip them off.  Getting his dime back from
the pay phone is the phone phreak's first thrilling rite of passage.  After
learning the usual eighteen different ways of getting his dime back, Gilbertson
learned how to make master keys to coin-phone cash boxes, and get everyone
else's dimes back.  He stole some phone-company equipment and put together his
own home switchboard with it.  He learned to make a simple "bread-box" device,
of the kind used by bookies in the Thirties (bookie gives a number to his
betting clients; the phone with that number is installed in some widow lady's
apartment, but is rigged to ring in the bookie's shop across town, cops trace
big betting number and find nothing but the widow).

Not long after that afternoon in 1968 when, deep in the stacks of an
engineering library, he came across a technical journal with the phone tone
frequencies and rushed off to make his first blue box, not long after that

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Gilbertson abandoned a very promising career in physical chemistry and began
selling blue boxes for $1,500 apiece.

"I had to leave physical chemistry.  I just ran out of interesting things to
learn," he told me one evening.  We had been talking in the apartment of the
man who served as the link between Gilbertson and the syndicate in arranging
the big $300,000 blue-box deal which fell through because of legal trouble.
There has been some smoking.

"No more interesting things to learn," he continues.  "Physical chemistry turns
out to be a sick subject when you take it to its highest level.  I don't know.
I don't think I could explain to you how it's sick.  You have to be there.  But
you get, I don't know, a false feeling of omnipotence.  I suppose it's like
phone-phreaking that way.  This huge thing is there.  This whole system.  And
there are holes in it and you slip into them like Alice and you're pretending
you're doing something you're actually not, or at least it's no longer you
that's doing what you thought you were doing.  It's all Lewis Carroll.
Physical chemistry and phone-phreaking.  That's why you have these phone-phreak
pseudonyms like The Cheshire Cat, the Red King, and The Snark.  But there's
something about phone-phreaking that you don't find in physical chemistry."  He
looks up at me:

"Did you ever steal anything?"


"Then you know!  You know the rush you get.  It's not just knowledge, like
physical chemistry.  It's forbidden knowledge.  You know.  You can learn about
anything under the sun and be bored to death with it. But the idea that it's
illegal.  Look: you can be small and mobile and smart and you're ripping off
somebody large and powerful and very dangerous."

People like Gilbertson and Alexander Graham Bell are always talking about
ripping off the phone company and screwing Ma Bell.  But if they were shown a
single button and told that by pushing it they could turn the entire circuitry
of A.T.&T. into molten puddles, they probably wouldn't push it.  The
disgruntled-inventor phone phreak needs the phone system the way the lapsed
Catholic needs the Church, the way Satan needs a God, the way The Midnight
Skulker needed, more than anything else, response.

Later that evening Gilbertson finished telling me how delighted he was at the
flood of blue boxes spreading throughout the country, how delighted he was to
know that "this time they're really screwed."  He suddenly shifted gears.

"Of course.  I do have this love/hate thing about Ma Bell.  In a way I almost
like the phone company.  I guess I'd be very sad if they were to disintegrate.
In a way it's just that after having been so good they turn out to have these
things wrong with them.  It's those flaws that allow me to get in and mess with
them, but I don't know.  There's something about it that gets to you and makes
you want to get to it, you know."

I ask him what happens when he runs out of interesting, forbidden things to
learn about the phone system.

"I don't know, maybe I'd go to work for them for a while."

"In security even?"


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"I'd do it, sure.  I just as soon play -- I'd just as soon work on either
side."

"Even figuring out how to trap phone phreaks? I said, recalling Mark Bernay's
game."

"Yes, that might be interesting.  Yes, I could figure out how to outwit the
phone phreaks.  Of course if I got too good at it, it might become boring
again.  Then I'd have to hope the phone phreaks got much better and outsmarted
me for a while.  That would move the quality of the game up one level.  I might
even have to help them out, you know, 'Well, kids, I wouldn't want this to get
around but did you ever think of -- ?' I could keep it going at higher and
higher levels forever."

The dealer speaks up for the first time.  He has been staring at the soft
blinking patterns of light and colors on the translucent tiled wall facing him.
(Actually there are no patterns: the color and illumination of every tile is
determined by a computerized random-number generator designed by Gilbertson
which insures that there can be no meaning to any sequence of events in the
tiles.)

"Those are nice games you're talking about," says the dealer to his friend.
"But I wouldn't mind seeing them screwed.  A telephone isn't private anymore.
You can't say anything you really want to say on a telephone or you have to go
through that paranoid bullshit.  'Is it cool to talk on the phone?' I mean,
even if it is cool, if you have to ask 'Is it cool,' then it isn't cool.  You
know.  'Is it cool,' then it isn't cool.  You know.  Like those blind kids,
people are going to start putting together their own private telephone
companies if they want to really talk.  And you know what else.  You don't hear
silences on the phone anymore.  They've got this time-sharing thing on
long-distance lines where you make a pause and they snip out that piece of time
and use it to carry part of somebody else's conversation.  Instead of a pause,
where somebody's maybe breathing or sighing, you get this blank hole and you
only start hearing again when someone says a word and even the beginning of the
word is clipped off. Silences don't count -- you're paying for them, but they
take them away from you.  It's not cool to talk and you can't hear someone when
they don't talk.  What the hell good is the phone?  I wouldn't mind seeing them
totally screwed."

+-- End third file of four --+



















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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *
         *                                                           *
         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *
         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *
         *                                                           *
         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *
         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *
         *                                                           *
         *                  (Fourth of four files)                   *
         *                                                           *
         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *
         *                                                           *
         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

The Big Memphis Bust

Joe Engressia never wanted to screw Ma Bell.  His dream had always been to work
for her.

The day I visited Joe in his small apartment on Union Avenue in Memphis, he was
upset about another setback in his application for a telephone job.

"They're stalling on it.  I got a letter today telling me they'd have to
postpone the interview I requested again.  My landlord read it for me.  They
gave me some runaround about wanting papers on my rehabilitation status but I
think there's something else going on."

When I switched on the 40-watt bulb in Joe's room -- he sometimes forgets when
he has guests -- it looked as if there was enough telephone hardware to start a
small phone company of his own.

There is one phone on top of his desk, one phone sitting in an open drawer
beneath the desk top.  Next to the desk-top phone is a cigar-box-size M-F
device with big toggle switches, and next to that is some kind of switching and
coupling device with jacks and alligator plugs hanging loose.  Next to that is
a Braille typewriter.  On the floor next to the desk, lying upside down like a
dead tortoise, is the half-gutted body of an old black standard phone.  Across
the room on a torn and dusty couch are two more phones, one of them a
touch-tone model; two tape recorders; a heap of phone patches and cassettes,
and a life-size toy telephone.

Our conversation is interrupted every ten minutes by phone phreaks from all
over the country ringing Joe on just about every piece of equipment but the toy
phone and the Braille typewriter.  One fourteen-year-old blind kid from
Connecticut calls up and tells Joe he's got a girl friend.  He wants to talk to
Joe about girl friends. Joe says they'll talk later in the evening when they
can be alone on the line.  Joe draws a deep breath, whistles him off the air
with an earsplitting 2600-cycle whistle. Joe is pleased to get the calls but he
looked worried and preoccupied that evening, his brow constantly furrowed over
his dark wandering eyes.  In addition to the phone-company stall, he has just
learned that his apartment house is due to be demolished in sixty days for
urban renewal.  For all its shabbiness, the Union Avenue apartment house has
been Joe's first home-of-his-own and he's worried that he may not find another
before this one is demolished.

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But what really bothers Joe is that switchmen haven't been listening to him.
"I've been doing some checking on 800 numbers lately, and I've discovered that
certain 800 numbers in New Hampshire couldn't be reached from Missouri and
Kansas.  Now it may sound like a small thing, but I don't like to see sloppy
work; it makes me feel bad about the lines.  So I've been calling up switching
offices and reporting it, but they haven't corrected it.  I called them up for
the third time today and instead of checking they just got mad.  Well, that
gets me mad.  I mean, I do try to help them.  There's something about them I
can't understand -- you want to help them and they just try to say you're
defrauding them."

It is Sunday evening and Joe invites me to join him for dinner at a Holiday
Inn.  Frequently on Sunday evening Joe takes some of his welfare money, calls a
cab, and treats himself to a steak dinner at one of Memphis' thirteen Holiday
Inns.  (Memphis is the headquarters of Holiday Inn.  Holiday Inns have been a
favorite for Joe ever since he made his first solo phone trip to a Bell
switching office in Jacksonville, Florida, and stayed in the Holiday Inn there.
He likes to stay at Holiday Inns, he explains, because they represent freedom
to him and because the rooms are arranged the same all over the country so he
knows that any Holiday Inn room is familiar territory to him.  Just like any
telephone.)

Over steaks in the Pinnacle Restaurant of the Holiday Inn Medical Center on
Madison Avenue in Memphis, Joe tells me the highlights of his life as a phone
phreak.

At age seven, Joe learned his first phone trick.  A mean baby-sitter, tired of
listening to little Joe play with the phone as he always did, constantly, put a
lock on the phone dial.  "I got so mad.  When there's a phone sitting there and
I can't use it... so I started getting mad and banging the receiver up and
down.  I noticed I banged it once and it dialed one.  Well, then I tried
banging it twice...." In a few minutes Joe learned how to dial by pressing the
hook switch at the right time.  "I was so excited I remember going 'whoo whoo'
and beat a box down on the floor."

At age eight Joe learned about whistling.  "I was listening to some intercept
non working-number recording in L.A.- I was calling L.A. as far back as that,
but I'd mainly dial non working numbers because there was no charge, and I'd
listen to these recordings all day.  Well, I was whistling 'cause listening to
these recordings can be boring after a while even if they are from L.A., and
all of a sudden, in the middle of whistling, the recording clicked off.  I
fiddled around whistling some more, and the same thing happened.  So I called
up the switch room and said, 'I'm Joe.  I'm eight years old and I want to know
why when I whistle this tune the line clicks off.'  He tried to explain it to
me, but it was a little too technical at the time.  I went on learning.  That
was a thing nobody was going to stop me from doing. The phones were my life,
and I was going to pay any price to keep on learning.  I knew I could go to
jail.  But I had to do what I had to do to keep on learning."

The phone is ringing when we walk back into Joe's apartment on Union Avenue.
It is Captain Crunch.  The Captain has been following me around by phone,
calling up everywhere I go with additional bits of advice and explanation for
me and whatever phone phreak I happen to be visiting.  This time the Captain
reports he is calling from what he describes as "my hideaway high up in the
Sierra Nevada."  He pulses out lusty salvos of M-F and tells Joe he is about to
"go out and get a little action tonight.  Do some phreaking of another kind, if
you know what I mean."  Joe chuckles.

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The Captain then tells me to make sure I understand that what he told me about
tying up the nation's phone lines was true, but that he and the phone phreaks
he knew never used the technique for sabotage.  They only learned the technique
to help the phone company.

"We do a lot of troubleshooting for them.  Like this New Hampshire/Missouri
WATS-line flaw I've been screaming about.  We help them more than they know."

After we say good-bye to the Captain and Joe whistles him off the line, Joe
tells me about a disturbing dream he had the night before: "I had been caught
and they were taking me to a prison.  It was a long trip.  They were taking me
to a prison a long long way away.  And we stopped at a Holiday Inn and it was
my last night ever using the phone and I was crying and crying, and the lady at
the Holiday Inn said, 'Gosh, honey, you should never be sad at a Holiday Inn.
You should always be happy here.  Especially since it's your last night.'  And
that just made it worse and I was sobbing so much I couldn't stand it."

Two weeks after I left Joe Engressia's apartment, phone-company security agents
and Memphis police broke into it.  Armed with a warrant, which they left pinned
to a wall, they confiscated every piece of equipment in the room, including his
toy telephone.  Joe was placed under arrest and taken to the city jail where he
was forced to spend the night since he had no money and knew no one in Memphis
to call.

It is not clear who told Joe what that night, but someone told him that the
phone company had an open-and-shut case against him because of revelations of
illegal activity he had made to a phone-company undercover agent.

By morning Joe had become convinced that the reporter from Esquire, with whom
he had spoken two weeks ago, was the undercover agent.  He probably had ugly
thoughts about someone he couldn't see gaining his confidence, listening to him
talk about his personal obsessions and dreams, while planning all the while to
lock him up.

"I really thought he was a reporter," Engressia told the Memphis Press-Seminar.
"I told him everything...." Feeling betrayed, Joe proceeded to confess
everything to the press and police.

As it turns out, the phone company did use an undercover agent to trap Joe,
although it was not the Esquire reporter.

Ironically, security agents were alerted and began to compile a case against
Joe because of one of his acts of love for the system: Joe had called an
internal service department to report that he had located a group of defective
long-distance trunks, and to complain again about the New Hampshire/Missouri
WATS problem.  Joe always liked Ma Bell's lines to be clean and responsive.  A
suspicious switchman reported Joe to the security agents who discovered that
Joe had never had a long-distance call charged to his name.

Then the security agents learned that Joe was planning one of his phone trips
to a local switching office.  The security people planted one of their agents
in the switching office.  He posed as a student switchman and followed Joe
around on a tour.  He was extremely friendly and helpful to Joe, leading him
around the office by the arm. When the tour was over he offered Joe a ride back
to his apartment house.  On the way he asked Joe -- one tech man to another --
about "those blue boxers" he'd heard about.  Joe talked about them freely,
talked about his blue box freely, and about all the other things he could do

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with the phones.

The next day the phone-company security agents slapped a monitoring tape on
Joe's line, which eventually picked up an illegal call.  Then they applied for
the search warrant and broke in.

In court Joe pleaded not guilty to possession of a blue box and theft of
service.  A sympathetic judge reduced the charges to malicious mischief and
found him guilty on that count, sentenced him to two thirty-day sentences to be
served concurrently and then suspended the sentence on condition that Joe
promise never to play with phones again.  Joe promised, but the phone company
refused to restore his service.  For two weeks after the trial Joe could not be
reached except through the pay phone at his apartment house, and the landlord
screened all calls for him.

Phone-phreak Carl managed to get through to Joe after the trial, and reported
that Joe sounded crushed by the whole affair.

"What I'm worried about," Carl told me, "is that Joe means it this time.  The
promise.  That he'll never phone-phreak again.  That's what he told me, that
he's given up phone-phreaking for good.  I mean his entire life.  He says he
knows they're going to be watching him so closely for the rest of his life
he'll never be able to make a move without going straight to jail.  He sounded
very broken up by the whole experience of being in jail. It was awful to hear
him talk that way.  I don't know.  I hope maybe he had to sound that way.  Over
the phone, you know."

He reports that the entire phone-phreak underground is up in arms over the
phone company's treatment of Joe.  "All the while Joe had his hopes pinned on
his application for a phone-company job, they were stringing him along getting
ready to bust him.  That gets me mad.  Joe spent most of his time helping them
out.  The bastards.  They think they can use him as an example.  All of sudden
they're harassing us on the coast.  Agents are jumping up on our lines.  They
just busted ------'s mute yesterday and ripped out his lines.  But no matter
what Joe does, I don't think we're going to take this lying down."

Two weeks later my phone rings and about eight phone phreaks in succession say
hello from about eight different places in the country, among them Carl, Ed,
and Captain Crunch.  A nationwide phone-phreak conference line has been
reestablished through a switching machine in --------, with the cooperation of
a disgruntled switchman.

"We have a special guest with us today," Carl tells me.

The next voice I hear is Joe's.  He reports happily that he has just moved to a
place called Millington, Tennessee, fifteen miles outside of Memphis, where he
has been hired as a telephone-set repairman by a small independent phone
company.  Someday he hopes to be an equipment troubleshooter.

"It's the kind of job I dreamed about.  They found out about me from the
publicity surrounding the trial.  Maybe Ma Bell did me a favor busting me.
I'll have telephones in my hands all day long."

"You know the expression, 'Don't get mad, get even'?" phone-phreak Carl asked
me.  "Well, I think they're going to be very sorry about what they did to Joe
and what they're trying to do to us."

+-- End fourth file of four --+

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                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
                    $                                     $
                    $         THE HISTORY OF ESS          $
                    $         --- ------- -- ---          $
                    $                                     $
                    $                                     $
                    $      Another original phile by:     $
                    $                                     $
                    $                                     $
                    $$$$$$$$$$$$-=>Lex Luthor<=-$$$$$$$$$$$
                    $                                     $
                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$


   Of all the new 1960s wonders of telephone technology - satellites, ultra
modern Traffic Service Positions (TSPS) for operators, the picturephone, and so
on - the one that gave Bell Labs the most trouble, and unexpectedly became the
greatest development effort in Bell System's history, was the perfection of an
electronic switching system, or ESS.

   It may be recalled that such a system was the specific end in view when the
project that had culminated in the invention of the transistor had been
launched back in the 1930s. After successful accomplishment of that planned
miracle in 1947-48, further delays were brought about by financial stringency
and the need for further development of the transistor itself.  In the early
1950s, a Labs team began serious work on electronic switching.  As early as
1955, Western Electric became involved when five engineers from the Hawthorne
works were assigned to collaborate with the Labs on the project. The president
of AT&T in 1956, wrote confidently, "At Bell Labs, development of the new
electronic switching system is going full speed ahead. We are sure this will
lead to many improvements in service and also to greater efficiency. The first
service trial will start in Morris, Ill., in 1959." Shortly thereafter, Kappel
said that the cost of the whole project would probably be $45 million.

   But it gradually became apparent that the development of a commercially
usable electronic switching system -in effect, a computerized telephone
exchange - presented vastly greater technical problems than had been
anticipated, and that, accordingly, Bell Labs had vastly underestimated both
the time and the investment needed to do the job. The year 1959 passed without
the promised first trial at Morris, Illinois; it was finally made in November
1960, and quickly showed how much more work remained to be done.  As time
dragged on and costs mounted, there was a concern at AT&T and some-thing
approaching panic at Bell Labs.  But the project had to go forward; by this
time the investment was too great to be sacrificed, and in any case, forward
projections of increased demand for telephone service indicated that within a
phew years a time would come when, without the quantum leap in speed and
flexibility that electronic switching would provide, the national network would
be unable to meet the demand. In November 1963, an all-electronic switching
system went into use at the Brown Engineering Company at Cocoa Beach, Florida.
But this was a small installation, essentially another test installation,
serving only a single company. Kappel's tone on the subject in the 1964 annual
report was, for him, an almost apologetic: "Electronic switching equipment must
be manufactured in volume to unprecedented standards of reliability.... To turn
out the equipment economically and with good speed, mass production methods
must be developed; but, at the same time, there can be no loss of precision..."
Another year and millions of dollars later, on May 30, 1965, the first
commercial electric central office was put into service at Succasunna, New
Jersey.

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   Even at Succasunna, only 200 of the town's 4,300 subscribers initially had
the benefit of electronic switching's added speed and additional services, such
as provision for three party conversations and automatic transfer of incoming
calls. But after that, ESS was on its way. In January 1966, the second
commercial installation, this one serving 2,900 telephones, went into service
in Chase, Maryland. By the end of 1967 there were additional ESS offices in
California, Connecticut, Minnesota, Georgia, New York, Florida, and
Pennsylvania; by the end of 1970 there were 120 offices serving 1.8 million
customers; and by 1974 there were 475 offices serving 5.6 million customers.

   The difference between conventional switching and electronic switching is
the difference between "hardware" and "software"; in the former case,
maintenance is done on the spot, with screwdriver and pliers, while in the case
of electronic switching, it can be done remotely, by computer, from a central
point, making it possible to have only one or two technicians on duty at a time
at each switching center.

   The development program, when the final figures were added up, was found to
have required a staggering four thousand man-years of work at Bell Labs and to
have cost not $45 million but $500 million!






































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                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
                    $                                     $
                    $   THE HISTORY OF BRITISH PHREAKING  $
                    $   -=- -=-=-=- -- -=-=-=- -=-=-=-=-  $
                    $                                     $
                    $     THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF       $
                    $     THE HISTORY OF.....PHILES       $
                    $                                     $
                    $       WRITTEN AND UPLOADED BY:      $
                    $                                     $
                    $$$$$$$$$$$$-=>LEX LUTHOR<=-$$$$$$$$$$$
                    $                 AND                 $
                    $          THE LEGION OF DOOM!        $
                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

  NOTE:  THE BRITISH POST OFFICE, IS THE U.S.  EQUIVALENT OF MA BELL.

  IN BRITAIN, PHREAKING GOES BACK TO THE EARLY FIFTIES, WHEN THE TECHNIQUE OF
'TOLL A DROP BACK' WAS DISCOVERED.  TOLL A WAS AN EXCHANGE NEAR ST.  PAULS
WHICH ROUTED CALLS BETWEEN LONDON AND NEARBY NON-LONDON EXCHANGES.  THE TRICK
WAS TO DIAL AN UNALLOCATED NUMBER, AND THEN DEPRESS THE RECEIVER-REST FOR 1/2
SECOND.  THIS FLASHING INITIATED THE 'CLEAR FORWARD' SIGNAL, LEAVING THE CALLER
WITH AN OPEN LINE INTO THE TOLL A EXCHANGE.THE COULD THEN DIAL 018, WHICH
FORWARDED HIM TO THE TRUNK EXCHANGE AT THAT TIME, THE FIRST LONG DISTANCE
EXCHANGE IN BRITAIN AND FOLLOW IT WITH THE CODE FOR THE DISTANT EXCHANGE TO
WHICH HE WOULD BE CONNECTED AT NO EXTRA CHARGE.

  THE SIGNALS NEEDED TO CONTROL THE UK NETWORK TODAY WERE PUBLISHED IN THE
"INSTITUTION OF POST OFFICE ENGINEERS JOURNAL" AND REPRINTED IN THE SUNDAY
TIMES (15 OCT.  1972).

  THE SIGNALLING SYSTEM THEY USE:  SIGNALLING SYSTEM NO.  3 USES PAIRS OF
FREQUENCIES SELECTED FROM 6 TONES SEPARATED BY 120HZ.  WITH THAT INFO, THE
PHREAKS MADE "BLEEPERS" OR AS THEY ARE CALLED HERE IN THE U.S.  "BLUE BOX", BUT
THEY DO UTILIZE DIFFERENT MF TONES THEN THE U.S., THUS, YOUR U.S.  BLUE BOX
THAT YOU SMUGGLED INTO THE UK WILL NOT WORK, UNLESS YOU CHANGE THE
FREQUENCIES.

  IN THE EARLY SEVENTIES, A SIMPLER SYSTEM BASED ON DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF PULSES
WITH THE SAME FREQUENCY (2280HZ) WAS USED.  FOR MORE INFO ON THAT, TRY TO GET A
HOLD OF:  ATKINSON'S "TELEPHONY AND SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY".

  IN THE EARLY DAYS OF BRITISH PHREAKING, THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY TITAN
COMPUTER WAS USED TO RECORD AND CIRCULATE NUMBERS FOUND BY THE EXHAUSTIVE
DIALING OF LOCAL NETWORKS.  THESE NUMBERS WERE USED TO CREATE A CHAIN OF LINKS
FROM LOCAL EXCHANGE TO LOCAL EXCHANGE ACROSS THE COUNTRY, BYPASSING THE TRUNK
CIRCUITS.  BECAUSE THE INTERNAL ROUTING CODES IN THE UK NETWORK ARE NOT THE
SAME AS THOSE DIALED BY THE CALLER, THE PHREAKS HAD TO DISCOVER THEM BY 'PROBE
AND LISTEN' TECHNIQUES OR MORE COMMONLY KNOWN IN THE U.S.-- SCANNING.  WHAT
THEY DID WAS PUT IN LIKELY SIGNALS AND LISTENED TO FIND OUT IF THEY SUCCEEDED.
THE RESULTS OF SCANNING WERE CIRCULATED TO OTHER PHREAKS. DISCOVERING EACH
OTHER TOOK TIME AT FIRST, BUT EVENTUALLY THE PHREAKS BECAME ORGANIZED.  THE
"TAP" OF BRITAIN WAS CALLED "UNDERCURRENTS" WHICH ENABLED BRITISH PHREAKS TO
SHARE THE INFO ON NEW NUMBERS, EQUIPMENT ETC.

  TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE BRITISH BRITISH PHREAKS DID, THINK OF THE PHONE
NETWORK IN THREE LAYERS OF LINES:  LOCAL, TRUNK, AND INTERNATIONAL.#IN THE UK,
SUBSCRIBER TRUNK DIALING (STD), IS THE MECHANISM WHICH TAKES A CALL FROM THE

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LOCAL LINES AND (LEGITIMATELY) ELEVATES IT TO A TRUNK OR INTERNATIONAL
LEVEL.#THE UK PHREAKS FIGURED THAT A CALL AT TRUNK LEVEL CAN BE ROUTED THROUGH
ANY NUMBER OF EXCHANGES, PROVIDED THAT THE RIGHT ROUTING CODES WERE FOUND AND
USED CORRECTLY.  THEY ALSO HAD TO DISCOVER HOW TO GET FROM LOCAL TO TRUNK LEVEL
EITHER WITHOUT BEING CHARGED (WHICH THEY DID WITH A BLEEPER BOX) OR WITHOUT
USING (STD).  CHAINING HAS ALREADY BEEN MENTIONED BUT IT REQUIRES LONG STRINGS
OF DIGITS AND SPEECH GETS MORE AND MORE FAINT AS THE CHAIN GROWS, JUST LIKE IT
DOES WHEN YOU STACK TRUNKS BACK AND FORTH ACROSS THE U.S.#THE WAY THE SECURITY
REPS SNAGGED THE PHREAKS WAS TO PUT A SIMPLE 'PRINTERMETER' OR AS WE CALL IT:
A PEN REGISTER ON THE SUSPECTS LINE, WHICH SHOWS EVERY DIGIT DIALED FROM THE
SUBSCRIBERS LINE.

  THE BRITISH PREFER TO GET ONTO THE TRUNKS RATHER THAN CHAINING.  ONE WAY WAS
TO DISCOVER WHERE LOCAL CALLS USE THE TRUNKS BETWEEN NEIGHBORING EXCHANGES,
START A CALL AND STAY ON THE TRUNK INSTEAD OF RETURNING TO THE LOCAL LEVEL ON
REACHING THE DISTANT SWITCH.  THIS AGAIN REQUIRED EXHAUSTIVE DIALING AND MADE
MORE WORK FOR TITAN; IT ALSO REVEALED 'FIDDLES', WHICH WERE INSERTED BY POST
OFFICE ENGINEERS.

  WHAT FIDDLING MEANS IS THAT THE ENGINEERS REWIRED THE EXCHANGES FOR THEIR OWN
BENEFIT.  THE EQUIPMENT IS MODIFIED TO GIVE ACCESS TO A TRUNK WITH OUT BEING
CHARGED, AN OPERATION WHICH IS PRETTY EASY IN STEP BY STEP (SXS)
ELECTROMECHANICAL EXCHANGES, WHICH WERE INSTALLED IN BRITAIN EVEN IN THE 1970S
(NOTE:  I KNOW OF A BACK DOOR INTO THE CANADIAN SYSTEM ON A 4A CO., SO IF YOU
ARE ON SXS OR A 4A, TRY SCANNING 3 DIGIT EXCHANGES, IE:  DIAL 999,998,997
ETC.#AND LISTEN FOR THE BEEP-KERCHINK, IF THERE ARE NO 3 DIGIT CODES WHICH
ALLOW DIRECT ACCESS TO A TANDEM IN YOUR LOCAL EXCHANGE AND BYPASSES THE AMA SO
YOU WON'T BE BILLED, NOT HAVE TO BLAST 2600 EVERY TIME YOU WISH TO BOX A CALL.

  A FAMOUS BRITISH 'FIDDLER' REVEALED IN THE EARLY 1970S WORKED BY DIALING 173.
THE CALLER THEN ADDED THE TRUNK CODE OF 1 AND THE SUBSCRIBERS LOCAL NUMBER.  AT
THAT TIME, MOST ENGINEERING TEST SERVICES BEGAN WITH 17X, SO THE ENGINEERS
COULD HIDE THEIR FIDDLES IN THE NEST OF SERVICE WIRES.  WHEN SECURITY REPS
STARTED SEARCHING, THE FIDDLES WERE CONCEALED BY TONES SIGNALLING:  'NUMBER
UNOBTAINALBE' OR 'EQUIPMENT ENGAGED' WHICH SWITCHED OFF AFTER A DELAY.  THE
NECESSARY RELAYS ARE SMALL AND EASILY HIDDEN.

  THERE WAS ANOTHER SIDE TO PHREAKING IN THE UK IN THE SIXTIES. BEFORE STD WAS
WIDESPREAD, MANY 'ORDINARY' PEOPLE WERE DRIVEN TO.

OCCASIONAL PHREAKING FROM SHEER FRUSTRATION AT THE INEFFICIENT OPERATOR
CONTROLLED TRUNK SYSTEM.  THIS CAME TO A HEAD DURING A STRIKE ABOUT 1961 WHEN
OPERATORS COULD NOT BE REACHED.  NOTHING COMPLICATED WAS NEEDED.  MANY
OPERATORS HAD BEEN IN THE HABIT OF REPEATING THE CODES AS THEY DIALLED THE
REQUESTED NUMBERS SO PEOPLE SOON LEARNT THE NUMBERS THEY CALLED FREQUENTLY.
THE ONLY 'TRICK' WAS TO KNOW WHICH EXCHANGES COULD BE DIALLED THROUGH TO PASS
ON THE TRUNK NUMBER.CALLERS ALSO NEEDED A PRETTY QUIET PLACE TO DO IT, SINCE
TIMING RELATIVE TO CLICKS WAS IMPORTANT THE MOST FAMOUS TRIAL OF BRITISH
PHREAKS WAS CALLED THE OLD BAILY TRIAL.#WHICH STARTED ON 3 OCT.  1973.#WHAT
THEY PHREAKS DID WAS TO DIAL A SPARE NUMBER AT A LOCAL CALL RATE BUT INVOLVING
A TRUNK TO ANOTHER EXCHANGE THEN THEY SEND A 'CLEAR FORWARD' TO THEIR LOCAL
EXCHANGE, INDICATING TO IT THAT THE CALL IS FINISHED;BUT THE DISTANT EXCHANGE
DOESN'T REALIZE BECAUSE THE CALLER'S PHONE IS STILL OFF THE HOOK.  THEY NOW
HAVE AN OPEN LINE INTO THE DISTANT TRUNK EXCHANGE AND SENDS TO IT A 'SEIZE'
SIGNAL:  '1' WHICH PUTS HIM ONTO ITS OUTGOING LINES NOW, IF THEY KNOW THE
CODES, THE WORLD IS OPEN TO THEM.  ALL OTHER EXCHANGES TRUST HIS LOCAL EXCHANGE
TO HANDLE THE BILLING; THEY JUST INTERPRET THE TONES THEY HEAR.  MEAN WHILE,
THE LOCAL EXCHANGE COLLECTS ONLY FOR A LOCAL CALL.  THE INVESTIGATORS

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DISCOVERED THE PHREAKS HOLDING A CONFERENCE SOMEWHERE IN ENGLAND SURROUNDED BY
VARIOUS PHONE EQUIPMENT AND BLEEPER BOXES, ALSO PRINTOUTS LISTING 'SECRET' POST
OFFICE CODES.  (THEY PROBABLY GOT THEM FROM TRASHING?) THE JUDGE SAID:  "SOME
TAKE TO HEROIN, SOME TAKE TO TELEPHONES" FOR THEM PHONE PHREAKING WAS NOT A
CRIME BUT A HOBBY TO BE SHARED WITH PHELLOW ENTHUSIASTS AND DISCUSSED WITH THE
POST OFFICE OPENLY OVER DINNER AND BY MAIL.  THEIR APPROACH AND ATTITUDE TO THE
WORLDS LARGEST COMPUTER, THE GLOBAL TELEPHONE SYSTEM, WAS THAT OF SCIENTISTS
CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS OR PROGRAMMERS AND ENGINEERS TESTING PROGRAMS AND
SYSTEMS.  THE JUDGE APPEARED TO AGREE, AND EVEN ASKED THEM FOR PHREAKING CODES
TO USE FROM HIS LOCAL EXCHANGE!!!

#     $-THE END-$















































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                                  Bad as Shit

   Recently, a telephone fanatic in the  northwest made an interesting
discovery.  He was exploring the 804 area code (Virginia) and found out that
the 840 exchange did something strange.
  In the vast majority of cases, in fact in all of the cases except one, he
would get a recording as if the exchange didn't exist. However, if he dialed
804-840 and four rather predictable numbers, he got a ring!

   After one or two rings, somebody picked up.  Being experienced at this kind
of thing, he could tell that the call didn't "supe", that is, no charges were
being incurred for calling this number.
  (Calls that get you to an error message, or a special operator, generally
don't supervise.)  A female voice, with a hint of a Southern accent said,
"Operator, can I help you?"

   "Yes," he said, "What number have I reached?"

   "What number did you dial, sir?"

   He made up a number that was similar.

   "I'm sorry that is not the number you reached."  Click.

   He was fascinated.  What in the world was this?  He knew he was going to
call back, but before he did, he tried some more experiments. He tried the 840
exchange in several other area codes.  In some, it came up as a valid exchange.
In others, exactly the same thing happened -- the same last four digits, the
same Southern belle.  Oddly enough, he later noticed, the areas worked in
seemed to travel in a beeline from Washington DC to Pittsburgh, PA.

   He called back from a payphone.  "Operator, can I help you?"

   "Yes, this is the phone company.  I'm testing this line and we don't seem to
have an identification on your circuit.  What office is this, please?"

   "What number are you trying to reach?"

   "I'm not trying to reach any number.  I'm trying to identify this circuit."

   "I'm sorry, I can't help you."

   "Ma'am, if I don't get an ID on this line, I'll have to disconnect it.  We
show no record of it here."

   "Hold on a moment, sir."

   After about a minute, she came back.  "Sir, I can have someone speak to you.
Would you give me your number, please?"

   He had anticipated this and he had the payphone number ready. After he gave
it, she said, "Mr. XXX will get right back to you."

   "Thanks."  He hung up the phone.  It rang.  INSTANTLY!  "Oh my God," he
thought, "They weren't asking for my number -- they were confirming it!"

   "Hello," he said, trying to sound authoritative.


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   "This is Mr. XXX.  Did you just make  an inquiry to my office concerning a
phone number?"

   "Yes.  I need an identi--"

   "What you need is advice.  Don't ever call that number again. Forget you
ever knew it."

   At this point our friend got so nervous he just hung up.  He expected to
hear the phone ring again but it didn't.

   Over the next few days he racked his brains trying to figure out what the
number was.  He knew it was something big -- that was pretty certain at this
point.  It was so big that the number was programmed into every central office
in the country.  He knew this because if he tried to dial any other number in
that exchange, he'd get a local error message from his CO, as if the exchange
didn't exist.

   It finally came to him.  He had an uncle who worked in a federal agency.  He
had a feeling that this was government related and if it was, his uncle could
probably find out what it was.  He asked the next day and his uncle promised to
look into the matter.

   The next time he saw his uncle, he noticed a big change in his manner.  He
was trembling.  "Where did you get that number?!"  he shouted.  "Do you know I
almost got fired for asking about it?!? They kept wanting to know where I got
it."

   Our friend couldn't contain his excitement.  "What is it?" he pleaded.
"What's the number?!"

"IT'S THE PRESIDENT'S BOMB SHELTER!"

   He never called the number after that.  He knew that he could probably cause
quite a bit of excitement by calling the number and saying something like, "The
weather's not good in Washington.  We're coming over for a visit."  But our
friend was smart.  he knew that there were some things that were better off
unsaid and undone. <>













From @UICVM.uic.edu:TK0JUT2@NIU Tue Jun 12 06:40:26 1990








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                                   Chapter 3

   This chapter is really just a bunch of FACS (pun intended).  Here is where
random facts that really have something to do with everything else but nothing
to do with anything else, are presented.  They cover various topics such as:
Conferencing, Tracing, Pen registers, Calling cards, and some basic FMF (Fool
the Mother Fuckers).  The aspects covered here are very brief and could easily
be covered much more thoroughly, but it is no problem since they are not very
important topics.  Something that would make a very nice gift is covered in the
article AT&T forgery.  Just make up stationary with AT&T letter head and give
it as a present to your phriends who would appreciate it.
















































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                               Phreaking COSMOS
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

    COSMOS is Bell's computer for handling information on customer lines,
special services on lines, and orders to change line equipment, disconnect
lines, etc.  COSMOS stands for Computerized System for Mainframe Operations. It
is based on the UNIX operating system and, depending upon the COSMOS and upon
your access, has some, many, or no UNIX standard commands.  COSMOS is powerful,
but there is no reason to be afraid of it.  This article will give some of the
basic, pertinent info on how users get in, account format, and a few other
goodies.

                            Password Identification
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

    To get onto COSMOS you need a dialup, account, password, and wire center
(WC).  Wire centers are two letter codes that tell what section of the COSMOS
you are in.  There are different WC's f or different areas and groups of
exchanges.  Examples are PB, SR, LK, et c. Sometimes there are accounts that
have no password; obviously such accounts are the easiest to hack.

                                Checking It Out
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

    Let's suppose you have a COSMOS number which you obtained one way or
another.  The first thing to do would be to make sure it is really a COSMOS
system, not some other Bell or AT&T computer.  To do this, you would call it
and connect your modem,, then hit some returns until you got a response. It
should say:

 ';LOGIN:' or 'NAME:'.
    If you enter some garbage it should say:
'PASSWORD:'.
    If you hit a return and it says 'WC?', it is a COSMOS system.  If it says
something like 'TA%' then you're in business.  If it doesn't do any of the
above, then it is either some other  kind of system, or, if you're not getting
anything at all, the dialup has  probably gone bad.

                                  Getting In
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

    COSMOS has certain accounts that are  usually on the system, one of which
might not have a password.  They consist of ROOT (most powerful and almost
always on the system), SYS (second most  powerful, still many privileges), BIN
(a little less power), PREOP (a little less), and COSMOS (hardly any
privileges, like a normal user).  The way to tell if they have passwords is by
entering accounts at the ';LOGIN:' or ' NAME:' prompt, and if it jumps straight
to 'WC?', all you need is a WC to get in.  But suppose all of the accounts have
passwords?  You have two choices. You  can try to hack the password and WC to
one of the above accounts.  I won't deal with this method, as is
self-explanatory.  Or you can do something I  find much easier...call the
COSMOS during business hours and hope that someone forgot to log off. Keep
calling until when you connect and hit return until you get a 'WC%' prompt.
'WC' is the WC that the account you found is currently in. You are now in!

                           What to Do while on-line
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


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    The first thing you want to do is write down the WC you are in. Only on our
first login it is a good idea to print everything or dump everything to a
buffer.

                                   Commands
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
'WCFLDS'(!)     : Should list all WC's.
'WHO'           : Should print everyone currently logged on the system, giving
some accounts.
'TTY'           : Tells what terminal port you are on.
'WHERE'         : Should tell the location of the COSMOS installation.
'WHAT'          : Tells what version of COSNIX, COSMOS's operating system, it
is.
'LS *'          : Prints all the files you  have access to.
'CD /dir'       : Connects you to the directory '/dir'.
'CAT filename ' : Prints the file 'filename'.
'Q'             : Quits the editor.
CTRL- Y.        : Logs off
'TAT'           : Sometimes prints a little help file.
'ISH'           : Check someone's telefone #, type 'ISH' at the COSMOS 'WC%'
prompt. Then type.
'HTN XXX-XXXX'  : (Hunt Telephone Number) to tell you about the local number
you are interested in.

'CAT /ETC/PASSWD': Prints out the password file, if you have access. The
passwords are almost always encrypted, but you get a  list of all the accounts.
If you are lucky, one of the lines will have two colons after the account name.
This means there is no prompt from the ';LOGIN:' or 'NAME:' prompts when you
enter that account.

To run a file just type the name followed by a return.

   When the system gives you a '-', you type a '.', and it will type all kinds
of info on the phone number you entered (in Bell abbreviations, of course).  If
it is not a good exchange, it will say something to that effect.  You type a
period to end the ISH.
   If you wish to learn more information about COSMOS, find yourself a COSMOS
manual or look at future issues of 2600.  A UNIX manual would also be helpful
for standard UNIX commands.




















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                                  FACS  FACTS
                        A LOOK AT THE NEW FACS SYSTEMS
                                BY SHARP RAZOR


    BELL ATLANTIC (AND PROBABLY THE REST OF THE U.S. SOON ENOUGH) IS REVAMPING
COSMOS. THE PROJECT IS CALLED FACS (FACILITATED ASSIGNMENT AND CONTROL
SYSTEM).FACS IS COMPOSED OF 5 MODULES WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO FUNCTION AS A
UNIFIED SYSTEM. THE PREMIS AND THE COSMOS SYSTEMS CAN FUNCTION AS ST AND-ALONE
SYSTEMS.THE FIVE PARTS OF FACS ARE PREMIS,SOAC, LFACS,COSMOS,AND THE WM.

    THE PREMIS (PREMISES INFORMATION SYSTEM) SUPPORTS BOTH RESIDENCE AND
BUSINESS ACCOUNTS. PREMIS IS USED FOR VARIOUS INQUIRIES FOR THE STREET ADDRESS
GUIDE(SAG),IE::PHONE NUMBERS,BILLING CHARGES,CREDIT,ETC.

    THE SECOND PART OF FACS IS THE SOAC(SERVICE ORDER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL).
THIS IS PRIMARILY USED TO INPUT SERVICE ORDER DATA INTO FACS, AND TO GET THE
APPROPRIATE OUTPUT.  SOAC INTERPRETS, VALIDATES,AND DECOMPOSES ALL INPUTED DATA
AND SENDS THE INFO TO THE COSMOS AND THE LFACS SYSTEMS.

    THE THIRD PART OF THE SYSTEM IS LFACS(LOOP FACILITIES AND CONTROL SYSTEM).
THIS IS THE COMPONENT OF FACS THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTAINING THE
INVENTORY,DOING THE ASSIGNMENTS, ADMINISTRATING INQUIRIES AND REPORTS, AND IS
THE INVENTORY TRANSFORMATION CENTER. THIS PART OF FACS WILL BE MOSTLY USED FOR
AIDING THE AT&T LINEMEN.

    THE COSMOS SYSTEM(COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR MAINFRAME OPERATIONS) COMPRISES THE
FOURTH PART OF THE FACS SYSTEM. COSMOS IS THE COMPONENT OF FACS THAT IS
RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTAINING THE MECHANIZED INVENTORY OF MDF FACILITIES,STORING
CUSTOM CALL FEATURES(IE:SPEED DIALING NUMBERS),AND OTHER MISC. INFO.

    THE FIFTH AND LAST PIECE OF THE FACS SYSTEM IS THE WORK MANAGER (WM).  HIS
COMPONENT SERVES AS THE FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR COSMOS. IT ENABLES A NUMBER OF
COSMOS COMPUTERS TO RELIABLY COMMUNICATE WITH THE OTHER FACS COMPONENTS.  WM
SERVES AS THE MESSAGES SWITCHING SYSTEM FOR THE FACS PIECES, AND GENERALLY IS
THE "MESSENGER AND STABILIZER" OF THE SYSTEM.

        THE HARDWARE THAT WILL RUN THIS FACS SYSTEM IS:
   COSMOS:  22-WECO. 3B-20S MINI COMPS.
   WM:      6-WECO.  3B-20S MINI COMPS.
   SOAC-LFACS-PREMIS: TWO SPERRY UNIVAC 1100/92 MAINFRAMES.
                      BANCS 2 THP CYBER 1000 PROCESSORS.

     THE FACS SYSTEM IS STARTING UP AT THIS VERY MOMENT.  THIS IS BASICALLY A
BROAD VIEW OF THE FACS SYSTEM.  AT&T SEEMS TO THINK THAT FACS WILL BE MORE
EFFICIENT,SAVE THEM MONEY IN THE LONG RUN, AND SAVE THEM WORKERS(HERE COME SOME
MASSIVE LAYOFFS!) WHAT THIS MEANS TO PHREAKERS AND HACKERS IS THAT YOU WILL NOW
HAVE AT LEAST FIVE DIAL-UPS IN AN AREA CODE WITH WHICH YOU CAN PHUCK WITH
AT&T!

  ..LATER..
  ..SHARP RAZOR>>
   THE LEGION OF DOOM!
(NOTE: THE FACS SYSTEM HAS RECENTLY BEEN PUT INTO OPERATION(SUMMER 84) IN
ST.LOUIS MISSOURI)




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                                    Telenet

  It seems that not many of you know that Telenet is connected to about 80
computer-networks in the world. No, I don't mean 80 nodes, but 80 networks with
thousands of unprotected computers. When you call your local Telenet- gateway,
you can only call those computers which accept reverse-charging- calls.
  If you want to call computers in foreign countries or computers in USA which
do not accept R-calls, you need a Telenet-ID. Did you ever notice that you can
type ID XXXX when being connected to Telenet? You are then asked for the
password. If you have such a NUI (Network-User-ID) you can call nearly every
host connected to any computer-network in the world. Here are some examples:

026245400090184 :Is a VAX in Germany  (Username: DATEXP and leave mail for
CHRIS  !!!)
0311050500061   :Is the Los Alamos Integrated computing network (One of the
hosts connected to it is the DNA (Defense Nuclear Agency)!!!)
0530197000016   :Is a BBS in New Zealand
024050256       :Is the S-E-Bank in Stockholm, Sweden (Login as GAMES !!!)
02284681140541  :CERN in Geneva in Switzerland (one of the biggest nuclear
research centers in the world) Login as GUEST
0234212301161   :A Videotex-standard system. Type OPTEL to get in and use the
ID 999_ with the password 9_
0242211000001   :University of Oslo in Norway (Type  LOGIN 17,17  to play the
Multi-User-Dungeon !)
0425130000215   :Something like ITT Dialcom, but this one is in Israel ! ID
HELP  with password HELP  works fine with security level 3
0310600584401   :Is the Washington Post News Service via Tymnet (Yes, Tymnet is
connected to Telenet, too !)  ID and Password is: PETER You can read the news
of the next day !

The prefixes are as follows:
02624  is Datex-P in Germany
02342  is PSS in England
03110  is Telenet in USA
03106  is Tymnet in USA
02405  is Telepak in Sweden
04251  is Isranet in Israel
02080  is Transpac in France
02284  is Telepac in Switzerland
02724  is Eirpac in Ireland
02704  is Luxpac in Luxembourg
05252  is Telepac in Singapore
04408  is Venus-P in Japan
...and so on... Some of the countries have more than one
packet-switching-network (USA has 11, Canada has 3, etc).

OK. That should be enough for the moment. As you see most of the passwords are
very simple. This is because they must not have any fear of hackers. Only a few
German hackers use these networks. Most of the computers are absolutely easy to
hack !!! So, try to find out some Telenet-ID's and leave them here. If you need
more numbers, leave e-mail.
I'm calling from Germany via the German Datex-P network, which is similar to
Telenet. We have a lot of those NUI's for the German network, but none for a
special Tymnet-outdial-computer in USA, which connects me to any phone #.

CUL8R,  Mad Max

PS: Call 026245621040000 and type ID INF300 with password DATACOM to get more

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Informations on packet-switching-networks !

PS2: The new password for the Washington Post is KING !!!!
























































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                             Phreaking AT&T Cards
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

    My topic will deal with using an AT&T calling card for automated calls. Ok
to place a call with an AT&T card, lift the handset (PAY PHONE) hit (0) and the
desired area code and the  number to call. Also when calling the same number
that the card is being billed to you enter the phone number and at  the tone
only enter the last four digits on the card. But we don't want  to do that now,
do we. If additional calls are wanted all you do is hit the (#) and you will
get a new dial tone! After you hit (#) you do not have to  re-enter the calling
card number  simply enter your desired number and it will connect you.
    If the number you called is busy just keep hitting (#) and the number to be
called until you connect! Ok to calL the U.S. of a from another country, you
use the exact same format as described above!
    Ok now I will describe the procedure for placing calls to a foreign
country, such as CANADA,RUSSIA,SOUTH AMERICA, etc.. Ok first lift the handset
then enter (01) + the country code + the city code + the local telephone
number. Ok after you get the tone enter the AT&T calling card number. Ok if you
can not dial operator assisted calls from your area don't worry just jingle the
operator and she will handle your call, don't worry she can't see you!
    The international number on the AT&T calling card is used for calling the
US of A from places like RUSSIA, CHINA you never know when you might get stuck
in a country like those and you have no money to make a call! The international
operator will be able to tell you if they honor the AT&T calling card.
    Well I hope that this has straightened out some of your problems on the use
of an AT&T calling card! All you have to remember is that weather you are
placing the call or the operator, be careful and never use the calling card
from your home phone!! That is a BIG NO NO..

    Also AT&T has came out with a new thing called (NEW CARD CALLER SERVICE)
they say that it was designed to meet the public's needs! These phones will be
popping up in many place such as airport terminals, hotels, etc... What the new
card caller service is, is a new type of phone that has a  (CRT) screen that
will talk to you in a language of your choice. The  service works something
like this, when you find a (NEW CARD CALLER PHONE), all you do is follow the
instructions on the (CRT) screen, then you insert the (NEW CARD CALLER CARD)
and there is a strip of magnetic tape on the card  which reads the number, thus
no one can hear you saying your number or if there were a bug in the phone,no
touch tones will be heard!! You can also bill the call to a third party. that
is  one that I am not totally clear on yet! The phone is supposed to tell you
how it can be done. That is after you  have inserted your card and lifted the
receiver!

















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         :%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:
         :%                                                        %:
         :%                     AT&T FORGERY                       %:
         :%              Written by The Blue Buccaneer             %:
         :%                                                        %:
         :% CALL THE EVERLASTING SPEED DEMON BBS AT (415) 522-3074 %:
         :%   Uploaded by Elric of Imrryr of Lunatic Labs UnLtd    %:
         :%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:


Here is a very simple way to either:

[1] Play an incredibly cruel and realistic joke on a phreaking friend.
                                     -OR-
[2] Provide yourself with everything you ever wanted to be an AT&T person.

   All you need to do is get your hands on some AT&T paper and/or business
cards.  To do this you can either go down to your local business office and
swipe a few or call up somewhere like WATTS INFORMATION and ask them to send
you their information package. They will send you:
1. A nice letter (with the AT&T logo letterhead) saying "Here is the info."
2. A business card (again with AT&T) saying who the sales representative is.
3. A very nice color booklet telling you all about WATTS lines.
4. Various billing information. (Discard as it is very worthless)

   Now take the piece of AT&T paper and the AT&T business card down to your
local print/copy shop.  Tell them to run you off several copies of each, but to
leave out whatever else is printed on the business card/letter.  If they refuse
or ask why, take your precious business elsewhere.
(This should only cost you around $2.00 total)

   Now take the copies home and either with your typewriter, MAC, or Fontrix,
add whatever name, address, telephone number, etc. you like. (I would recommend
just changing the name on the card and using whatever information was on there
earlier)

   And there you have official AT&T letters and business cards.  As mentioned
earlier, you can use them in several ways.  Mail a nice letter to someone you
hate (on AT&T paper..hehehe) saying that AT&T is onto them or something like
that.  (Be sure to use correct English and spelling)  (Also do not hand write
the letter!  Use a typewriter! - Not Fontrix as AT&T doesn't use OLD ENGLISH or
ASCII BOLD when they type letters.  Any IBM typewriter will do perfectly)

   Another possible use (of many, I guess) is (if you are old enough to look
the part) to use the business card as some sort of fake id.

   The last example of uses for the fake AT&T letters & b.cards is mentioned in
my textfile, BASIC RADIO CALLING.  Briefly, send the station a letter that
reads:
    WCAT - FM202: (Like my examples? Haha!)
(As you probably know, radio stations give away things by accepting the 'x'
call. (ie: The tenth caller through wins a pair of Van Halen tickets) Sometimes
they may ask a trivia question, but that's your problem. Anyway, the letter
continues:)
  (You basically say that they have become so popular that they are getting too
many calls at once from listeners trying to win tickets. By asking them  to
call all at the same time is overloading our systems.  We do, of course, have
means of handling these sort of matters, but it would require you sending us a

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schedule of when you will be asking your listeners to call in.  That way we
would be able to set our systems to handle the amount of callers you get at
peak times..(etc..etc..more BS..But you get the idea, right?)

Joseph Hakimout
AT&T Telecommunications
East Bumblefuck, Nowheresville  55555


    Ok, so it probably won't work (DJs just aren't that dumb, unless you really
do live in Nowheresville), but using AT&T paper and a business card might up
your chances some.

         :-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-













































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                    =><---------------------------------><=
                   =>      A little something about      <=
                    =>         Your phone company        <=
                    =><---------------------------------><=
                    =>           By Col. Hogan           <=
                   ========================================

           Ever get an operator who gave you a hard time, and you didn't know
what to do? Well if the operator hears you use a little Bell jargon, she might
wise up. Here is a little diagram (excuse the artwork) of the structure of
operators

/--------X     /------X     /-----X
!Operator!-- > ! S.A. ! --->! BOS !
X--------/     X------/     X-----/
   !
   !
   V
/-------------X
! Group Chief !
X-------------/

    Now most of the operators are not bugged, so they can curse at you, if they
do ask INSTANTLY for the "S.A." or the Service Assistant. The operator does not
report to her (95% of them are hers) but they will solve most of your problems.
She MUST give you her name as she connects & all of these calls are bugged. If
the SA gives you a rough time get her BOS (Business Office Supervisor) on the
line. S/He will almost always back her girls up, but sometimes the SA will get
tarred and feathered. The operator reports to the Group Chief, and S/He will
solve 100% of your problems, but the chances of getting S/He on the line are
nill.
    If a lineman (the guy who works out on the poles) or an installation man
gives you the works ask to speak to the Installation Foreman, that works
wonders.
    Here is some other bell jargon, that might come in handy if you are having
trouble with the line. Or they can be used to lie your way out of
situations....

     An Erling is a line busy for 1 hour, used mostly in traffic studies A
Permanent Signal is that terrible howling you get if you disconnect, but don't
hang up.
     Everyone knows what a busy signal is, but some idiots think that is the
*Actual* ringing of the phone, when it just is a tone "beeps" when the phone is
ringing, wouldn't bet on this though, it can (and does) get out of sync.
     When you get a busy signal that is 2 times as fast as the normal one, the
person you are trying to reach isn't really on the phone, (he might be), it is
actually the signal that a trunk line somewhere is busy and they haven't or
can't reroute your call. Sometimes you will get a Recording, or if you get
nothing at all (Left High & Dry in fone terms) all the recordings are being
used and the system is really overused, will probably go down in a little
while. This happened when Kennedy was shot, the system just couldn't handle the
calls. By the way this is called the "reorder signal" and the trunk line is
"blocked".
     One more thing, if an overseas call isn't completed and doesn't generate
any money for AT&T, is is called an "Air & Water Call".




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                      [ESSENCE OF TELEPHONE CONFERENCING]
                                 [WRITTEN BY:]
                               [FOREST  RANGER]

     TELEPHONE CONFERENCING IS AN EASY WAY OF GETTING MANY FRIENDS TOGETHER AT
ONCE. THIS CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED EASILY WITH LITTLE OR NO TROUBLE WHAT SO EVER.
THE TECHNIQUES THAT I WILL TEACH YOU DO NOT REQUIRE A BLUE BOX OR A TOUCH TONE
PHONE LINE. THE ONLY PREREQUISITE IS THAT YOU HAVE A PHONE THAT HAS A TONE
SWITCH ON IT OR HAVE A HOOKABLE TOUCH TONE KEYPAD. NOW, IF YOU ARE THE PARANOID
TYPE OF PERSON AND REFUSE TO USE YOUR OWN PHONE OUT OF YOUR HOUSE THEN HERE ARE
SOME SIMPLE WAYS OF GETTING CONFERENCES STARTED FROM ANOTHER PHONE. GO TO A
MALL OR A PLACE WHERE YOU KNOW THE PHONE IS BEING PAYED FOR BY THE BUSINESS IT
IS IN.
    NOW THERE ARE TWO TO CALL THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR; DIAL "0" TO GET YOUR
LOCAL OPERATOR SO SHE CAN PUT YOU THROUGH TO THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR OR DIAL
THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR DIRECTLY IF YOU HAVE THE NUMBER HANDY. THE SYSTEM YOU
WILL BE LINKED UP TO IS CALLED THE "ALLIANCE" SYSTEM. THERE ARE THREE BRANCHES;
1000,2000,3000.
    NOW ONCE YOU HAVE GOTTEN THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR YOU TELL HER YOU WOULD
LIKE TO START A CONFERENCE AND YOU WOULD LIKE TO MAINTAIN CONTROL OF IT. SHE
WILL THEN PROCEED TO ASK YOU FOR YOUR NAME AND NUMBER. YOU WILL THEN GIVE HER A
FAKE NAME AND THE NUMBER OF THE PAY PHONE. SHE WILL HANG UP AND CALL YOU BACK
ONCE SHE HAS CHECKED THE NUMBER. THEY USUALLY DON'T REALIZE IT IS A PAYPHONE SO
DON'T THINK IT WON'T WORK! NOW ONCE THE OPERATOR HAS GIVEN YOU CONTROL YOU WILL
THEN PROCEED TO HACK MY VOICE PHONE AND PUT ME ON THE CONFERENCE.
    NOW, THE OTHER WAY OF STARTING A CONFERENCE IN WHICH YOU DON'T GET A LIVE
OPERATOR IS A "PBX". WITH THIS YOU WILL CALL A PBX NUMBER AND YOU WILL THEN
RECEIVE A RECORDING OF A BUSINESS OR OFFICE CO. THEN WHEN THE RECORDING IS OVER
YOU WILL HERE A BEEP...THEN AFTER ABOUT 10-30 SECONDS AFTER THE BEEP YOU WILL
GET A DIAL TONE ON THE ON THE END OF THE PBX.  YOU WILL THEN TYPE THE PBX CODE
WHICH WILL THEN RESPOND WITH A RECORDING WELCOMING YOU TO THE CONFERENCING
NETWORK (WHICH WILL IN MOST IF NOT ALL BE THE "ALLIANCE" SYSTEM).
    IT WILL BE SELF EXPLANATORY FROM THERE. NOW IF YOU DON'T WISH TO CALL THE
CONFERENCE OPERATOR EITHER WAY ALREADY EXPLAINED THEN THERE IS A WAS OF GETTING
YOUR FRIENDS IN CONFERENCE. THIS IS DONE OVER A LOOP EXTENSION. NO ONE WILL
HAVE CONTROL, BUT YOU WILL STILL BE ON CONFERENCE. THIS IS CALLED THE SEVEN
LINE LOOP EXTENSION. THIS MEANS YOU CAN HAVE UP TO SEVEN MEMBERS, BUT THAT IS
IT! THE NUMBER IS IN LA, CA. 213-206-2820. THE LAST WAY I WILL EXPLAIN TO YOU
IF YOU ARE IN DESPERATE NEED OF A CONFERENCE IS TO GO TO PAY PHONE LIKE I
MENTIONED BEFORE ANY MAKE SURE SOME BUSINESS PAYS THE BILL FOR IT THEN CALL THE
CONFERENCE OPERATOR IN THE FASHIONS MENTIONED AND ASK THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR
TO PLACE CONFERENCE CALLS.
    THE WILL THEN ASK FOR THE NUMBERS OF THE PEOPLE TO PUT ON CONFERENCE, YOU
GIVE HER THE NUMBERS AND SHE WILL PUT YOU ALL ON CONFERENCE.  WHEN YOU ARE DONE
YOU WILL HANG UP ON HER SO THERE WILL BE NO ONE IN CONTROL.THAT MEANS THE
CONFERENCE WILL BE BILLED TO THE PAYPHONE AND NO ONE CAN BE BLAMED FOR THE
CONFERENCE DUE TO NO ONE BEING IN CONTROL! ***NOTE*** THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR
WILL NOT BE ON WHILE YOU ARE ALL TALKING! REMEMBER THAT CONFERENCES ARE NOT
HARD AND IT IS VERY HARD TO GET ARRESTED ON ONE DUE TO WHAT I HAVE MENTIONED.

                REMEMBER:REACH OUT AND PHREAK SOMEONE!



[TELEPHONE CONFERENCE CONTROLS]

   # - CONTROL MODE
   # - 6 PASSES CONTROL

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   # - 1 + AREA CODE & NUMBER ADDS
   # - 9 SILENT MODE
   # - 7 GETS CONFERENCE OPERATOR
   * - ENDS CONFERENCE


   THE "#" IS THE CONTROL KEY ON YOUR CONFERENCES. WHEN YOU PASS CONTROL TO
SOMEONE ELSE HIT THE "#" THEN "6". WAIT FOR THE RECORDING TO SAY ENTER # OF
PERSON TO PASS CONTROL TO, THEN ENTER THE NUMBER OF THE PERSON YOU ARE GOING TO
GIVE CONTROL TO.
   TO ADD A PERSON ON TO THE CONFERENCE HIT "#" THEN "1","AREA CODE","NUMBER".
THEN WHEN THE PERSON ANSWERS WAIT FIVE SECONDS THEN HIT THE "#" TO ADD. IF YOU
ARE IN CONTROL OF THE CONFERENCE AND YOU WANT TO HEAR EVERYONE ELSE, BUT YOU DO
NOT WANT TO BE HEARD IT "#" THEN "9" THEN THE "#" TO REJOIN THE CONFERENCE.
REMEMBER AFTER ADDING SOMEONE ON OR PASSING CONTROL TO SOMEONE YOU MUST ALWAYS
HIT THE "#" TO REJOIN THE OTHERS ON CONFERENCE: PASSING CONTROL: "#","6", WAIT
FOR RECORDING TO SAY ENTER NUMBER OF PARTY TO GIVE CONTROL TO THEN ENTER NUMBER
AND HIT "#" TO REJOIN YOUR CONFERENCE.IF YOU EVER WANT TO GET A CONFERENCE
OPERATOR FOR SOME STRANGE REASON THEN HIT "#","7" AND WAIT FOR A CONFERENCE
OPERATOR TO CLICK ON. TO END A CONFERENCE HIT "*".

 WITH HELP FROM: SILICON FALCON, SILVER CONDOR, AND THE ELIMINATOR.





































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                                 Phone Tapping

     HERE IS SOME INFO ON PHONE TAPS. I HAVE ENCLOSED A SCHEMATIC FOR A SIMPLE
WIRETAP & INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOOKING UP A TAPE RECORDER CONTROL RELAY TO THE
PHONE LINE.
     FIRST I'LL DISCUSS TAPS A LITTLE. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF TAPS.
THERE ARE TRANSMITTERS, WIRED TAPS AND INDUCTION TAPS TO NAME A FEW.  WIRED AND
WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS MUST BE PHYSICALLY CONNECTED TO THE LINE BEFORE THEY'LL
DO ANY GOOD. ONCE A WIRELESS TAP IS CONNECTED TO THE LINE, IT CAN TRANSMIT ALL
CONVERSATIONS OVER A LIMITED RANGE. THE PHONES IN THE HOUSE CAN EVEN BE
MODIFIED TO PICK UP CONVERSATIONS IN THE ROOM & TRANSMIT THEM TOO!  THESE TAPS
ARE USUALLY POWERED OFF THE PHONE LINE, BUT CAN HAVE AN EXTERNAL POWER SOURCE.
     WIRED TAPS, ON THE OTHER HAND, NEED NO POWER SOURCE, BUT A WIRE MUST BE
RUN FROM THE LINE TO THE LISTENER OR TO A TRANSMITTER.  THERE ARE OBVIOUS
ADVANTAGES OF WIRELESS TAPS OVER WIRED ONES.  THERE IS ONE TYPE OF WIRELESS TAP
THAT LOOKS LIKE A NORMAL TELEPHONE MIKE.  ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS REPLACE THE
ORIGINAL MIKE WITH THIS & IT'LL TRANSMIT ALL CONVERSATIONS!
    THERE IS AN EXOTIC TYPE OF WIRED TAP KNOWN AS THE 'INFINITY TRANSMITTER' OR
'HARMONICA BUG'.  IN ORDER TO HOOK UP ONE OF THESE, YOU NEED ACCESS TO THE
TARGET TELEPHONE.  IT HAS A TONE DECODER & SWITCH INSIDE.  WHEN IT IS
INSTALLED, SOMEONE CALLS THE TAPPED PHONE & *BEFORE* IT RINGS, BLOWS A WHISTLE
OVER THE LINE.  THE X-MITTER RECEIVES THE TONE & PICKS UP THE PHONE VIA A
RELAY.  THE MIKE ON THE PHONE IS ACTIVATED SO THE CALLER CAN HEAR ALL
CONVERSATIONS IN THE ROOM.
     THERE IS A SWEEP TONE TEST AT 415/BUG-1111 WHICH CAN BE USED TO DETECT ON
OF THESE TAPS.  IF ONE OF THESE IS ON YOUR LINE & THE TEST # SENDS THE CORRECT
TONE, YOU'LL HEAR A CLICK.
     INDUCTION TAPS HAVE ONE BIG ADVANTAGE OVER TAPS THAT MUST BE PHYSICALLY
WIRED TO THE PHONE.  THEY DON'T HAVE TO BE TOUCHING THE PHONE IN ORDER TO PICK
UP THE CONVERSATION. THEY WORK ON THE SAME PRINCIPLE AS THE LITTLE SUCTION-CUP
TAPE RECORDER MIKES YOU CAN GET AT RADIO SHACK. INDUCTION MIKES CAN BE HOOKED
UP TO A TRANSMITTER OR BE WIRED. HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE
USING THE PHONE:
     A SALESMAN WALKS INTO AN OFFICE & MAKES A FONE CALL.  HE FAKES THE
CONVERSATION, BUT WHEN HE HANGS UP HE SLIPS SOME FOAM-RUBBER CUBES UNDER THE
HANDSET, SO THE FONE IS STILL OFF THE HOOK.  THE CALLED PARTY CAN STILL HEAR
ALL CONVERSATIONS IN THE ROOM. WHEN SOMEONE PICKS UP THE FONE, THE CUBES FALL
AWAY UNNOTICED.
     I USE A TAP ON MY LINE TO MONITOR WHAT AE-PRO IS DOING WHEN IT AUTO-DIALS,
SINCE IT DOESN'T TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE HANDSET ON THE APPLE CAT II.  I CAN ALSO
HOOK UP THE TAP TO A CASSETTE RECORDER OR AMPLIFIER. HERE IS THE SCHEMATIC:

-------)!----)!(------------->
             )!(
 CAP ^       )!(
             )!(
             )!(
             )!(
     ^^^^^---)!(------------->
       ^  100K
       !
       !<INPUT

THE 100K POT IS USED FOR VOLUME.  IT SHOULD BE ON ITS HIGHEST (LEAST
RESISTANCE) SETTING IF YOU HOOK A SPEAKER ACROSS THE OUTPUT, BUT IT SHOULD BE
SET ON ITS HIGHEST RESISTANCE FOR A TAPE RECORDER OR AMPLIFIER.  YOU MAY FIND
IT NECESSARY TO ADD ANOTHER 10-40K.  THE CAPACITOR SHOULD BE AROUND .47 MFD.
IT'S ONLY PURPOSE IS TO PREVENT THE RELAY IN THE CO FROM TRIPPING & THINKING

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

YOU HAVE THE FONE OFF THE HOOK.  THE AUDIO OUTPUT TRANSFORMER AVAILABLE AT
RADIO SHACK (273-1380) IS FINE FOR THE X-FORMER. THE BLACK & GREEN ARE FINE FOR
INPUT & THE RED & WHITE GO TO THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  YOU MAY WANT TO EXPERIMENT
WITH THE X-FORMER FOR THE BEST OUTPUT.
     HOOKING UP A TAPE RECORDER CONTROL RELAY IS EAST.  JUST ONE OF THE FONE
WIRES (USU. RED) BEFORE THE TELEPHONES & HOOK ONE END TO ONE WIRE OF THE RELAY
& THE OTHER END TO THE OTHER RELAY WIRE.  LIKE THIS:

------^^^^^^^^^------------
      ---------
      RELAY^^
















































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         ############################################################
         #                                                          #
         #    WIRETAPPING AND DIVESTITURE:  A LINEMAN SPEAKS OUT    #
         #                  BY THE KNIGHTS OF SHADOW                #
         #                    [2600 - JANUARY 1985]                 #
         #                                                          #
         ############################################################

     NEVER MISSING AN OPPORTUNITY FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING, THE KID & CO. AND I
NATURALLY CARRIED ON A CONVERSATION WITH THE NEW JERSEY BELL FONE INSTALLER
WHEN HE CAME TO PUT IN MY MODEM LINE. THE CONVERSATION TURNED TO FONE TAPPING,
AND SEVERAL INTERESTING DETAILS CAME TO LIGHT. HE SWORE UP AND DOWN THAT BELL
HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH WIRE TAPPING. HE SAID THE SUPERVISOR RECEIVES SEALED
ORDERS FROM THE SHERIFF'S OFFICE, MERELY PASSING THEM ON TO THE LINEMEN.  THEN
THE LINEMEN FOLLOW THE ORDERS TO GO UP ON THE POLES AND MARK THE PAIR IN THE
"CAN" THAT FIT THE FONE LINE IN QUESTION, AND THEN LEAVE THE SITE.

     ONE DAY, OUR LINEMAN DROVE BACK BY THE POLE HE HAD MARKED EARLIER IN THE
DAY, AND SAW A BELL TRUCK.  WONDERING WHO IT WAS, HE STOPPED TO ASK.  THE GUY
)zYSTERY MAN AS ONE OF THE LINEMEN FOR THE AREA, HE
ASKED HIS SUPERVISOR WHO IT COULD HAVE BEEN.  HIS SUPERVISOR CURTLY TOLD HIM TO
FORGET THE ENTIRE INCIDENT.

     THE LINEMAN TOLD US THAT IN THE OLD DAYS THE TELCO AND THE PROSECUTOR'S
OFFICE WORKED HAND-IN-HAND.  THEY WOULD LET THE AUTHORITIES RIGHT INTO THE CO
TO LISTEN IN ON CONVERSATIONS.  BUT THIS ENDED AROUND 1973 WHEN SOMEONE SUED
JERSEY BELL BECAUSE OF THIS TOO CLOSE INTERACTION.  THE TELCO THEN REALIZED
THAT THEY DIDN'T HAVE TO GO THAT FAR IN  ORDER TO HELP THE POLICE.  AFTER THIS
THEY GRADUALLY BROKE FROM THE CLOSE RELATIONSHIP.  NOW THE FONE COMPANY MERELY
MARKS THE LINES, AND THE PROSECUTOR'S OFFICE HANDLES THE REST.  HE ALSO SAID
THAT NOW THE POLICE SOMETIMES USE ULTRASONIC WAVES BOUNCED OFF OF WINDOW PANES
TO LISTEN TO SUSPECTS, REMOVING ALL CONTACT WITH THE FONE LINES.  SINCE THE
PRESENCE OF A FONE COMPANY TRUCK MESSING WITH TELEPHONE WIRES IS TAKEN FOR
GRANTED BY THE GENERAL POPULACE, THE SHERIFF'S OFFICE ALSO HAS A COUPLE OF THEM
FOR UNDERCOVER WORK.  SINCE THEY GOT THEM BACK IN THE GOOD OLD DAYS OF BELL
FRIENDLINESS, THE TRUCKS TEND TO BE THE OLDER MODELS, WITH OUTDATED GEAR. THE
LINEMAN TOLD US A SURE WAY TO IDENTIFY THE LOCAL POLICE'S TRUCKS:  THEY HAVE
WOODEN LADDERS.  NEW JERSEY BELL SWITCHED OVER TO PLASTIC ONES YEARS AGO.

     CONTINUING THE DISCUSSION WITH THE LINEMAN, WE COVERED THE BREAKUP.  NEW
JERSEY BELL NOW NO LONGER GIVES AS MUCH OVERTIME AS IT ONCE DID.  THE LINEMAN
COMPLAINED THAT HIS STANDARD OF LIVING HAD GONE DOWN SINCE THE BREAKUP AS HE NO
LONGER HAS AS MUCH TAKE HOME PAY.  THE BREAKUP HAS CAUSED A TOTAL SEVERING OF
TIES WITH AT&T.  HE PROFESSED TOTAL IGNORANCE ABOUT LONG DISTANCE CALLING.  HE
HAD ORIGINALLY GONE WITH AT&T, BUT DISLIKED FIXING PBX'S AND COMPUTER SYSTEMS.
AS SOON AS HE COULD, HE SWITCHED BACK TO THE LOCAL OPERATING COMPANY.

     HE TOLD US ABOUT A TECHNICAL INSTITUTE WESTERN UNION WAS OPERATING
SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDWEST.  HE HAD GONE THERE TO LEARN ABOUT THE VARIOUS TYPES
OF SWITCHING SYSTEMS.  ON CAMPUS WAS A GIGANTIC, MULTI-STORY BUILDING SPLIT UP
INTO ROOMS APPROXIMATELY THE SIZE OF GYMNASIUMS.  IN EACH WAS A FULLY
OPERATIONAL SCALE MODEL OF EACH OF THE VARIOUS SWITCHING SYSTEMS.  WESTERN
ELECTRIC MANUFACTURES, INCLUDING ALL THE ESS AND CROSSBAR MACHINES, AS WELL AS
SOME STEP-BY-STEP, AND SEVERAL TYPES OF PBX'S.  THEY TROUBLE-SHOT AND REPAIRED
PROBLEMS IN THESE MACHINES IN ORDER TO LEARN ABOUT ACTUAL OPERATING EQUIPMENT.

     WE TALKED ABOUT THE LOCAL SWITCHING EQUIPMENT, WHICH TURNED OUT TO BE A

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

#1A ESS.  ACCORDING TO HIM, SOON ALL THE LOCAL CO'S WILL BE RUN AUTOMATICALLY
FROM CENTRAL LOCATIONS CALLED "HUBS".  THE "HUB" HANDLES ANY OVERLOAD BETWEEN
CENTRAL OFFICES THAT MIGHT CAUSE THE DREADED "GRIDLOCK" OF THE FONE SYSTEM.  IF
THE INTEROFFICE SIGNALING LINES GET OVERLOADED, THE CALLS ARE REROUTED THROUGH
THE HUB.  THE HUB ALSO SERVES AS A CENTRAL SPOT WHERE TROUBLES AT THE LOCAL CO
ARE HANDLED IN THE FIRST STAGES OF TROUBLE-SHOOTING.  THE "HUB" CONCEPT IS
ALIVE AND WELL IN OUR LOCAL AREA, WITH #5 ESS, THE THIRD INSTALLED IN THE
ENTIRE NATION, RUNNING THE WHOLE OPERATION.

     WHEN HE WAS GETTING READY TO LEAVE HE THANKED US FOR THE INTERESTING
CONVERSATION, AND WE WAVED AT HIM AS HE  PULLED OUT.  I NOW NOT ONLY HAD A NEW
FONE LINE, BUT ALSO A LOT OF USEFUL AND INTERESTING INFO, AS WELL AS THE
SATISFACTION OF A FRIENDLY CHAT.

     THE LESSON IS CLEAR.  WHENEVER A BELL EMPLOYEE VISITS YOUR HOUSE, FELL
PHREE TO ASK WHATEVER YOU WANT, WITHIN REASON.  MOST ARE EXTREMELY WILLING TO
SHOOT THE BULL ABOUT ALMOST ANYTHING OF WHICH THEY HAVE KNOWLEDGE.  AT FIRST,
MERELY JOKE WITH THEM LIGHTHEARTEDLY, IN ORDER TO GET THEM OFF THERE GUARD.
LEGIT QUESTIONS ASKABLE BY A NORMAL CUSTOMER, SUCH AS EQUAL ACCESS CUTOVERS,
WILL GET THEM ROLLING, LEAVING YOU TO DIRECT THE CONVERSATION WHEREVER YOU
LIKE.  ASKING ABOUT THE BREAKUP AND HOW IT AFFECTED THEM IS A SURE FIRE WAY TO
GET THEM TALKING.  QUESTIONS LIKE "HOW DOES THE FONE NETWORK WORK?" ALSO ARE
GOOD, ESPECIALLY IF YOU GUIDE THEM INTO  THE DISCUSSION OF SWITCHING
TECHNOLOGY. MOST BELL EMPLOYEES ARE REALLY GLAD TO TALK TO SOMEONE.  REMEMBER,
THEY USUALLY INTERACT WITH DISGRUNTLED CUSTOMERS WITH COMPLAINTS.  THEIR
SPOUSES PROBABLY YELL AT THEM, AND THEIR SUPERVISORS EITHER COMPLAIN ABOUT
THEIR PERFORMANCE OR IGNORE THEM. SOCIETY AT LARGE JUST DOESN'T CARE ABOUT
THEM.  THEY'RE MOST PROBABLY DISENCHANTED WITH THE WORLD AT LARGE, AND MAYBE
EVEN DISSATISFIED WITH THEIR JOBS.  THE CHANCE TO TALK TO SOME ONE WHO MERELY
WANTS TO LISTEN TO WHAT THEY SAY IS A WELCOME CHANGE.  THEY WILL TALK ON AND ON
ABOUT ALMOST ANYTHING, FROM TELECOMMUNICATIONS TO THEIR HOME LIFE AND THEIR
CHILDHOOD.  THE POSSIBILITIES FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING ARE ENDLESS.  REMEMBER,
BELL EMPLOYEES ARE HUMANS, TOO.  ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS LISTEN.


























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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                         [PEN REGISTERING AND TRACING]

                                 [WRITTEN BY:]

                               [FOREST  RANGER]


  PEN REGISTERING IS A SPECIAL DEVICE USED BY AT&T. THIS DEVICE DECIPHERS THE
TONES USED WHEN PHREAKING PHONE CALLS. THIS MEANS THAT EACH TONE KEY PRESSED IS
DECIPHERED IF YOU HAD A PEN REGISTER ON YOUR LINE OR WERE BEING TRACED WITH A
PEN REGISTER, EVERY PHONE NUMBER YOU DIALED WOULD BE KNOWN. THAT MEANS EVERY
TIME YOU WOULD PHREAK A NUMBER NOT ONLY WOULD THE ACCESS NUMBER BE RECORDED,
BUT THE CODE BEING USED AND WHERE YOU CALLED TO! SO IF YOU KNOW YOU HAVE A PEN
REGISTER ON YOUR LINE THEN I WOULD ADVISE YOU NOT TO PHREAK!

   TRACING - THE FBI DOES NOT TRACE,THE POLICE DO NOT TRACE. THE PHONE CO.
TRACES. IF THE FBI WANTS A TRACE ON YOUR LINE THEY SIMPLY CALL THE PHONE CO.
THE FBI DOES NOT SIT UP ALL NIGHT TO LISTEN IN ON YOUR PHONE. THEY DON'T TRACE
FOR YEARS OR 6 MONTHS, BUT JUST FOR A FEW DAYS AT A TIME IF AT ALL. THE POLICE
TRACES THE SAME WAY. IT COSTS TOO MUCH MONEY TO TRACE ALL THE COMPUTER
PHREAKERS AND HACKERS, SO THEY MERELY PICK ON A SELECT FEW. SO TRACING ISN'T AS
DANGEROUS AS IT SEEMS! THE PEOPLE THAT TELL YOU DIFFERENT HAVE BEEN WATCHING
TOO MANY LATE NIGHT FILMS! SO DON'T GET TOO PARANOID IF YOU THINK YOU ARE BEING
TRACED DUE TO THE FACTS MENTIONED ABOVE!


FOREST RANGER
































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                     Volume One, Issue One, Phile #4 of 8

                        THE PHONE PHREAK'S FRY-UM GUIDE

                         COMPILED BY THE IRON SOLDIER

                            WITH HELP FROM DR. DOVE


NOTE: THIS GUIDE IS STILL BEING COMPILED, AND AS PHONE PHREAKS LEARN MORE IN
THE ART OF VENGEANCE IT WILL ALWAYS EXPAND.


"Vengeance is mine", says the Phreak.


METHOD 1-PHONE LINE PHUN

Call up the business office.  It should be listed at the front of the white
      "Hello, this is Mr. Korman, I'm moving to California and would like to
have  my phone service disconnected. I'm at the airport now.  I'm calling from
a payphone, my number is  [414] 445 5005. You can send my final bill to:
(somewhere in California). Thank you."


METHOD 2-PHONE BOOKS

Call up the business office from a pay phone.  Say :
     "Hello, I'd like to order a Phone Book for Upper Volta (or any out-of-the
way area with Direct Dialing).  This is Scott Korman, ship to 3119 N. 44th St.
Milwaukee, WI 53216.  Yes, I under stand it will cost $xx($25-$75!!). Thank
you."


METHOD 3-PHONE CALLS

Call up a PBX, enter the code and get an outside line.  Then dial 0+ the number
desired to call.  You will hear a bonk and then an operator.  Say, "I'd like to
charge this to my home phone at 414-445-5005. Thank you."  A friend and I did
this to a loser, I called him at 1:00 AM and we left the fone off the hook all
night.  I calculated that it cost him $168.


METHOD 4-MISC SERVICES

Call up the business office once again from a payfone.  Say you'd like call
waiting, forwarding, 3 way, etc.  Once again you are the famed loser Scott
Korman.  He pays-you laugh.  You don't know how funny it was talking to him,
and wondering what those clicks he kept hearing were.


METHOD 5-CHANGED & UNPUB

Do the same as in #4, but say you'd like to change and unlist your (Scott's)
number.  Anyone calling him will get:

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

    "BEW BEW BEEP.  The number you have reached, 445-5005, has been changed to
a non-published number.  No further....."


METHOD 6-FORWRDING

    This required an accomplice or two or three.  Around Christmas time, go to
Toys 'R' Us.  Get everyone at the customer service or manager's desk away
("Hey, could you help me").  then you get on their phone and dial (usually dial
9 first) and the business office again. This time, say you are from Toys 'R'
Us, and you'd like to add call forwarding to 445-5005.  Scott will get 100-600
calls a day!!!


METHOD 7-RUSSIAN CALLER

    Call a payphone at 10:00 PM.  Say to the operator that you'd like to book a
call to Russia.  Say you are calling from a payphone, and your number is that
of the loser to fry (e.g. 445-5005). She will say that she'll have to call ya
back in 5 hours, and you ok that. Meanwhile the loser (e.g.) Scott, will get a
call at 3:00 AM from an operator saying that the call he booked to Russia is
ready.


IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS LEAVE E-MAIL FOR ME ON ANY BOARD I'M ON.
The Iron Soldier
TSF-The Second Foundation!
































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                           INTERESTING THINGS TO DO
                                 ON STEP LINES
                      ===================================
  IF YOU HAVE STEP LINES IN YOUR PREFIX, (A GOOD WAY OF CHECKING TO SEE IF YOU
HAVE STEP IS TO LOOK AT THE PAYPHONES AROUND YOUR HOUSE, IF THEY ARE ROTARY,
THEN YOU HAVE STEP, IF NOT, YOUR OUTTA LUCK.)
  FROM YOUR HOUSE DIAL "0", (THIS WILL NOT WORK AT A PAYPHONE). YOU WILL HEAR A
FEW "KERPLUNKS", IF YOU HIT THE HANG  UP BUTTON WHEN THE SECOND-TO-THE-LAST
"KERPLUNK" IS HEARD THEN THE OPERATOR WILL GET ON AND BE VERY CONFUSED. (I WILL
TELL WHY SHE IS CONFUSED IN JUST A SECOND, BUT FOR NOW JUST....) SAY THAT YOU
ARE TRYING TO COMPLETE A CALL WHEN SHE GOT ON. SHE WILL ASK FOR THE NUMBER YOU
ARE TRYING TO CALL. TELL HER THE NUMBER (LONG DISTANCE OF COURSE), AND SHE WILL
ASK YOU FOR YOUR NUMBER, PICK A NUMBER OUT OF YOUR HEAD, (IT MUST BE IN YOUR
PREFIX THOUGH), AND TELL HER IT. SHE WILL BELIEVE YOU AND WILL CONNECT YOU WITH
THE CHARGES CHARGED TO THE NUMBER YOU SAID. (IF YOU DIDN'T HIT THE BUTTON AT
THE CORRECT TIME JUST TELL THE OPERATOR YOUR SORRY, YOU WERE TRYING TO DUST THE
PHONE OR SOME OTHER BULLSHIT LIKE THAT.)
  WHAT YOU DID WAS SCREW UP THE AUTOMATIC NUMBER FIND THAT WAS BUILT INTO THE
FIRST STEP LINES. THIS IS WHAT WOULD TELL THE OPERATOR YOUR NUMBER SO SHE COULD
BILL YOU IF SHE HAD TO COMPLETE A CALL FOR YOU. THE OPERATOR WILL GET SOME
GARBAGE ON HER SCREEN THAT IS SUPPOSED TO BE YOUR NUMBER, BUT SINCE YOU
INTERRUPTED THAT PROCESS, IT LOOKS REALLY BIZZARE.
  WHAT IS REALLY PHUN TO DO IS COMPLAIN TO THE OPERATOR THAT THIS IS THE THIRD
TIME TODAY THAT YOU HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GET THROUGH AND SHE WILL GIVE YOU
SOME SOB STORY ABOUT "WE'RE SORRY, BUT WE'VE HAD A COMPUTER MALFUNCTION AND IT
IS BEING FIXED RIGHT NOW".
  I'M KINDA SURE THAT THE PHONE COMPANY KNOWS NOTHING OF THIS. THE WORST THING
THAT COULD HAPPEN IS YOU GET A CALL ASKING WHY YOU'VE HUNG UP ON THE OPERATOR
SO MANY TIMES, (IF YOU DID THIS ALOT, THAT IS). JUST GIVE THEM SOME BULLSHIT
ABOUT A BABY BROTHER JUST LEARNING HOW TO USE THE PHONE, OR SOMETHING LIKE
THAT.

LIVE LONG AND DON'T GET CAUGHT,
AGRAJAG
                      ===================================
                              BROUGHT TO YOU BY:
                                  AGRAJAG AND
                          -=%> THE HITCHHINKERS <%=-
                               BRING YOUR TOWEL
















Private Sector BBS, police assumed that the sysop was  involved in illegal
activities.  Six other computers were also seized in this investigation,
including those of Store Manager [perhaps they mean Swap Shop  Manager? -
Shark] who ran a BBS of his own, Beowolf, Red Barchetta, the Vampire, NJ Hack
Shack, sysop of the NJ Hack Shack BBS, and that of the sysop of the Treasure
Chest BBS.

     Immediately after this action, members of 2600 contacted the media, who
were completely unaware of any of the raids.  They began to bombard the
Middlesex County Prosecutor's Office with questions and a press conference  was
announced for July 16.  The system operator of the Private Sector BBS attempted
to attend along with reporters from 2600.  They were effectively  thrown off
the premises.  Threats were made to charge them with trespassing and other
crimes.  An officer who had at first received them civilly was  threatened with
the loss of his job if he didn't get them removed promptly.  Then the car was
chased out of the parking lot.  Perhaps prosecutor Alan Rockoff was afraid that
he presence of some technically literate reporters would ruin the effect of his
press release on the public. As it happens, he didn't need our help.

     The next day the details of the press conference were reported to the
public by the press.  As Rockoff intended, paranoia about hackers ran rampant.
Headlines got as ridiculous as hackers ordering tank parts by telephone from
TRW and moving satellites with their home computers in order to make free phone
calls.  These and even more exotic stories were reported by otherwise
respectable media sources. The news conference understandably made the front
page of most of the major newspapers in the US, and was a major news item as
far away as Australia and in the United Kingdom due to the sensationalism of
the claims.  We will try to explain why these claims may have been made in this
issue.

     On July 18 the operator of The Private Sector was formally charged
with"computer conspiracy" under the above law, and released in the custody of
his parents.  The next day the American Civil Liberties Union took over his
defense.  The ACLU commented that it would be very hard for Rockoff to prove a
conspiracy just "because the same information, construed by the prosecutor to
be illegal, appears on two bulletin boards." especially as Rockoff admitted
that "he did not believe any of the defendants knew each other."  The ACLU
believes that the system operator's rights were violated, as he was assumed to

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

be involved in an illegal activity just because of other people under
investigation who happened to have posted messages on his board.

    In another statement which seems to confirm Rockoff's belief in guilt by
association, he announced the next day that "630 people were being investigated
to determine if any used their computer equipment fraudulently."  We believe
this is only the user list of the NJ Hack Shack, so the actual list of those to
be investigated may turn out to be almost 5 times that.  The sheer overwhelming
difficulty of this task may kill this investigation, especially as they find
that many hackers simply leave false information.  Computer hobbyists all
across the country have already been called by the Bound Brook, New Jersey
office of the FBI.  They reported that the FBI agents used scare tactics in
order to force confessions or to provoke them into turning in others.  We would
like to remind those who get called that there is nothing inherently wrong or
illegal in calling any ANY BBS, nor in talking about ANY activity.  The FBI
would not comment on the case as it is an "ongoing investigation" and in the
hands of the local prosecutor.  They will soon find that many on the Private
Sector BBS's user list are data processing managers, telecommunications
security people, and others who are interested in the subject of the BBS,
hardly the underground community of computer criminals depicted at the news
conference.  The Private Sector BBS was a completely open BBS, and police and
security people were even invited on in order to participate.  The BBS was far
from the "elite" type of underground telecom boards that Rockoff attempted to
portray.

     Within two days, Rockoff took back almost all of the statements he had
made at the news conference, as AT&T and the DoD [Department of Defense -
Shark] discounted the claims he had made.  He was understandably unable to find
real proof of Private Sector's alleged illegal activity, and was faced with
having to return the computer equipment with nothing to show for his effort.
Rockoff panicked, and on July 31, the system operator had a new charge against
him, "wiring up his computer as a blue box."  Apparently this was referring to
his Novation Applecat modem which is capable of generating any hertz tone over
the phone line.  By this stretch of imagination an Applecat could produce a
2600 hertz tone as well as the MF which is necessary for "blue boxing."
However, each and every other owner of an Applecat or any other modem that can
generate its own tones therefore has also "wired up his computer as a blue box"
by merely installing the modem. This charge is so ridiculous that Rockoff
probably will never bother to press it.  However, the wording of WIRING UP THE
COMPUTER gives rockoff an excuse to continue to hold onto the computer longer
in his futile search for illegal activity.

     "We have requested that the prosecutors give us more specific
information," said Arthur Miller, the lawyer for The Private Sector. "The
charges are so vague that we can't really present a case at this point."
Miller will appear in court on August 16 to obtain this information.  He is
also issuing a demand for the return of the equipment and, if the prosecutors
don't cooperate, will commence court proceedings against them.  "They haven't
been pa::icularly cooperative," he said.

     Rockoff probably will soon reconsider taking Private Sector's case to
court, as he will have to admit he just didn't know what he was doing when he
seized the BBS.  The arrest warrant listed only "computer conspiracy" against
Private Sector, which is much more difficult to prosecute than the multitude of
charges against some of the other defendants, which include credit card fraud,
toll fraud, the unauthorized entry into computers, and numerous others.

     Both Rockoff and the ACLU mentioned the Supreme Court in their press

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

releases, but he will assuredly take one of his stronger cases to test the new
New Jersey computer crime law.  by seizing the BBS just because of supposed
activities discussed on it, Rockoff raises constitutional questions.  Darrell
Paster, a lawyer who centers much of his work on computer crime, says the New
Jersey case is "just another example of local law enforcement getting on the
bandwagon of crime that has come into vogue to prosecute, and they have
proceeded with very little technical understanding, and in the process they
have abused many people's constitutional rights.  What we have developing is a
mini witch hunt which is analogous to some of the arrests at day care centers,
where they sweep in and arrest everybody, ruin reputations, and then find that
there is only one or two guilty parties."  We feel that law enforcement, not
understanding the information on the BBS, decided to strike first and ask
questions later.

     2600 magazine and the sysops of the Private Sector BBS stand fully behind
the system operator.  As soon as the equipment is returned, the BBS will go
back up.  We ask all our readers to do their utmost to support us in our
efforts, and to educate as many of the public as possible that a hacker is not
a computer criminal.  We are all convinced of our sysop's innocence, and await
Rockoff's dropping of the charges.

NOTE:  Readers will notice that our reporting of the events are quite different
than those presented in the media and by the Middlesex County Prosecutor.  We
can only remind you that we are much closer to the events at hand than the
media is, and that we are much more technologically literate than the Middlesex
County Prosecutor's Office.  The Middlesex County Prosecutor has already taken
back many of his statements, after the contentions were disproven by AT&T and
the DoD.  One problem is that the media and the police tend to treat the seven
cases as one case, thus the charges against and activities of some of the
hackers has been extended to all of the charged.  We at 2600 can only speak
about the case of Private Sector.




























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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                   Chapter 4

   By now I assume that the reader has a fair idea of what phreaking is, and
know a little bit about how to go about it.  From now on, I will assume that
the reader has read all the material before this or understands all the
material covered.  Now we will take a journey into the "Basics of
Telecommunications" and learn a little about how everything works, and is
related to everything else.  This series of articles is extremely good and
should be read by all levels of phreaks.
   As we go further into the advanced world of phreaking, we come closer to the
edge of technology.  As we approach it, everything seems to become larger and
more complicated.  We notice that many things that were possible aren't
anymore.  Blue boxing is starting to become the only method of exploration as
Equal Access looms nearer and nearer.  As it stands now, equal access is here,
and many LD services such as Sprint and MCI will be tougher to hack.  Extenders
will become more used and abused, which will cause them to get access codes
miles long...
   Blue boxing becomes harder as all Bell switching and transmission facilities
go under to CCIS.  Then to further complicate things, digital microwave, fiber
optic, and satellite transmission are all coming to be digital and do not
recognize 2600hz for the hang up signal.  I predict that around 1990, blue
boxes will be obsolete from all major cities.  A new type of box will have to
be invented, or you'll have to get two fone line to phreak with, on to place
the actual call and the other to tap into a COSMOS computer to change the
status of the call from toll to toll-free, ie. 800#.
   Well somethings will change for the better, with ISDN you'll get 144k bps
lines and some other neat stuff.
































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************
         *                                                          *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                 BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS                 *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                         PART II                          *
         *                                                          *
         ************************************************************

                                   PREFACE:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN PART II, WE WILL EXPLORE THE VARIOUS SPECIAL BELL#'S, SUCH AS: CN/A,
AT&T NEWSLINES, LOOPS, 99XX #'S, ANI, RINGBACK, AND A FEW OTHERS.

                                     CN/A:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    CN/A, WHICH STANDS FOR CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS, ARE BUREAUS THAT EXIST SO
THAT AUTHORIZED BELL EMPLOYEES CAN FIND OUT THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF ANY
CUSTOMER IN THE BELL SYSTEM.  ALL #'S ARE MAINTAINED ON FILE INCLUDING UNLISTED
#'S.

HERE'S HOW IT WORKS:

1) YOU HAVE A # AND YOU WANT TO FIND OUT WHO OWNS IT, E.G. (914) 555-1234.

2) YOU LOOK UP THE CN/A # FOR THAT NPA IN THE LIST BELOW.  IN THE EXAMPLE, THE
NPA IS 914 AND THE CN/A# IS 518-471-8111.

3) YOU THEN CALL UP THE CN/A # (DURING BUSINESS HOURS) AND SAY SOMETHING LIKE,
"HI, THIS IS JOHN JONES FROM THE RESIDENTIAL SERVICE CENTER IN MIAMI. CAN I
HAVE THE CUSTOMER'S NAME AT 914-555-1234.  THAT # IS 914-555-1234." MAKE UP
YOUR OWN REAL SOUNDING NAME, THOUGH.

4) IF YOU SOUND NATURAL & CHEERY, THE OPERATOR WILL ASK NO QUESTIONS.

                               HERE'S THE LIST:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

                      NPA     CN/A #       NPA     CN/A #
                    ---  ------------    ---  ------------
                    201  201-676-7070    517  313-232-8690
                    202  202-384-9620    518  518-471-8111
                    203  203-789-6800    519  416-487-3641
                    204  ****N/A*****    601  601-961-0877
                    205  205-988-7000    602  303-232-2300
                    206  206-382-8000    603  617-787-2750
                    207  617-787-2750    604  604-432-2996
                    208  303-232-2300    605  402-345-0600
                    209  415-546-1341    606  502-583-2861
                    212  518-471-8111    607  518-471-8111
                    213  213-501-4144    608  414-424-5690
                    214  214-948-5731    609  201-676-7070
                    215  412-633-5600    612  402-345-0600
                    216  614-464-2345    613  416-487-3641
                    217  217-525-7000    614  614-464-2345
                    218  402-345-0600    615  615-373-5791

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                    219  317-265-7027    616  313-223-8690
                    301  301-534-11??    617  617-787-2750
                    302  412-633-5600    618  217-525-7000
                    303  303-232-2300    701  402-345-0600
                    304  304-344-8041    702  415-546-1341
                    305  912-784-9111    703  804-747-1411
                    306  ****N/A*****    704  912-784-9111
                    307  303-232-2300    705  416-487-3641
                    308  402-345-0600    707  415-546-1341
                    309  217-525-7000    709  ****N/A*****
                    312  312-769-9600    712  402-345-0600
                    313  313-223-8690    713  713-658-1793
                    314  314-436-3321    714  213-995-0221
                    315  518-471-8111    715  414-424-5690
                    316  816-275-2782    716  518-471-8111
                    317  317-265-7027    717  412-633-5600
                    318  318-227-1551    801  303-232-2300
                    319  402-345-0600    802  617-787-2750
                    401  617-787-2750    803  912-784-9111
                    402  402-345-0600    804  804-747-1411
                    403  403-425-2652    805  415-546-1341
                    404  912-784-9111    806  512-828-2502
                    405  405-236-6121    807  416-487-3641
                    406  303-232-2300    808  212-226-5487
                    408  415-546-1341         BERMUDA ONLY
                    412  412-633-5600    809  212-334-4336
                    413  617-787-2750    812  317-265-7027
                    414  414-424-5690    813  813-228-7871
                    415  415-546-1132    814  412-633-5600
                    416  416-487-3641    815  217-525-7000
                    417  314-436-3321    816  816-275-2782
                    418  514-861-6391    817  214-948-5731
                    419  614-464-2345    819  514-861-6391
                    501  405-236-6121    901  615-373-5791
                    502  502-583-2861    902  902-421-4110
                    503  503-241-3440    903  ****N/A*****
                    504  504-245-5330    904  912-784-9111
                    505  303-232-2300    906  313-223-8690
                    506  506-657-3855    907  ****N/A*****
                    507  402-345-0600    912  912-784-9111
                    509  206-382-8000    913  816-275-2782
                    512  512-828-2501    914  518-471-8111
                    513  614-464-2345    915  512-828-2501
                    514  514-861-6391    916  415-546-1341
                    515  402-345-0600    918  405-236-6121
                    516  518-471-8111    919  912-784-9111
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    BELL USES THESE #'S MAINLY TO FIND OUT WHO OWNS A # THAT A CUSTOMER CLAIMS
HE NEVER CALLED.

NOTE:    THIS IS THE MOST COMPLETE LIST OF CN/A #'S IN MY POSSESSION (WITH ONLY
5 #'S NOT AVAILABLE) THIS LIST WAS COPYRIGHTED IN 1982 BY "JUDAS GERARD" AS IT
ORIGINALLY APPEARED IN TAP ISSUE #78.
                                AT&T NEWSLINES:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    NEWSLINES ARE RECORDINGS THAT BELL EMPLOYEES CALL UP TO FIND OUT THE LATEST

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INFO ON STOCK, TECHNOLOGY, ETC. CONCERNING THE BELL SYSTEM.

  HERE ARE THE #'S THAT ARE CURRENTLY KNOWN TO PHREAKS (AT LEAST ME, ANYWAY):
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

                    201-483-3800 NJ        513-421-9060 OH
                    203-771-4920 CT        516-234-9914 NY
                    212-393-2151 NY        518-471-2272 NY
                    213-621-4141 CA        617-955-1111 MA
                    213-829-0111 CA (GTE)  702-789-6711 NV
                    213-449-8830 CA        713-224-6116 TX
                    312-368-8000 IL        714-238-1111 CA
                    313-223-7223 MI        717-255-5555 PA
                    314-247-5511 MO        717-787-1031 PA
                    408-493-5000 CA        802-955-1111 VE
                    412-633-3333 PA        808-533-4426 HI
                    414-678-3511 WI        813-223-5666 FL
                    416-929-4323 ONT.      914-948-8100 NY
                    503-228-6271 OR        916-480-8000 CA

                                     LOOPS
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    FIRST OF ALL, YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF LOOPS.  I THINK THAT THE
BEST WAY THAT THIS IS UNDERSTOOD IS THE WAY THAT PHRED PHREEK EXPLAINED IT...

   "NO SELF-RESPECTING PHONE PHREAK CAN GO THROUGH LIFE WITHOUT KNOWING WHAT A
LOOP IS, HOW TO USE ONE, AND THE TYPES THAT ARE AVAILABLE.  THE LOOP IS A GREAT
ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION MEDIUM THAT HAS MANY POTENTIAL USES THAT HAVEN'T EVEN
BEEN TAPPED YET. IN ORDER TO EXPLAIN WHAT A LOOP IS, IT WOULD BE HELPFUL TO
VISUALIZE TWO PHONE NUMBERS (LINES) JUST FLOATING AROUND IN THE TELCO CENTRAL
OFFICE (CO).  NOW, IF YOU (AND A FRIEND PERHAPS) WERE TO CALL THESE TWO NUMBERS
AT THE SAME TIME, POOOOPFFF!!!, YOU ARE NOW CONNECTED TOGETHER. I HEAR WHAT
YOU'RE SAYING OUT THERE..., "BIG DEAL" OR "WHY SHOULD MA BELL COLLECT HERE TWO
MSU'S (MESSAGE UNITS) FOR ONE LOUSY PHONE CALL!?" WELL... THINK AGAIN.  HAVEN'T
YOU EVER WANTED SOMEONE TO CALL YOU BACK BUT, WERE RELUCTANT TO GIVE OUT YOUR
HOME PHONE NUMBER (LIKE THE LAST TIME YOU TRIED TO GET YOUR FRIEND'S UNLISTED #
FROM THE BUSINESS OFFICE)? OR HOW ABOUT A COLLECT CALL TO YOUR FRIEND WAITING
ON A LOOP, WHO WILL GLADLY ACCEPT THE CHARGES?  OR BETTER YET, STUMBLING UPON A
LOOP THAT YOU DISCOVER THAT HAS MULTI-USER CAPABILITY (FOR THOSE LATE-NIGHT
CONFERENCES).  BEST OF ALL IS FINDING A NON-SUPERVISED LOOP THAT DOESN'T CHARGE
ANY MSU'S OR TOLLS TO ONE OR BOTH PARTIES. EXAMPLE: MANY MOONS AGO, A LOOP
AFFECTIONATELY KNOWN AS 'THE 332 LOOP' WAS NON-SUP (IE, NON-SUPERVISED) ON THE
TONE SIDE. I HAD MY FRIEND IN CALIFORNIA DIAL THE FREE (NON-SUP) SIDE, (212)
332-9906 AND I DIALED THE SIDE THAT CHARGED, 332-9900. AS YOU CAN SEE, I WAS
CHARGED ONE MSU, AND MY FRIEND AS CHARGED ZILCH, FOR AS LONG AS WE WISHED TO
TALK!!!"

                                  **********

    AHHH...HAVE I PERKED YOUR INTEREST YET? IF SO, HERE IS HOW TO FIND A LOOP
OF YOU VERY OWN.  FIRST, DO ALL OF YOU LOOP SEARCHING AT NIGHT! THIS IS BECAUSE
THE LOOPS SERVE A GENUINE TEST FUNCTION WHICH TELCO USES DURING THE DAY.  (WE
DON'T WANT TO RUN INTO AN IRATE LINEMAN NOW, DO WE?)  TO FIND A LOOP, HAVING 2
#'S IS A DEFINITE PLUS.  IF NOT, HAVE A FRIEND TO DIAL #'S AT HIS LOCATION.
LAST RESORT, TRY DIALING FROM TWO ADJACENT PAY PHONES. NOW GET YOUR TRUSTY
WHITE PAGES (*), AND TURN TO THE PAGE WHERE IT LISTS THE # OF MSU'S FROM YOUR
EXCHANGE (OR EXCHANGES IN YOUR PRIMARY CALLING AREA) THE IDEA IS TO FIND A LOOP

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THAT IS WITHIN YOUR PRIMARY CALLING AREA OR IS ONLY 1 MSU IN YOUR AREA (CALL
AREA A). THIS IS SO YOU DON'T GO BANKRUPT TRYING TO FIND A LOOP. WRITE DOWN ALL
OF THESE EXCHANGES AND DO A 99XX SCAN OF THOSE EXCHANGES (99XX SCANNING WILL BE
DISCUSSED SHORTLY).

    BEFORE WE GET UP TO 99XX SCANNING, WE WILL LOOK AT SOME OTHER LOOP INFO:

    LOOPS ARE FOUND PAIRS WHICH ARE USUALLY CLOSE TO EACH OTHER.  FOR EXAMPLE,
IN NPA 212, WHERE THE INFAMOUS LOOPS ARE FOUND, THERE IS A STANDARD LOOP
FORMAT:

MANHATTAN & BRONX-------NNX-9977/9979
BROOKLYN & QUEENS-------NNX-9900/9906

    NNX IS THE EXCHANGE TO BE SCANNED. HERE ARE SOME LOOPS THAT HAVE BEEN FOUND
IN NYC.  THESE ARE USED MOSTLY BY PHREAKS AND CALL-IN LINES FOR PIRATE RADIO
STATIONS:

212-220-9900/9906
212-283-9977/9979
212-352-9900/9906
212-365-9977/9979
212-529-9900/9906
212-562-9977/9979
212-982-9977/9979
212-986-9977/9979

    THE LOWER # IS THE TONE SIDE (SINGING SWITCH).  THE HIGHER # IS ALWAYS
SILENT.  THE TONE DISAPPEARS ON THE LOWER # WHEN SOMEBODY DIALS IN THE OTHER
SIDE OF THE LOOP. IF YOU ARE ON THE HIGHER #, YOU'LL HAVE TO LISTEN TO THE
CLICKS TO SEE IF SOMEBODY DIALED-IN.  THE NYC 982 & 986 LOOPS ARE DIFFERENT
FROM OTHERS. USUALLY WHEN YOU PARK ON A LOOP, YOU WILL HEAR WHO EVER CALLS IN
ON THE OTHER HALF.  WHEN THEY'RE DONE, THE NEXT CALLER (IF ANY) WILL BE QUEUED
IN, ONE AFTER ANOTHER. ON THE NYC 982 & 986, YOU SOMETIMES CAN'T GET ANY MORE
CALLERS IN AFTER THE FIRST. FURTHERMORE, IF YOU PARK ONE OF THESE LOOPS AND
THERE IS NOBODY ON THE OTHER END FOR MORE THAN 4 MINUTES, YOU MAY BE
AUTOMATICALLY DISCONNECTED. THESE LOOPS ARE GOOD FOR BACK-UP PURPOSES WHEN ALL
OTHER LOOPS ARE BUSY.

                                99XX SCANNING:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    MOST EVERY EXCHANGE IN THE BELL SYSTEM HAS A WIDE VARIETY OF TEST #'S AND
OTHER "GOODIES," SUCH AS LOOPS. THESE "GOODIES" ARE USUALLY FOUND BETWEEN 9900
AND 9999 IN YOUR LOCAL EXCHANGE.  IF YOU HAVE THE TIME AND INITIATIVE, SCAN
YOUR EXCHANGE AND YOU MAY BECOME LUCKY!

HERE ARE MY FINDINGS IN THE 914-268:

9901 - VERIFICATION (RECORDING OF A/C AND EXCHANGE)
9936 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CO
9937 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CO
9941 - CARRIER
9960 - OSC. TONE (TONE SIDE LOOP)
9963 - TONE (STOPS:  MUTED)
9966 - CARRIER
9968 - TONE THAT DISAPPEARS--RESPONDS TO CERTAIN TOUCH-TONE KEYS


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    MOST OF THE #'S BETWEEN 9900 & 9999 WILL RING, BE BUSY, GO TO A SPECIAL
INTERCEPT OPERATOR ("WHAT #, PLEASE?"), OR WILL GO TO A "THE # YOU HAVE
REACHED..." RECORDING.  WHAT YOU FIND DEPENDS UPON THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT IN
THE EXCHANGE AND THE TELCO OPERATING COMPANY.

    WHEN SEARCHING FOR LOOPS, YOU MAY FIND ONE OF THE FOLLOWING POSSIBILITIES
WHEN YOU FIND ONE:

1. YOU CAN HEAR THROUGH THE LOOP (NOT MUTED), BUT THERE IS A 1/2 SECOND CLICK
EVERY 10 SECONDS THAT INTERRUPTS THE AUDIO.  THIS TYPE IS GOOD FOR BACK-UP USE
BUT THE FUCKING CLICK IS SUPER ANNOYING.

2. ONE SIDE OF THE LOOP IS BUSY; TRY IT AGAIN LATER.

3. THE TONE DISAPPEARS, BUT YOU CANNOT HEAR THROUGH IT (THE LOOP IS MUTED, TRY
AGAIN IN A MONTH OR SO)

4. YOU GET "THE # YOU HAVE REACHED RECORDING."  NO LOOP HERE!

    MOST LOOPS ARE MUTED (#3), BUT THEIR STATUS DOES CHANGES FROM TIME-TO-TIME.
IT ALL DEPENDS IF THE TELCO MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL REMEMBER TO "THROW THE
SWITCH", IE, TURN OFF THE LOOP.

    SINCE I HAVE DONE THE ABOVE 914-268 99XX SCAN, CONGERS (268) HAS INSTALLED
NEW SWITCHING EQUIPMENT (DMS100). SOME OF THE NUMBERS ARE THE SAME, BUT I HAVE
NOTICED THAT ON THE DMS100, THE RECORDINGS ARE ALSO STORED IN THIS AREA.
268-9903, 9906, 9909, & 9912 ARE ALL DIFFERENT RECORDINGS.  ALSO, THERE ARE 2
FORTRESS FONE RECORDINGS AT 268-9911 (DEPOSIT 5 CENTS OR ELSE) AND 268-9913
(DEPOSIT 10 CENTS). NONE OF THESE RECORDINGS SUPE AND ALOT OF OTHER 99XX#'S
DON'T SUPE EITHER.

    IN SOME AREAS (LIKE MD), 9906-7 IS RINGBACK.  IN WASHINGTON, THERE IS A
SWEEP TONE TEST AT (202) 560-9944.  IN NYC (212), YOU'LL FIND THE INFAMOUS LOOP
LINES (AS MENTIONED ABOVE).
    IT WILL BE EASIER TO SCAN YOUR EXCHANGE IF YOU MAKE UP A CHART LIKE THE ONE
BELOW:


                               NPA-NNX-99XX SCAN
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

           _________________________________________________________
          | 99X X>|0   |1   |2   |3   |4   |5   |6   |7   |8   |9   |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 990   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 991   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 992   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 993   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 994   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 995   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 996   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

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          | 997   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 998   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|
          | 999   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THIS LEAVES YOU WITH 100 BOXES (1 FOR EACH # BETWEEN 9900 & 9999). YOU
SHOULD MAKE YOUR BOXES BIG ENOUGH SO YOU CAN WRITE SOME SORT OF SHORTHAND IN
THEM.  FOR EXAMPLE:

B - BUSY   (TRY AGAIN AT ANOTHER TIME)
R - RINGS  (TRY AGAIN AT ANOTHER TIME)
O - INTERCEPT OPERATOR ("WHAT # YOU CALLING?)
R1- RECORDING 1 (MAKE A MARGIN NOTE OF THE TYPES OF RECORDINGS YOU GET)
T - TONE   ] TONE AT A LOWER # + IGNORE
I - IGNORE ] AT A HIGHER # = LOOP
V - VOICE # TO TELCO CO - THEY USUALLY ANSWER WITH THE CITY NAME OR AREA.
C - CARRIER

    THERE WILL BE OTHERS AND YOU SHOULD USE OTHER CHARACTERS THAT YOU CAN
UNDERSTAND.

    NOW, BACK TO LOOPS!  AS YOU MAY HAVE NOTICED IN MY 914-268 SCAN, I FOUND A
MUTED LOOP AND A TONE SIDE.  914-268 FAILED TO COME UP WITH THE SILENT SIDE OF
A LOOP!  THEREFORE, THERE IS NO LOOP IN THAT EXCHANGE.  I THEN SCANNED ANOTHER
EXCHANGE IN MY PRIMARY CALLING AREA (914-634) AND I FOUND A LOOP!! "(914)
634-9923/9924" SO, IF AT FIRST YOU DON'T SUCCEED, MOVE ONTO ANOTHER EXCHANGE.
IF YOU USE THE BOX METHOD THAT I HAVE OUTLINED ABOVE, YOU WILL SEE A "T" & "I"
NEXT TO EACH OTHER FOR A LOOP.
   SOME EXCHANGES ARE SPECIAL.  FOR EXAMPLE, 914-623 IS A TESTING BUREAU. IN
THIS EXCHANGE, NOT ONLY DID I FIND A LOOP, BUT I ALSO FOUND SEVERAL INTERESTING
TONES, NOISES, AND OTHER TEST FUNCTIONS. ALSO, THE MORE IMPORTANT THE EXCHANGE
IS, THE MORE YOU WILL FIND. FOR EXAMPLE, IN 914-623, I FOUND WELL OVER 10 VOICE
#'S!
    ALSO, LOOPS ARE USUALLY, BUT NOT EXCLUSIVELY, FOUND IN THE 99XX SERIES. FOR
EXAMPLE: "(713) 324-1799/1499" IS A LOOP.

THE PERFECT LOOP?  HERE IS WHAT I WOULD LOOK FOR:

1. NON-SUP ON ONE OR BOTH SIDES. TO CHECK FOR A NON-SUP LOOP, GO TO A
TONE-FIRST FORTRESS FONE AND DIAL THE #. IF IT ASKS FOR A DIME, IT IS
SUPERVISED. IF THE CALL GOES THROUGH, THEN IT IS NON-SUPED!

2. 800 LOOPS WOULD BE A PLUS.  THEY ARE NOT NECESSARILY FOUND BETWEEN 9900 &
9999 THOUGH.  I WOULD CHECK THE 1XXX SERIES FIRST.

3. MULTI-USER LOOPS ARE ALSO A PLUS FOR THOSE LATE NIGHT CONFERENCES.

    FINALLY, REMEMBER IT IS ONLY A LOCAL CALL TO FIND OUT WHAT YOU CO HAS IN
STORE FOR YOU.  IF YOU FIND ANYTHING INTERESTING, BE SURE TO DROP ME A LINE.


NOTE:  YOUR LOCAL WHITE PAGES CAN BE A VALUABLE ASSET. YOU CAN ALSO ORDER OTHER
FONE BOOKS FROM YOUR BUSINESS OFFICE (USUALLY FREE FOR BOOKS WITHIN YOUR
OPERATING COMPANY'S DISTRICT).  A LARGE FONE BOOK, SUCH AS MANHATTAN, CONTAINS

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MUCH MORE INFO IN THE FIRST FEW PAGES THAN OTHER BOOKS.

                                      ANI
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    AUTOMATIC NUMBER IDENTIFICATION (ANI), IS A NUMBER THAT YOU CALL UP THAT
WILL TELL YOU WHAT # YOU ARE CALLING FROM.
    THIS HAS A FEW USES.  FIRST, WERE YOU EVER SOMEWHERE AND THE FONE DIDN'T
HAVE A # PRINTED ON IT?  OR PERHAPS YOU WERE FOOLING AROUND IN SOME CANS (THOSE
LARGE BOXES ON FONE POLES THAT CONTAIN TERMINALS FOR LINEMAN USE--TO BE
DISCUSSES IN A FUTURE CHAPTER.) AND YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT WHAT THE LINE # IS.
IN NPA 914, THE ANI IS 990.  IN NPA'S 212 & 516, ANI IS 958.  THIS VARIES FROM
AREA TO AREA.

HERE ARE SOME OTHER ANI'S THAT I HAVE SEEN:

890-751-5191
202-222-2222
1-XXX-1111    (IN SOME 914 AREAS, ESP. UNDER STEP-BY-STEP SWITCHING, YOU HAVE
TO DIAL 1-990-1111)

    TO FIND ANI FOR OTHER AREAS, CHECK 3 DIGITS #'S FIRST, USUALLY IN THE 9XX
SERIES (EXCLUDING 911).  IN AREAS UNDER STEP-BY-STEP (TO BE DISCUSSED IN THE
NEXT PART), TRY 1-9XX-1111.
    ANI MAY ALSO BE IN 99XX.  LAST RESORT, TRY TO GET FRIENDLY WITH YOUR
NEIGHBOR WHO WORKS FOR THE FONE COMPANY.

                                   RING BACK
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    RINGBACK, AS ITS NAME IMPLIES, CALLS BACK THE # YOU ARE AT WHEN YOU DIAL
THE RINGBACK #. RINGBACK, IN NPA 914, IS 660. YOU DIAL 660+THE LAST 4 DIGITS OF
THE FONE.  YOU WILL THEN GET A TONE, HANG-UP QUICKLY AND PICK-UP IN ABOUT 2
SECONDS. YOU WILL THEN GET A SECOND TONE, HANG-UP AGAIN AND THE FONE WILL
RING.
    IN NYC, IT IS ALSO 660, BUT YOU MAY HAVE TO PRESS 6 OR 7 BEFORE YOU HANG UP
FOR THE FIRST TIME (IE, AT THE FIRST  TONE).


    OTHER RINGBACK #'S THAT I HAVE SEEN ARE:

26011                - THIS 5 DIGIT FORMAT IS USED PRIMARILY ON STEP-BY-STEP.
THE LAST 2 DIGITS (11) ARE DUMMY DIGITS.

890-897-XXXX         - XXXX ARE THE LAST 4 DIGITS OF THE FONE #.

119911/11911/1199911 - GTE

NNX-9906/9907        - NPA 301, NNX IS THE EXCHANGE


    THE REASON YOU GET THE TONE WHEN YOU PICK-UP AFTER IT RINGS IS BECAUSE IN
SOME AREAS, PEOPLE WERE USING RINGBACK AS AN IN-HOUSE INTERCOM.  THEY WOULD
DIAL RINGBACK, AND WHEN IT STOPPED RINGING, THEY WOULD PICK-UP & TALK WITH THE
PERSON WHO PICKED UP THE OTHER EXTENSION.  BELL DIDN'T LIKE THIS SINCE THERE IS
USUALLY ONLY 1 PIECE OF EQUIPMENT IN EACH EXCHANGE THAT DOES THE RINGBACK. WHEN
PEOPLE USED THIS AS AN INTERCOM, LINEMEN & REPAIRMEN COULDN'T GET THROUGH!  IN
SOME AREAS, ESPECIALLY THOSE UNDER STEP-BY-STEP, RINGBACK CAN STILL BE USED AS
AN INTERCOM.  ALSO, UNDER STEP-BY-STEP, THE RINGBACK PROCEDURE IT USUALLY

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SIMPLE.  FOR EXAMPLE, IN ONE AREA YOU WOULD DIAL 26011 AND HANG-UP; IT WOULD
THEN RINGBACK.

                               TOUCH-TONE TEST:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN AREAS THAT HAVE A TOUCH-TONE TEST, YOU DIAL THE RINGBACK #.  AT THE
FIRST TONE, YOU TOUCH-TONE DIGITS 1-0.  IF THEY ARE CORRECT IT WILL BEEP
TWICE.
I HAVE ALSO SEEN A TT TEST IN SOME AREAS AT: 890-751-5191

                                 COMING SOON:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN THE NEXT PART, WE WILL LOOK AT VARIOUS SWITCHING EQUIPMENT AND THE
NETWORK.


                               BREAK UP OF BELL:
         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THE OPERATING COMPANIES ARE NOT GOING TO CHANGE ALL THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT
AROUND.  WHILE THERE WILL BE SOME CHANGES, MOST OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED
HERE WILL REMAIN PERTINENT AFTER JANUARY 1, 1984. JUST SUBSTITUTE THE WORD
"FONE NETWORK" FOR BELL SYSTEM.


AU REVOIR,

*****BIOC
*=$=*AGENT
*****003

DECEMBER 8, 1983

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:  TAP, PHRED PHREEK, JUDAS GERARD, THE MAGICIAN, DARK PRIEST,
& MYSELF.  I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK THE MULCHER ][ FOR HIS ASSISTANCE IN
DISTRIBUTING THIS TUTORIAL.





















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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************
         *                                                          *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                         PART III                         *
         *                                                          *
         ************************************************************

PREFACE:

    IN PART III, WE WILL DISCUSS THE DIALING PROCEDURES FOR DOMESTIC AS WELL AS
INTERNATIONAL DIALING.  WE WILL ALSO TAKE A LOOK AT THE TELEPHONE NUMBERING
PLAN.

NORTH AMERICAN NUMBERING PLAN
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

IN NORTH AMERICA, THE TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN IS AS FOLLOWS:

A)  A 3 DIGIT NUMBERING PLAN AREA (NPA) CODE, [IE, AREA CODE]

B)  A 7 DIGIT TELEPHONE # CONSISTING OF A 3 DIGIT CENTRAL OFFICE (CO) CODE PLUS
A 4 DIGIT STATION #.

    THESE 10 DIGITS ARE CALLED THE NETWORK ADDRESS OR DESTINATION CODE.  IT IS
IN THE FORMAT OF:

AREA CODE   TELEPHONE #
---------   -----------
   N*X       NXX-XXXX

WHERE:  N = A DIGIT FROM 2-9
        * = THE DIGIT 0 OR 1
        X = A DIGIT 0-9

AREA CODES
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    CHECK YOUR TELEPHONE BOOK OR THE SEPARATE LISTING OF AREA CODES FOUND ON
MANY BBS'S.  HERE ARE THE SPECIAL AREA CODES (SAC'S):

510 - TWX (USA)
610 - TWX (CANADA)
700 - NEW SERVICE
710 - TWX (USA)
800 - WATS
810 - TWX (USA)
900 - DIAL-IT SERVICES
910 - TWX (USA)

    THE OTHER AREA CODES NEVER CROSS STATE LINES, THEREFORE EACH STATE MUST
HAVE AT LEAST ONE EXCLUSIVE NPA CODE.  WHEN A COMMUNITY IS SPLIT BY A STATE
LINE, THE CO #'S ARE OFTEN INTERCHANGEABLE (IE, YOU CAN DIAL THE SAME # FROM 2
DIFFERENT AREA CODES)

TWX:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

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    TWX (TELEX II) CONSISTS OF 5 TELETYPE-WRITER AREA CODES.  THEY ARE OWNED BY
WESTERN UNION.  THESE SAC'S MAY ONLY BE REACHED VIA OTHER TWX MACHINES.  THESE
RUN AT 110 BAUD.  BESIDES THE TWX #'S, THESE MACHINES ARE ROUTED TO NORMAL
TELEPHONE #'S.  TWX MACHINES ALWAYS RESPOND WITH AN ANSWERBACK. FOR EXAMPLE,
WU'S FYI TWX # IS (910) 988-5956, THE CORRESPONDING REAL NUMBER TO THIS IS
(201) 279-5956.  THE ANSWERBACK FOR THIS SERVICE IS "WU FYI MAWA."

    IF YOU DON'T WANT TO BUY A TWX MACHINE, YOU CAN STILL SEND TWX MESSAGES
USING EASYLINK [800/325-4112 - SEE TUC'S AND MY ARTICLE ENTITLED "HACKING
WESTERN UNION'S EASYLINK]

700:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    AT THE TIME OF THIS WRITING, THE 700 EXCHANGE DOES NOT YET EXIST. AT&T
PLANS TO USE IT SOON THOUGH.  THEY PLAN TO MAKE IT A TYPE OF FANCY CALL
FORWARDING SERVICE.  IT WILL BE TARGETED TOWARDS SALESMEN ON THE RUN.

    TO UNDERSTAND HOW IT WORKS, I'LL EXPLAIN IT WITH AN EXAMPLE. LET'S SAY JOE
Q. SALESPIG WORKS FOR AT&T SECURITY AND HE IS ON THE RUN CHASING A PHREAK
AROUND THE COUNTRY WHO ROYALLY SCREWED UP AN IMPORTANT COSMOS SYSTEM.  LET'S
SAY THAT JOE'S 700 # IS (700) 382-5968. EVERY TIME JOE GOES TO A NEW HOTEL, HE
DIALS A SPECIAL 700 #, ENTERS A CODE, AND THE # WHERE HE IS STAYING.  NOW, IF
HIS BOSS RECEIVED SOME IMPORTANT INFO, ALL HE WOULD DO IS DIAL (700) 382-5968
AND IT WOULD RING WHEREVER JOE LAST PROGRAMMED IT TO.  NEAT, HUH?

800:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THIS SAC IS ONE OF MY FAVORITES SINCE IT ALLOWS FOR TOLL-FREE CALLS.

INWARD WATS (INWATS):  INWARD WIDE AREA TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE IS THE 800
#'S THAT WE ARE ALL FAMILIAR WITH.  800 #'S ARE SET UP IN SERVICE AREAS OR
BANDS.  THERE ARE 6 OF THESE.  BAND 6 IS THE LARGEST AND YOU CAN CALL A BAND 6
# FROM ANYWHERE IN THE US EXCEPT THE STATE WHERE THE CALL IS TERMINATED (THIS
IS WHY MOST COMPANIES HAVE ONE 800 # FOR THE COUNTRY AND THEN ANOTHER FOR JUST
ONE STATE).  BAND 5 INCLUDES THE 48 CONTIGUOUS STATES.  ALL THE WAY DOWN TO
BAND 1 WHICH INCLUDES ONLY THE STATES CONTIGUOUS TO THAT ONE. THEREFORE, LESS
PEOPLE CAN REACH A BAND 1 INWATS # THAT A BAND 6 #.

INTRASTATE INWATS #'S (IE, YOU CAN CALL IT FROM ONLY 1 STATE) ALWAYS HAVE A 2
AS THE LAST DIGIT IN THE EXCHANGE (IE, 800-NX2-XXXX).  THE NXX ON 800 #'S
REPRESENT THE AREA WHERE THE BUSINESS IS LOCATED.  FOR EXAMPLE, A # BEGINNING
WITH 800-431 WOULD TERMINATE AT A NEW YORK CO.

800 #'S ALWAYS END UP IN A HUNT SERIES IN A CO.  THIS MEANS THAT IT TRIES THE
FIRST # ALLOCATED TO THE COMPANY FOR THEIR 8P0 LINES; IF THIS IS BUSY IT WILL
THEN TRY THE NEXT #, ETC).  YOU MUST HAVE A MINIMUM OF TWO LINES PER EACH   800
#.  FOR EXAMPLE, TRAVELNET USES A HUNT SERIES.  IF YOU DIAL (800) 521-8400, IT
WILL FIRST TRY THE # ASSOCIATED WITH 8400; IF IT IS BUSY IT WILL GO TO THE NEXT
AVAILABLE PORT, ETC.  INWATS CUSTOMERS ARE BILLED BY THE # OF HOURS OF CALLS
THAT ARE MADE TO THEIR #.

OUTWATS (OUTWARD WATS):  OUTWATS ARE FOR MAKING OUTGOING CALLS ONLY. LARGE
COMPANIES USE OUTWATS SINCE THEY RECEIVE BULK-RATE DISCOUNTS. SINCE OUTWATS #
CANNOT HAVE INCOMING CALLS, THEY ARE IN THE FORMAT OF:


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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

(800) *XX-XXXX

    WHERE * IS THE DIGIT 0 OR 1 WHICH CANNOT BE DIALED UNLESS YOU BOX THE CALL.
THE *XX IDENTIFIES THE TYPE OF SERVICE AND THE AREAS THAT THE COMPANY CAN
CALL.

REMEMBER: INWATS + OUTWATS = WATS EXTENDER (SEE PART I)
900:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THIS DIAL-IT SAC IS A NATIONWIDE DIAL-IT SERVICE.  IT IS USED FOR TAKING
TELEVISION POLLS AND OTHER STUFF.  THE FIRST MINUTE CURRENTLY COSTS AN
OUTRAGEOUS 50 CENTS AND EACH ADDITIONAL MINUTE COSTS 35 CENTS. BELL TAKES IN
ALOT OF REVENUE IN THIS WAY.

DIAL (900) 555-1212 TO FIND OUT WHAT IS CURRENTLY ON THE SERVICE.

CO CODES:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THESE IDENTIFY THE SWITCHING OFFICE WHERE THE CALL IS TO BE ROUTED.

THE FOLLOWING CO CODES ARE RESERVED NATIONWIDE:

555 - DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE
844 - TIME    ] THESE ARE NOW IN
936 - WEATHER ] THE 976 EXCHANGE
950 - FUTURE SERVICES
958 - PLANT TEST
959 - PLANT TEST
970 - PLANT TEST (TEMPORARY)
976 - DIAL-IT SERVICES

    ALSO, THE 3 DIGIT ANI & RINGBACK #'S ARE REGARDED AS PLANT TEST AND ARE
THUS RESERVED.  THESE NUMBERS VARY FROM AREA TO AREA.

950: [ALSO SEE PART I]
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

HERE ARE THE SERVICES THAT ARE CURRENTLY ON THE 950 EXCHANGE:

1000 - SPC
1022 - MCI EXECUNET
1033 - US TELEPHONE
1044 - ALLNET
1066 - LEXITEL
1088 - SBS SKYLINE

THESE SCC'S (SPECIALIZED COMMON CARRIERS) ARE FREE FROM FORTRESSES!

Publishers note: Most 950's now require the station code (1022, 1000, 1088,
etc.) to be five digits long. MCI 950-10222, US telefone 10333, ALLNET 10444,
etc. Look in "Equal Access and the American Dream" p.    for a complete list.
PLANT TESTS:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

THESE INCLUDE ANI, RINGBACK, AND OTHER VARIOUS TESTS.


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976:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    DIAL 976-1000 TO SEE WHAT IS CURRENTLY ON THE SERVICE.  ALSO, MANY BBS'S
HAVE A LISTING OF THESE #'S.


N11 CODES:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    BELL IS TRYING TO PHASE SOME OF THESE OUT, BUT THEY STILL EXIST IN MANY
AREAS.

011 - INTERNATIONAL DIALING PREFIX
211 - COIN REFUND OPERATOR
411 - DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE
611 - REPAIR SERVICE
811 - BUSINESS OFFICE
911 - EMERGENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    WITH INTERNATIONAL DIALING, THE WORLD HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO 9 NUMBERING
ZONES.

TO MAKE AN INTERNATIONAL CALL, YOU MUST DIAL: INT. PREFIX + COUNTRY CODE + NAT.
#

    IN NORTH AMERICA, THE INTERNATIONAL DIALING PREFIX IS 011 FOR
STATION-TO-STATION CALLS AND 01 FOR OPERATOR- SERVICED CALLS.  IDDD STANDS FOR
INTERNATIONAL DIRECT DISTANCE DIALING.

    THE COUNTRY CODE, WHICH VARIES FROM 1 TO 3 DIGITS, ALWAYS HAS THE WORLD
NUMBERING ZONE AS THE FIRST DIGIT.  FOR EXAMPLE, THE COUNTRY CODE FOR THE
UNITED KINGDOM IS 44, THUS IT IS IN WORLD NUMBERING ZONE 4.

    SOME BOARDS MAY CONTAIN A COMPLETE LISTING OF OTHER COUNTRY CODES, BUT HERE
ARE A FEW:

001 - NORTH AMERICA (US, CANADA,ETC)
020 - EGYPT
258 - MOZAMBIQUE
034 - SPAIN
049 - GERMANY
052 - MEXICO (SOUTHERN PORTION)
061 - AUSTRALIA
007 - USSR
081 - JAPAN
098 - IRAN

    IF YOU CALL FROM AN AREA OTHER THAN NORTH AMERICA, THE FORMAT IS GENERALLY
THE SAME.  FOR EXAMPLE, LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO CALL THE WHITE HOUSE FROM
SWITZERLAND.  FIRST YOU WOULD DIAL 00 (THE SWISS INTERNATIONAL DIALING PREFIX),
THEN 1 (THE US COUNTRY CODE), FOLLOWED BY 202-456-1414 (THE NATIONAL # FOR THE
WHITE HOUSE).

    ALSO, COUNTRY CODE 87 IS RESERVED FOR MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE, IE CALLING

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

SHIPS:

871 - MARISAT (ATLANTIC)
872 - MARISAT (PACIFIC)
873 - MARISAT (INDIAN )

INTERNATIONAL SWITCHING:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN NORTH AMERICA, THERE ARE CURRENTLY 7 NO. 4 ESS'S THAT PERFORM THE DUTY
OF ISC (INTERNATIONAL SWITCHING CENTERS). ALL INTERNATIONAL CALLS DIALED FROM
NUMBERING ZONE 1 WILL BE ROUTED THROUGH ONE OF THESE "GATEWAY CITIES."  THEY
ARE:

182 -  WHITE PLAINS, NY
183 -  NEW YORK, NY
184 -  PITTSBURGH, PA
185 -  ORLANDO, FL
186 -  OAKLAND, CA
187 -  DENVER, CO
188 -  NEW YORK, NY

    THE 18X SERIES ARE OPERATOR ROUTING CODES FOR OVERSEAS ACCESS (TO BE
FURTHER DISCUSSED WITH BLUE BOXES). ALL INTERNATIONAL CALLS USE A SIGNALING
SYSTEM CALLED CCITT.  IT IS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR SIGNALING.

COMING SOON:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN PART IV, WE WILL DISCUSS SWITCHING EQUIPMENT, VARIOUS OPERATORS, CO
TYPES, ETC.

PHREAKING LIVES IN '84,

*****BIOC
*=$=*AGENT
*****003

<<=-FARGO 4A-=>>
23-FEB-84

REFERENCES/
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:      NOTES ON THE NETWORK (AT&T), TAP (ROOM 603, 147W 42 ST,
NEW YORK, NY 10036),UNDERSTANDING TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS,AND MANY OTHERS/TUC,
MULCHER...














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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************
         *                                                          *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                         PART IV                          *
         *                                                          *
         ************************************************************

PREFACE:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    PART IV WILL DEAL WITH THE VARIOUS TYPES OF OPERATORS, OFFICE HIERARCHY, &
SWITCHING EQUIPMENT.


OPERATORS:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF OPERATORS IN THE NETWORK AND THE MORE COMMON ONES
WILL BE DISCUSSED.

TSPS OPERATOR:
____________________________________________________________

    THE TSPS (TRAFFIC SERVICE POSITION SYSTEM) OPERATOR IS PROBABLY THE BITCH
(OR BASTARD FOR THE PHEMALE LIBERATIONISTS) THAT MOST OF US ARE USE TO HAVING
TO DEAL WITH.

HERE ARE HER RESPONSIBILITIES:

1) OBTAINING BILLING INFORMATION FOR CALLING CARD OR 3RD NUMBER CALLS.

2) IDENTIFYING CALLED CUSTOMER ON PERSON-TO-PERSON CALLS.

3) OBTAINING ACCEPTANCE OF CHARGES ON COLLECT CALLS.

4) IDENTIFYING CALLING NUMBERS.  THIS ONLY HAPPENS WHEN THE CALLING # IS NOT
AUTOMATICALLY RECORDED BY CAMA (CENTRALIZED AUTOMATIC MESSAGE ACCOUNTING) &
FORWARDED FROM THE LOCAL OFFICE.  THIS COULD BE CAUSED BY EQUIPMENT FAILURES OR
IF THE OFFICE IS NOT EQUIPPED FOR CAMA (MOST ARE).

    <I ONCE HAD AN EQUIPMENT FAILURE HAPPEN TO ME & THE TSPS OPERATOR CAME ON
AND SAID, "WHAT # ARE YOU CALLING FROM?"  OUT OF CURIOSITY, I GAVE HER THE # TO
MY CO, SHE THANKED ME & THEN I WAS CONNECTED TO A CONVERSION THAT APPEARED TO
BE BETWEEN A FIRE MAN & HIS WIFE.  THEN IT STARTED RINGING THE PARTY I
ORIGINALLY WANTED TO CALL & EVERYONE PHREAKED OUT (EXCUSE THE PUN). I
IMMEDIATELY DROPPED THIS DUAL LINE CONFERENCE!>

    YOU SHOULDN'T MESS WITH THE TSPS OPERATOR SINCE SHE KNOWS WHERE YOU ARE
CALLING FROM.  SHE ALSO KNOWS WHETHER OR NOT YOU ARE AT A FORTRESS FONE & SHE
CAN TRACE CALLS QUITE READILY.  OUT OF ALL THE OPERATORS, SHE IS ONE OF THE
MOST DANGEROUS.

INWARD OPERATOR:
____________________________________________________________

    THIS OPERATOR ASSISTS YOUR LOCAL TSPS ("0") OPERATOR IN CONNECTING CALLS.

                                    Page 106




                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

SHE WILL NEVER QUESTION A CALL AS LONG AS THE CALL IS WITHIN HER SERVICE AREA.
SHE CAN ONLY BE REACHED VIA OTHER OPERATORS OR BY A BLUE BOX.  FROM A BB, YOU
WOULD DIAL KP+NPA+121+ST FOR THE INWARD OPERATOR THAT WILL HELP YOU CONNECT ANY
CALLS WITHIN THAT NPA AREA ONLY. (BLUE BOXING WILL BE DISCUSSED IN A FUTURE
PART OF BASIC TELCOM)

DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE OPERATOR:
____________________________________________________________

    THIS IS THE OPERATOR THAT YOU ARE CONNECTED TO WHEN YOU DIAL:  411 OR
NPA-555-1212.  SHE DOES NOT READILY KNOW WHERE YOU ARE CALLING FROM.  SHE DOES
NOT HAVE ACCESS TO UNLISTED #'S, BUT SHE DOES KNOW IF AN UNLISTED # EXISTS FOR
A CERTAIN LISTING.

    THERE IS ALSO A DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE FOR DEAF PEOPLE WHO USE
TELETYPEWRITERS IF YOU MODEM CAN TRANSFER BAUDOT (THE APPLE CAT CAN), THEN YOU
CAN CALL HER UP AND HAVE AN INTERESTING CONVERSATION WITH HER.  THE #
IS:800/855-1155. SHE USES THE STANDARD TELEX ABBREVIATIONS SUCH AS GA FOR GO
AHEAD. THEY TEND TO BE NICER & WILL TALK LONGER THAN YOUR REGULAR OPERATORS.
ALSO, THEY ARE MORE VULNERABLE INTO BEING TALKED OUT OF INFORMATION THROUGH THE
PROCESS OF "SOCIAL ENGINEERING" AS CHESHIRE CATALYST WOULD PUT IT.

OTHER OPERATORS HAVE ACCESS TO THEIR OWN DA BY DIALING KP+NPA+131+ST (MF).

    THIS IS A LITTLE OUT OF THE SCOPE OF THIS TUTORIAL, BUT MANY TELCO'S ARE
NOW CHARGING FOR CALLS TO DIR. ASST. YOU CAN BEAT THIS BY:

(1) COUNT HOW MANY CALLS YOU MAKE TO DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE IN A BILLING PERIOD.
GO TO A FORTRESS FONE & DIAL DA.  WHEN THE OPERATOR COMES ON, GIVE HER A NAME
THAT YOU KNOW HAS AN UNLISTED # OR ASK FOR A TOWN THAT ISN'T IN THE NPA.  SHE
WILL THEN ASK FOR YOUR # SO SHE CAN CREDIT THE CALL TO YOU. GIVE HER YOUR HOME
#, SHE DOESN'T KNOW THAT YOU ARE MAKING A FREE CALL FROM THE FORTRESS. JUST
MAKE SURE THAT YOU DON'T CREDIT YOURSELF FOR MORE CALLS THAN YOU ACTUALLY MADE
OR YOU MIGHT HAVE A FEW PROBLEMS!

(2) IF YOU HAVE A BAUDOT TERMINAL, USE THE 800 #, IT'S FREE & THERE IS ONE #
FOR ALL REQUESTS.

C/NA OPERATORS:
____________________________________________________________

    C/NA OPERATORS ARE OPERATORS THAT DO EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE OF WHAT DIRECTORY
ASSISTANCE OPERATORS ARE FOR.  SEE PART II, FOR MORE INFO ON C/NA & #'S.  IN MY
EXPERIENCES, THESE OPERATORS KNOW MORE THAN THE DA OP'S DO & THEY ARE MORE
SUSCEPTIBLE TO "SOCIAL ENGINEERING."  IT IS POSSIBLE TO BULLSHIT A C/NA
OPERATOR FOR THE NON-PUB DA # (IE, YOU GIVE THEM THE NAME & THEY GIVE YOU THE
ANOTHER IN THE NETWORK.

    PROBLEMS WITH AN OPERATOR?  ASK TO SPEAK TO THEIR SUPERVISOR... WHICH IS
THE EQUIVALENT OF THE MADAME IN A WHOREHOUSE (IF YOU WILL EXCUSE THE ANALOGY).

    BY THE WAY, SOME CO'S THAT WILL ALLOW YOU TO DIAL A 1 OR 0 AS THE 4TH
DIGIT, WILL ALSO ALLOW YOU TO CALL SPECIAL OPERATORS WITHOUT A BLUE BOX.  THIS
IS VERY RARE THOUGH!  FOR EXAMPLE, 212-121-1111 WILL GET YOU A NY INWARD
OPERATOR.

OFFICE HIERARCHY
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    EVERY SWITCHING OFFICE OFFICE IN NORTH AMERICA (THE NPA SYSTEM), IS
ASSIGNED AN OFFICE NAME & CLASS.  THERE ARE FIVE CLASSES OF OFFICES NUMBERED 1
THROUGH 5.  YOUR CO IS MOST LIKELY A CLASS 5 OR END OFFICE. ALL LONG-DISTANCE
(TOLL) CALLS ARE SWITCHED BY A TOLL OFFICE WHICH CAN BE A CLASS 4, 3, 2, OR 1
OFFICE.  THERE IS ALSO A 4X OFFICE CALLED AN INTERMEDIATE POINT.  THE 4X OFFICE
IS A DIGITAL ONE THAT CAN HAVE AN UNATTENDED EXCHANGE ATTACHED TO IT (KNOWN AS
A REMOTE SWITCHING UNIT-RSU).

    THE FOLLOWING CHART WILL LIST THE OFFICE #, NAME, & HOW MANY OF THOSE
OFFICES EXISTED IN NORTH AMERICA IN 1981.

CLASS       NAME       ABB  # EXISTING
----- ---------------- --- ------------
1   REGIONAL CENTER  RC         12
2   SECTIONAL CENTER SC         67
3   PRIMARY CENTER   PC        230
4   TOLL CENTER      TC       1,30
4P  TOLL POINT       TP          ?
4X  INTERMEDIATE PT  IP          ?
5   END OFFICE       EO     19,000
R   RSU              RSU         ?

    WHEN CONNECTING A CALL FROM ONE PARTY TO ANOTHER, THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT
USUALLY TRIES TO FIND THE SHORTEST ROUTE BETWEEN THE CLASS 5 END OFFICE OF THE
CALLER & THE CLASS 5 END OFFICE OF THE CALLED PARTY. IF NO INTER-OFFICE TRUNKS
EXIST BETWEEN THE 2 PARTIES, IT WILL THEN MOVE UPTO THE NEXT HIGHEST OFFICE FOR
SERVICING (CLASS 4).  IF THE CLASS 4 OFFICE CANNOT HANDLE THE CALL BY SENDING
IT TO ANOTHER CLASS 4 OR 5 OFFICE, IT WILL BE SENT TO THE NEXT OFFICE IN THE
HIERARCHY (3). THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FIRST USES THE HIGH-USAGE INTEROFFICE
TRUNK GROUPS, IF THEY ARE BUSY IT THEN GOES TO THE FINAL TRUNK GROUPS ON THE
NEXT HIGHEST LEVEL. IF THE CALL CANNOT BE CONNECTED THEN, YOU WILL PROBABLY GET
A RE-ORDER (120IPM BUSY SIGNAL) SIGNAL.  AT THIS TIME, THE GUYS AT NETWORK
OPERATIONS ARE PROBABLY SHITTING IN THEIR PANTS AND TRYING TO AVOID THE DREADED
NETWORK DREADLOCK (AS SEEN ON TV!).


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    IT IS ALSO INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT 9 CONNECTIONS IN TANDEM IS CALLED
RING-AROUND-THE ROSY AND IT HAS NEVER OCCURRED IN TELEPHONE HISTORY.  THIS
WOULD CASE AN ENDLESS LOOP CONNECTION. [ A NEAT WAY TO REALLY SCREW-UP THE
NETWORK].

    THE 10 REGIONAL CENTERS IN THE US & THE 2 IN CANADA ARE ALL INTERCONNECTED.
THEY FORM THE FOUNDATION OF THE ENTIRE TELEPHONE NETWORK.  SINCE THERE ARE ONLY
12 OF THEM, THEY ARE LISTED BELOW:

CLASS 1 REGIONAL OFFICE LOCATION    NPA
----------------------------------  ---
DALLAS 4 ESS                        214
WAYNE, PA                           215
DENVER 4T                           303
REGINA NO.2 SP1-4W   [CANADA]       306
ST. LOUIS 4T                        314
ROCKDALE, GA                        404
PITTSBURGH 4E                       412
MONTREAL NO.1 4AETS  [CANADA]       504
NORWICH, NY                         607
SAN BERNARDINO, CA                  714
NORWAY, IL                          815
WHITE PLAINS 4T, NY                 914

    THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM DEMONSTRATES HOW THE VARIOUS OFFICES MAY BE
CONNECTED:

        _________________________
      _|_          _|_          _|_     REGIONAL
     |   |        |   |        |   |    OFFICES
     | 1 | <=--=> | 1 | <=--=> | 1 |  <<==------
     |___|        |___|        |___|
                    |                    OTHERSX/
   _________________|_______________________|
 _|_      _|_    _|_    _|__      _|_
|   |    |   |  |   |  |    |    |   |
| 2 |    | 3 |  | 4 |  | 4P |    | 5 |
|___|    |___|  |___|  |____|    |___|
  |       |       |      |
  |____   |      _|__    |
 _|_  _|_ |   __|_  _|_   X
|   ||   ||  |    ||   |  |_____
| 3 || 4 ||  | 4X || 5 | _|__  _|_
|___||___||  |____||___||    ||   |
       |  |             | 4X || 5 |
     __|_ |             |____||___|
    |    ||_____________
    | 5R |       _______|_________
    |____|      |       |         |
      _|_      _|_     _|_      __|_
     |   |    |   |   |   |    |    |
     | R |    | 4 |   | 5 |    | 5R |
     |___|    |___|   |___|    |____|

NOTE: THE PRECEDING DIAGRAM USED SPECIAL SYMBOLS FROM AN APPLE //E THAT MAY NOT
BE VIEWED AS I INTENDED THEM IF YOU ARE NOT USING AN APPLE//E OR //C.

SWITCHING EQUIPMENT

                                    Page 109




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<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

    IN THE NETWORK, THERE ARE 3 MAJOR TYPES OF SWITCHING EQUIPMENT. THEY ARE
KNOWN AS:  STEP, CROSSBAR, & ESS.


STEP-BY-STEP (SXS)
____________________________________________________________

    THE STEP-BY-STEP, A/K/A THE STROWGER SWITCH OR TWO-MOTION SWITCH, WAS
INVENTED IN 1889 BY AN UNDERTAKER NAMED ALMON STROWGER.  HE INVENTED THIS
MECHANICAL SWITCHING EQUIPMENT BECAUSE HE FELT THAT THE BIASED OPERATOR WAS
ROUTING ALL REQUESTS FOR AN 'UNDERTAKER' TO HER HUSBAND'S BUSINESS. BELL
STARTED USING THIS SYSTEM IN 1918 AS OF 1978, OVER 53% OF THE BELL EXCHANGES
USED THIS METHOD OF SWITCHING.

    STEP-BY-STEP SWITCHING IS CONTROLLED DIRECTLY BY THE DIAL PULSES WHICH MOVE
A SERIES OF SWITCHES (CALLED THE SWITCH TRAIN) IN ORDER. WHEN YOU FIRST PICK UP
THE FONE UNDER SXS, A LINEFINDER ACKNOWLEDGES THE REQUEST (SOONER OR LATER) BY
SENDING A DIAL TONE.  IF YOU THEN DIALED 1234, THE EQUIPMENT WOULD FIRST FIND
AN IDLE SELECTOR SWITCH.  IT WOULD THEN MOVE VERTICALLY 1 PULSE, IT WOULD THEN
MOVE HORIZONTALLY TO FIND A FREE SECOND SELECTOR, IT WOULD THEN MOVE 2 VERTICAL
PULSES, STEP HORIZONTALLY TO FIND THE NEXT SELECTOR, ETC.  THUS THE FIRST
SWITCH IN THE TRAIN TAKES NO DIGITS, THE SECOND SWITCH TAKES 1 DIGIT, THE THIRD
SWITCH TAKES 1 DIGIT, & THE LAST SWITCH IN THE TRAIN (CALLED THE CONNECTOR)
TAKES THE LAST 2 DIGITS & CONNECTS YOUR CALLS. A NORMAL (10,000 LINE) EXCHANGE
REQUIRES 4 DIGITS (0000-9999) TO CONNECT A LOCAL CALL & THUS IT TAKES 4
SWITCHES TO CONNECT EVERY CALL (LINEFINDER, 1ST & 2ND SELECTORS, & THE
CONNECTOR) .

    WHILE IT WAS THE FIRST, SXS SUCKS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS:

[1] THE SWITCHED OFTEN BECOME JAMMED THUS THE CALLS OFTEN BECOME BLOCKED.

[2] YOU CAN'T USE DTMF (DUAL-TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY A/K/A TOUCH-TONE) DIRECTLY.
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THE TELCO MAY HAVE INSTALLED A CONVERSION KIT BUT THEN THE
CALLS WILL GO THROUGH JUST AS SLOW AS PULSE, ANYWAY!

[3] THEY USE A LOT OF ELECTRICITY & MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE. (BAD FROM TELCO
POINT OF VIEW)

[4] EVERYTHING IS HARDWIRED.

    THEY CAN STILL HOOK UP PEN REGISTERS & OTHER SHIT ON THE LINE SO IT IS NOT
EXACTLY A PHREAK HAVEN.

YOU CAN IDENTIFY SXS OFFICES BY:

(1) LACK OF DTMF OR PULSING DIGITS AFTER DIALING DTMF.

(2) IF YOU GO NEAR THE CO, IT WILL SOUND LIKE A TYPEWRITER TESTING FACTORY.

(3) LACK OF SPEED CALLING, CALL FORWARDING, & OTHER CUSTOMER SERVICES.

(4) FORTRESS FONES THAT WANT YOUR MONEY FIRST (AS OPPOSED TO DIAL TONE FIRST
ONES).

    THE PRECEDING DON'T NECESSARILY IMPLY THAT YOU HAVE SXS BUT THEY SURELY

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GIVE EVIDENCE THAT IT MIGHT BE.  ALSO, IF ANY OF THE ABOVE CHARACTERISTICS
EXIST, IT CERTAINLY ISN'T ESS!  ALSO, SXS HAVE PRETTY MUCH BEEN ERADICATED FROM
LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS SUCH AS NYC (212).

CROSSBAR:
____________________________________________________________

    THERE ARE 3 MAJOR TYPES OF CROSSBAR SYSTEMS CALLED:  NO. 1 CROSSBAR (1XB),
NO. 4 CROSSBAR (4XB), & NO. 5 CROSSBAR (5XB).  5XB HAS BEEN THE PRIMARY END
OFFICE SWITCH OF BELL SINCE THE 60'S AND THUS IT IS IN WIDE-USE.

    CROSSBAR USES A COMMON CONTROL SWITCHING METHOD.  WHEN THERE IS AN INCOMING
CALL, A STORED PROGRAM DETERMINES ITS ROUTE THROUGH THE SWITCHING MATRIX.

POINT WHERE THESE 2 LINES MEET IN THE MATRIX IS THE CONNECTION.


ESS
____________________________________________________________

ELECTRONIC SWITCHING SYSTEM (ESS) THE PHREAK'S NIGHTMARE COME TRUE (OR ORWELL'S
PROPHECY AS 2600 PUTS IT)

    ESS IS BELL'S MOVE TOWARDS THE AIRSTRIP ONE SOCIETY DEPICTED IN ORWELL'S
1984. WITH ESS, EVERY SINGLE DIGIT THAT YOU DIAL IS RECORDED--EVEN IF IT IS A
MISTAKE.  THEY KNOW WHO YOU CALL, WHEN YOU CALL, HOW LONG YOU TALKED FOR, &
PROBABLY WHAT YOU TALKED ABOUT (IN SOME CASES).  ESS CAN (AND IS) ALSO
PROGRAMMED TO PRINT OUT #'S OF PEOPLE WHO MAKE EXCESSIVE CALLS TO 800 #'S OR
DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE. THIS IS CALLED THE "800 EXCEPTIONAL CALLING REPORT." ESS
COULD ALSO BE PROGRAMMED TO PRINT OUT LOGS OF WHO CALLS CERTAIN #'S--LIKE A
BOOKIE, A KNOWN COMMUNIST, A BBS, ETC THE THING TO REMEMBER WITH ESS IS THAT IT
IS A SERIES OF PROGRAMS WORKING TOGETHER.  THESE PROGRAMS CAN BE VERY EASILY
CHANGED TO DO WHATEVER THEY WANT IT TO DO.  ONE PHREAK WHOM I KNOW HAS SOME ESS
SOURCE CODE LISTING WHICH IS INCREDIBLY COMPLEX (AS WELL AS DOCUMENTED--GRACIAS
DIOS).  THIS SYSTEM MAKES THE JOB OF BELL SECURITY, THE FBI, NSA, & OTHER
ORGANIZATIONS THAT LIKE TO INVADE PRIVACY INCREDIBLY EASY.

    WITH ESS, TRACING IS DONE IN MICROSECONDS (EINE AUGENBLICK) & THE RESULTS
ARE PRINTED AT THE CONSOLE OF A BELL GESTAPO OFFICER.  ESS WILL ALSO PICK UP
ANY "FOREIGN" TONES ON THE LINE SUCH AS 2600 HZ!

    BELL PREDICTS THAT THE COUNTRY WILL BECOME TOTALLY ESS BY THE 1990'S.

    YOU CAN IDENTIFY ESS BY THE FOLLOWING WHICH ARE USUALLY ESS FUNCTIONS:

[1] DIALING 911 FOR HELP.
[2] DIAL-TONE-FIRST FORTRESSES.
[3] CUSTOM CALLING SERVICES SUCH AS:CALL FORWARDING, SPEED DIALING, & CALL
WAITING.  (ASK YOUR BUSINESS OFFICE IF YOU CAN GET THESE.)
[4] ANI (AUTOMATIC NUMBER IDENTIFICATION) ON LD CALLS.

    PHREAKING DOES NOT COME TO A COMPLETE HALT UNDER ESS THOUGH--JUST BE VERY

    DUE TO THE FACT THAT ESS SENDS A COMPUTER GENERATED "ARTIFICIAL RING,"
WHERE THE VOICE IS NOT CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE CALLED PARTIES LINE UNTIL HE

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PICKS UP, BLACK BOXES & INFINITY TRANSMITTERS WILL NOT WORK!

NOTE: ANOTHER INTERESTING WAY TO FIND OUT WHAT TYPE OF EQUIPMENT YOU ARE ON IS
TO RAID THE TRASH CAN OF YOU LOCAL CO--THIS ART WILL DISCUSSED IN A SEPARATE
ARTICLE SOON.

COMING SOON:
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

IN THE PART V, WE WILL START TO TAKE A LOOK AT TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS.

FURTHER READING:

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE ABOVE TOPICS, I SUGGEST THE FOLLOWING:

NOTES ON THE NETWORK, AT&T, 1980.

UNDERSTANDING TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS,TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, 1983.

AND SUBSCRIPTIONS TO:

TAP, ROOM 603, 147 W 42 ST, NEW YORK, NY 10036.     SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE
$10/YEAR.#BACK ISSUES ARE $0.75.      THE CURRENT ISSUES IS #90 (JAN/FEB 1984)

2600, BOX 752, MIDDLE ISLAND, NY 11953. SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE $10/YEAR. BACKISSUES
ARE $1 EACH.  THE CURRENT ISSUE IS #4 (APRIL 1984).

THEY ARE BOTH EXCELLENT SOURCES OF ALL SORTS OF INFORMATION (PRIMARILY
PHREAKING/HACKING).

NOTE: FOR THE MOST PART, I HAVE ASSUMED THAT YOU HAVE READ MY PREVIOUS 3
COURSES IN THE BASIC TELCOM SERIES.

HASTA LUEGO,

*****BIOC
*=$=*AGENT
*****003

APRIL 13, 1984 [THE YEAR OF BIG BROTHER]

<<=-FARGO 4A-=>>

















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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************
         *                                                          *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                         PART V                           *
         *                                                          *
         ************************************************************


PREFACE:

    PREVIOUS INSTALLMENTS OF THIS SERIES WERE FOCUSED ON TELEPHONY FROM A
NETWORK POINT-OF-VIEW.  PART V WILL DEAL WITH TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS FOCUSING
PRIMARILY ON THE SUBSCRIBER'S TELEPHONE. HERE-IN-AFTER SIMPLY REFERRED TO AS
"FONE."

WIRING:
____________________________________________________________

    ASSUMING A STANDARD ONE-LINE FONE, THERE ARE USUALLY 4 WIRES THAT LEAD OUT
OF THE FONE SET.  THESE ARE STANDARDLY COLORED RED, GREEN, YELLOW, & BLACK.
THE RED & GREEN SIRES ARE THE TWO THAT ARE ACTUALLY HOOKED UP TO YOUR CO.  THE
YELLOW WIRE IS SOMETIMES USED TO RING DIFFERENT FONES ON A PARTY LINE (IE, ONE
#, SEVERAL FAMILIES--FOUND PRIMARILY IN RURAL AREAS WHERE THEY PAY LESS FOR THE
SERVICE AND THEY DON'T USE THE FONE AS MUCH); OTHERWISE, THE YELLOW IS USUALLY
JUST IGNORED. ON SOME TWO-LINE FONES, THE RED & GREEN WIRES ARE USED FOR THE
FIRST FONE # AND THE YELLOW & BLACK ARE USED FOR THE SECOND LINE. IN THIS CASE
    IN TELEPHONY, THE RED & GREEN WIRES ARE OFTEN REFERRED TO AS TIP (T) & RING
(R).  THE TIP IS USUALLY THE MORE POSITIVE OF THE TWO WIRES.  THIS NAMING GOES
BACK TO THE OLD OPERATOR CORD BOARDS WHERE ONE OF THE WIRES WAS THE TIP OF THE
PLUG AND THE OTHER WAS THE RING (OF THE BARREL).
    A ROTARY FONE (AKA DIAL OR PULSE) WILL WORK FINE REGARDLESS WHETHER THE RED
(OR GREEN) WIRE IS CONNECTED THE TIP(+) OR RING(-).  A TOUCH-TONE (TM) FONE IS
A DIFFERENT STORY, THOUGH.  IT WILL NOT WORK EXCEPT IF THE TIP(+) IS THE GREEN
WIRE. [ALTHOUGH, SOME OF THE MORE EXPENSIVE DTMF FONES DO HAVE A RECTIFIER
BRIDGE WHICH COMPENSATES FOR POLARITY REVERSAL.]  THIS I WHY UNDER CERTAIN
(NON-DIGITAL) SWITCHING EQUIPMENT YOU CAN REVERSE THE RED & GREEN WIRES ON A
TOUCH-TONE FONE AND RECEIVE FREE DTMF SERVICE.  EVEN THOUGH IT WON'T BREAK DIAL
TONE, REVERSING THE WIRES ON A ROTARY LINE ON A DIGITAL SWITCH WILL CAUSE THE
TONES TO BE GENERATED.

VOLTAGES, ETC.
____________________________________________________________

    WHEN YOUR TELEPHONE IS ON-HOOK (IE, HUNG UP) THERE IS APPROXIMATELY 48
VOLTS OF DC CURRENT (VDC) FLOWING THROUGH THE TIP & RING.  WHEN THE HANDSET OF
A FONE IS LIFTED A FEW SWITCHES CLOSE WHICH CAUSE A LOOP TO BE CONNECTED (KNOWN
AS THE "LOCAL LOOP") BETWEEN YOUR FONE & THE CO.  ONCE THIS HAPPENS DC CURRENT
IS ABLE TO FLOW THROUGH THE FONE WITH LESS RESISTANCE. THIS CAUSES A RELAY TO
ENERGIZE WHICH CAUSES OTHER CO EQUIPMENT TO REALIZE THAT YOU WANT SERVICE.
EVENTUALLY, YOU SHOULD END UP WITH A DIAL TONE.  THIS ALSO CAUSES THE 48 VDC TO
DROP DOWN INTO THE VICINITY OF 13 VOLTS.  THE RESISTANCE OF THE LOOP ALSO DROPS
BELOW THE 2500 OHM LEVEL.

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    AS OF NOW, YOU ARE PROBABLY SAYING TO YOURSELF THAT THIS IS ALL NICE AND
TECHNICAL BUT WHAT THE HELL GOOD IS THE INFORMATION.  WELL, ALSO CONSIDER THAT
THIS VOLTAGE (& RESISTANCE) DROP IS HOW THE CO DETECTS THAT A FONE WAS TAKEN
OFF HOOK (PICKED UP).  IN THIS WAY, THEY KNOW WHEN TO START BILLING THE CALLING
NUMBER.  NOW WHAT DO YOU SUPPOSE WOULD HAPPEN IF A DEVICE SUCH AS A RESISTOR OR
A ZENER DIODE WAS PLACED ON THE CALLED PARTIES LINE SO THAT THE VOLTAGE WOULD
DROP JUST ENOUGH TO ALLOW TALKING BUT NOT ENOUGH TO START BILLING?  FIRST OFF,
THE CALLING PARTY WOULD NOT BE BILLED FOR THE CALL BUT CONVERSATION COULD BE
PURSUED. SECONDLY, THE CO EQUIPMENT WOULD THINK THAT THE FONE JUST KEPT ON
RINGING. THE TELCO CALLS THIS A "NO-NO" (TOLL FRAUD TO BE MORE SPECIFIC) WHILE
PHONE PHREAKS AFFECTIONATELY CALL THIS MUTE A BLACK BOX.

    THE FOLLOWING ARE INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BUILD A SIMPLE BLACK BOX. OF
COURSE, ANYTHING THAT PREVENTS THE VOLTAGE FROM DROPPING WOULD WORK.
YOU ONE OR TWO PARTS:      A SPST TOGGLE SWITCH AND A 10,000 OHM (10 K), 1/2
WATT RESISTOR.  ANY ELECTRONICS STORE SHOULD STOCK THESE PARTS.

    NOW, CUT 2 PIECES OF WIRE (ABOUT 6 INCHES LONG) AND ATTACH ONE END OF EACH
WIRE TO ONE OF THE TERMINALS ON THE SWITCH.  NOW TURN YOUR K500 (STANDARD DESK
FONE) UPSIDE DOWN AND TAKE OFF THE COVER.  LOCATE THE 2 SCREWS ON THE NETWORK
BOX LABELED >F< AND >RR<.  WRAP THE RESISTOR BETWEEN THE 2 SCREWS MAKING SURE
THAT IT DOESN'T TOUCH ANY OTHER TERMINALS!.  NOW CONNECT ONE WIRE FROM THE
SWITCH TO THE RR TERMINAL. FINALLY, ATTACH THE REMAINING WIRE TO THE GREEN WIRE
(DISCONNECT IT FROM ITS TERMINAL).  NOW BRING THE SWITCH OUT THE REAR OF THE
FONE AND REPLACE THE COVER.

    PUT THE SWITCH IN A POSITION WHERE YOU RECEIVE A DIAL TONE.  MARK THIS
POSITION NORMAL.  MARK THE OTHER SIDE FREE.

    WHEN YOUR PHRIENDS CALL (AT A PREARRANGED TIME), QUICKLY LIFT & DROP THE
RECEIVER AS FAST A POSSIBLE.  THIS WILL STOP THE RINGING (DO IT AGAIN IF IT
DOESN'T) WITH OUT STARTING THE BILLING.  IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU DO IT QUICKLY
(LESS THAN ONE SECOND THEN PUT THE SWITCH IN THE FREE POSITION AND PICK UP THE
FONE.  KEEP ALL CALL SHORT AND PREFERABLY UNDER 15 MINUTES.

NOTE:      IF ANYONE PICKS UP AN EXTENSION IN THE CALLED PARTIES HOUSE AND THAT
FONE IS NOT SET FOR FREE THEN BILLING WILL START.

NOTE:      AN OLD WAY OF SIGNALING A PHRIEND THAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO CALL IS
MAKING A COLLECT CALL TO A NON-EXISTENT PERSON IN THE HOUSE.  SINCE YOUR FRIEND
WILL NOT ACCEPT THE CHARGES, HE WILL KNOW THAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO CALL AND THUS
PREPARE THE BLACK BOX    (OR VISA VERSA).

WARNING:     THE TELCO CAN DETECT BLACK BOXES IF THEY SUSPECT ONE ON YOUR LINE.
THIS IS DONE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF AC VOICE SIGNAL AT THE WRONG DC LEVEL!

PICTORIAL DIAGRAM: (STANDARD ROTARY K500 FONE)
____________________________________________________________

 _____________________________________
|                                     |
***BLUE WIRE**>>F<                    |
|            *   *                    |
**WHITE WIRE**   *                    |
|                *                    |
|            RESISTOR                 |
|                *                    |

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|                *                    |
|              >RR<*******SWITCH****  |
|                                  *  |
****GREEN WIRE**********************  |
|                                     |
|_____________________________________|

NOTE:      THE BLACK BOX WILL NOT WORK UNDER ESS OR OTHER SIMILAR DIGITAL
SWITCHES SINCE ESS DOES NOT CONNECT THE VOICE CIRCUITS UNTIL THE FONE IS PICKED
UP (& BILLING STARTS).  INSTEAD, ESS USES AN "ARTIFICIAL"   COMPUTER GENERATED
RING.

RINGING:
____________________________________________________________

    TO INFORM A SUBSCRIBER OF AN INCOMING CALL, THE TELCO SENDS 90 VOLTS (RMS)
OF AC CURRENT DOWN THE LINE (AT AROUND 15 TO 60 HZ)  IN STANDARD FONES, THIS
CAUSES A METAL ARMATURE TO BE ATTRACTED ALTERNATELY BETWEEN TWO ELECTRO-MAGNETS
THUS STRIKING 2 BELLS.  OF COURSE, THE STANDARD BELL (PATENTED IN 1878 BY TOM
A. WATSON) CAN BE REPLACED BY A MORE MODERN ELECTRONIC BELL OR SIGNALING
DEVICE.

    ALSO, YOU CAN HAVE LIGHTS AND OTHER SIMILAR DEVICES IN LIEU OF (OR IN
CONJUNCTION WITH) THE BELL.  A SIMPLE NEON LIGHT (WITH ITS CORRESPONDING
RESISTOR) CAN SIMPLY BE CONNECTED BETWEEN THE RED & GREEN WIRES (USUALLY L1 &
L2 ON THE NETWORK BOX) SO THAT IT LIGHTS UP ON INCOMING CALLS.  A REGULAR 60
WATT LIGHT BULB CAN ALSO BE HOOKED UP USING A SIMPLE (120 VAC) RELAY.

WARNING:      90 & 120 VAC CAN GIVE QUITE A SHOCK.  EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION IF
YOU WISH TO FURTHER PURSUE THESE TOPICS.

    ALSO INCLUDED IN THE RINGING CIRCUIT IS A CAPACITOR TO PREVENT THE DC
CURRENT FROM INTERFERING WITH THE BELL [A CAPACITOR WILL PASS AC CURRENT WHILE
IT WILL PREVENT DC CURRENT FROM FLOWING (BY STORING IT)].
    ANOTHER REASON THAT THE TELCO HATES BLACK BOXES IS BECAUSE RINGING USES
ALOT OF COMMON-CONTROL EQUIPMENT, IN THE CO, WHICH USE ALOT OF ELECTRICITY.
THUS THE RINGING GENERATORS ARE BEING TIED UP WHILE A FREE CALL IS BEING MADE.
USUALLY CALLS THAT ARE ALLOWED TO RING FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME MAY BE
CONSTRUED AS SUSPICIOUS.  SOME OFFICES MAY BE SET UP TO DROP A TROUBLE CARD FOR
LONG PERIODS OF RINGING THEN A "NO-NO" DETECTION DEVICE MAY BE PLACED ON THE
LINE.
    INCIDENTALLY, THE TERM "RING TRIP" REFERS TO THE CO PROCESS INVOLVED TO
STOP THE AC RINGING SIGNAL WHEN THE CALLING FONE GOES OFF HOOK.

NOTE:      IT IS SUGGESTED THAT YOU ACTUALLY DISSECT FONES TO HELP YOU BETTER
UNDERSTAND THEM. IT WILL ALSO HELP YOU TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS HERE
IF YOU ACTUALLY PROVE THEM TO YOURSELF.  FOR EXAMPLE, ACTUALLY TAKE THE VOLTAGE
READINGS ON YOUR FONE LINE [ANY SIMPLE MULTI-TESTER (A MUST) WILL DO.]
PHREAKING IS AN INTERACTIVE PROCESS NOT A PASSIVE ONE!

DIALING:
____________________________________________________________

    ON A STANDARD FONE, THERE ARE TWO COMMON TYPES OF DIALING:  PULSE & DTMF.
OF COURSE, SOME PEOPLE INSIST UPON BEING DIFFERENT AND DON'T USE THE DT THUS
LEAVING THEM WITH MF (MULTI FREQUENCY, AKA OPERATOR, BLUE BOX) TONES.  THIS IS
ANOTHER "NO-NO" AND THE TELCO SECURITY GENTLEMEN HAVE A SPECIAL KNACK FOR
DEALING WITH SUCH "PHREAKS" ON THE NETWORK.

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    WHEN YOU DIAL ROTARY, YOU ARE ACTUALLY RAPIDLY BREAKING & RECONNECTING
(MAKING) THE LOCAL LOOP ONCE FOR EVERY DIGIT DIALED. SINCE THE PHYSICAL
CONNECTION MUST BE BROKEN, YOU CANNOT DIAL IF ANOTHER EXTENSION (OF THAT #) IS
OFF-HOOK.  NEITHER OF THE FONES WILL BE ABLE TO DIAL PULSE UNLESS THE OTHER
HANGS UP.
    ANOTHER TERM OFTEN REFERRED TO IN TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS IS THE BREAK RATIO.
IN THE US, THERE ARE 10 PULSES PER SECOND (MAX).  WHEN THE CIRCUIT IS OPENED IT
IS CALLED THE BREAK INTERVAL. WHEN IT IS CLOSED IT IS CALLED THE MAKE INTERVAL.
IN THE US, THERE IS A 60 MILLISECOND (MS) BREAK PERIOD AND A 40 MS MAKE PERIOD.
(60+40=100 MS = 1/10 MINUTE).  THIS IS REFERRED TO AS A 60% BREAK INTERVAL.
SOME OF THE MORE SOPHISTICATED ELECTRONIC FONES CAN SWITCH BETWEEN A 60% & A
67% BREAK INTERVAL.  THIS IS DUE TO THE FACT THAT MANY FOREIGN NATIONS USE A
67% BREAK INTERVAL.
    HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN AN OFFICE OR A SIMILAR FACILITY AND SAW A FONE
WAITING TO BE USED FOR A FREE CALL BUT SOME ASSHOLE PUT A LOCK ON IT TO PREVENT
OUTGOING CALLS?
    WELL, DON'T FRET PHELLOW PHREAKS, YOU CAN SIMULATE PULSE DIALING BY RAPIDLY
DEPRESSING THE SWITCHOOK.  (IF YOU DEPRESS IT FOR LONGER THAN A SECOND IT WILL
BE CONSTRUED AS A DISCONNECT.)  BY RAPIDLY SWITCHOOKING YOU ARE CAUSING THE
LOCAL LOOP TO BE BROKEN & MADE SIMILAR TO ROTARY DIALING!  THUS IF YOU CAN
MANAGE TO SWITCHOOK RAPIDLY 10 TIMES YOU CAN REACH AN OPERATOR TO PLACE ANY
CALL YOU WANT! THIS TAKES ALOT OF PRACTICE, THOUGH.  YOU MIGHT WANT TO PRACTICE
ON YOUR OWN FONE DIALING A FRIEND'S # OR SOMETHING ELSE. INCIDENTALLY, THIS
METHOD WILL ALSO WORK WITH DTMF FONES SINCE ALL DTMF LINES CAN ALSO HANDLE
ROTARY.
    ANOTHER PROBLEM WITH PULSE DIALING IS THAT IT PRODUCES HIGH-VOLTAGE SPIKES
THAT MAKE LOUD NOISES IN THE EARPIECE AND CAUSE THE BELL TO "TINKLE."  IF YOU
NEVER NOTICED THIS THEN YOUR FONE HAS A SPECIAL "ANTI-TINKLE" & EARPIECE
SHORTING CIRCUIT (MOST DO).  IF YOU HAVE EVER DISSECTED A ROTARY FONE (A MUST
FOR ANY SERIOUS PHREAK) YOU WOULD HAVE NOTICED THAT THERE ARE 2 SETS OF CONTACT
THAT OPEN AND CLOSE DURING PULSING (ON THE BACK OF THE ROTARY DIAL UNDER THE
PLASTIC COVER).  ONE OF THESE ACTUALLY OPENS AND
CLOSES THE LOOP WHILE THE OTHER MUTES THE EARPIECE BY SHORTING IT OUT. THE
SECOND CONTACTS ALSO ACTIVATES A SPECIAL ANTI-TINKLE CIRCUIT THAT PUTS A 340
OHM RESISTOR ACROSS THE RINGING CIRCUIT WHICH PREVENTS THE HIGH VOLTAGE SPIKES
FROM INTERFERING WITH THE BELL.
    DUAL TONE MULTI FREQUENCY (DTMF) IS A MODERN DAY IMPROVEMENT ON PULSE
DIALING IN SEVERAL WAYS.  FIRST OF ALL, IT IS MORE CONVENIENT FOR THE USER
SINCE IT IS FASTER AND CAN BE USED FOR SIGNALING AFTER THE CALL IS COMPLETED
(IE, SCC'S, COMPUTERS, ETC.).  ALSO, IT IS MORE UPTO PAR WITH MODERN DAY
SWITCHING EQUIPMENT (SUCH AS ESS) SINCE PULSE DIALING WAS DESIGNED TO ACTUALLY
MOVE RELAYS BY THE NUMBER OF DIGITS DIALED (IN SXS OFFICES).

    EACH KEY ON A DTMF KEYPAD PRODUCES 2 FREQUENCIES SIMULTANEOUSLY (ONE FROM
THE HIGH GROUP AND ANOTHER FROM THE LOW GROUP).

           _______________________________________________
LOW GROUP |           |           |           |           |
   697 HZ-|     Q     |    ABC    |    DEF    |           |
          |     1     |     2     |     3     |     A     |
          |___________|___________|___________|___________|
          |           |           |           |           |
   770 HZ-|    GHI    |    JKL    |    MNO    |           |
          |     1     |     2     |     3     |     B     |
          |___________|___________|___________|___________|
          |           |           |           |           |
   852 HZ-|    PRS    |    TUV    |    WXY    |           |
          |     1     |     2     |     3     |     C     |

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          |___________|___________|___________|___________|
          |           | OPERATOR  |           |           |
   941 HZ-|           |     Z     |           |           |
          |     *     |     0     |     #     |     D     |
          |___________|___________|___________|___________|
                |           |           |           |
             1209 HZ     1336 HZ     1477 HZ     1633 HZ
               HIGH GROUP

A PORTABLE DTMF KEYPAD IS KNOWN AS A WHITE BOX.

    THE FOURTH COLUMN (1633 HZ) IS NOT NORMALLY FOUND ON REGULAR FONES BUT IT
DOES HAVE SEVERAL SPECIAL USES.  FOR ONE, IT IS USED TO DESIGNATE THE PRIORITY
OF CALLS ON AUTOVON, THE MILITARY FONE NETWORK. THESE KEY ARE CALLED:  FLASH,
IMMEDIATE, PRIORITY, & ROUTINE (WITH VARIATIONS) INSTEAD OF ABCD.  SECONDLY,
THESE KEYS ARE USED FOR TESTING PURPOSES BY THE TELCO.  IN SOME AREA YOU CAN
FIND LOOPS AS WELL AS OTHER NEAT TESTS (SEE PART II) ON THE 555-1212 DIRECTORY
ASSISTANCE EXCHANGE. FOR THIS, YOU WOULD CALL UP AN DA IN CERTAIN AREAS [THAT
HAVE AN AUTOMATIC CALL DISTRIBUTOR (ACD)] AND HOLD DOWN THE "D" KEY WHICH
SHOULD BLOW THE OPERATOR OFF.  YOU WILL THEN HEAR A PULSING DIAL TONE WHICH
INDICATES THAT YOU ARE IN THE ACD INTERNAL TESTING MODE.  YOU CAN GET ON ONE
SIDE OF A LOOP BY DIALING A 6.  THE OTHER SIDE IS 7.  SOME PHREAKS CLAIM THAT
IF THE PERSON ON SIDE 6 HANGS UP, OCCASIONALLY THE EQUIPMENT WILL SCREW UP AD
START DIRECTING DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE CALLS TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE LOOP.
ANOTHER ALLEGED TEST IS CALLED REMOB WHICH ALLOWS YOU TO TAP INTO LINES BY
ENTERING A SPECIAL CODE FOLLOWED BY THE 7 DIGIT NUMBER YOU WANT TO MONITOR.
THEN THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF MASS CONFERENCING.
    ACD'S ARE BECOME RARE THOUGH.  YOU WILL PROBABLY HAVE TO MAKE SEVERAL
NPA-555- 1212 CALLS BEFORE YOU FIND ONE.
    YOU CAN MODIFY REGULAR FONES QUITE READILY SO THAT THEY HAVE A SWITCH TO
CHANGE BETWEEN THE 3RD AND 4TH COLUMNS. THIS IS CALLED A SILVER BOX (AKA GREY
BOX) AD PLANS CAN BE FOUND IN TAP AS WELL AS ON MANY BBS'S.

TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER:
____________________________________________________________

    WHEN YOU TALK INTO THE TRANSMITTER, THE SOUND WAVES FROM YOUR VOICE CAUSE A
DIAPHRAGM TO VIBRATE AND PRESS AGAINST THE CARBON GRANULES (OR ANOTHER SIMILAR
SUBSTANCE).  THIS CAUSES THE CARBON GRANULES TO COMPRESS AND CONTRACT THUS
CHANGING THE RESISTANCE OF THE DC CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH IT.  THEREFORE, YOUR
AC VOICE SIGNAL IS SUPERIMPOSED OVER THE DC CURRENT OF THE LOCAL LOOP. THE
RECEIVER WORKS IN A SIMILAR FASHION WHERE THE SIMPLE TYPES UTILIZE A MAGNET,
ARMATURE, & DIAPHRAGM.

HYBRID/INDUCTION COIL:
____________________________________________________________

    AS YOU MAY HAVE NOTICED, THERE ARE TWO WIRES FOR THE RECEIVER AND TWO FOR
THE TRANSMITTER IN THE FONE, YET THE LOCAL LOOP CONSISTS OF 2 WIRES INSTEAD OF
4. THIS 4-WIRE TO 2-WIRE CONVERSION IS DONE INSIDE THE FONE BY A DEVICE KNOWN
AS AN INDUCTION COIL WHICH USES COUPLING TRANSFORMERS.
    THE REASON 2 SIRES ARE USED ON THE LOCAL LOOPS ARE BECAUSE IT IS ALOT
CHEAPER FOR THE TELCO.  ALTHOUGH, ALL OF THE INTER-OFFICE TRUNKS UTILIZE 4
WIRES.  THIS IS NECESSARY FOR FULL DUPLEX (IE, SIMULTANEOUS CONVERSATION ON
BOTH SIDES) AND FOR AMPLIFICATION DEVICES.  THERE ARE SIMILAR DEVICES IN THE
CO'S, KNOWN AS A HYBRID, THAT COUPLE THE 4-WIRE TRUNKS TO THE 2-WIRE LOCAL
LOOPS AND VISA-VERSA.


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MISCELLANEOUS:
____________________________________________________________

    IN THE TELEPHONE, THERE IS ALSO A BALANCING NETWORK CONSISTING OF A FEW
CAPACITORS & RESISTORS WHICH PROVIDE SIDETONE.  SIDETONE ALLOWS THE CALLER TO
HEAR HIS OWN VOLUME IN THE RECEIVER. HE CAN THEN ADJUST HIS VOICE ACCORDINGLY.
THIS PREVENTS PEOPLE FROM SHOUTING OR SPEAKING TOO SOFTLY WITHOUT NOTICING IT.

HOLD:
____________________________________________________________

    WHEN A TELEPHONE GOES OFF HOOK, THE RESISTANCE DROPS BELOW 2500 OHMS.  AT
THIS POINT, THE TELCO WILL SEND A DIAL TONE.  TO PUT SOMEONE ON HOLD YOU MUST
PUT A 1000 OHM RESISTOR (1 WATT) ACROSS THE TIP & RING BEFORE IT REACHES THE
SWITCHOOK.  IN THIS WAY, WHEN THE FONE IS HUNG UP (FOR HOLD) THE RESISTANCE
REMAINS BELOW 2500 OHMS WHICH CAUSES THE CO TO BELIEVE THAT YOU ARE STILL
OFF-HOOK.  YOU CAN BUILD A SIMPLE HOLD DEVICE USING THE FOLLOWING PICTORIAL
DIAGRAM:

(RED) O_________________________
 [L1]      |             |      |
           |             |      |
       1000 OHM          |      X
           |             |       X
       RESISTOR       RINGING   |
           |          CIRCUIT   |  -SWITCH
           |             |      |     HOOK
           /             |      |
          / SPST SWITCH  |      X
           |             |       X
           |             |      |
           |             |      |
(GREEN) O__|_____________|______|
  [L2]
--> TO REST OF FONE

CONCLUSION:
____________________________________________________________

NOTE:     MANY OF THE ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS OF NORMAL FONES  (K500) ARE
ENCLOSED IN THE NETWORK BOX (WHICH SHOULDN'T BE OPENED).

    I HAVE ASSUMED THAT THE READER HAS A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ELECTRONICS.  ALSO,
I HAVE ASSUMED THAT YOU HAVE READ THE 4 PREVIOUS INSTALLMENTS OF THIS SERIES
(AND HOPEFULLY ENJOYED THEM).

       IN PART VI, WE WILL TAKE A LOOK AT FORTRESS FONES.

SUGGESTED FURTHER READING:
____________________________________________________________

ELECTRONICS COURSES A-D, TAP, @ $.75 EACH.

& OTHER ASSORTED SOURCES...

TAP:  ROOM 603/147 W 42 ST./NEW YORK, NY 10036.  PLEASE SPECIFY BY BACKISSUE
#'S (NOT ARTICLE NAMES).  ALL BACK-ISSUES ARE $1 EACH. SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE
$10/YEAR (10 ISSUES). SAY THAT BIOC AGENT 003 SENT YOU.


































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************
         *                                                          *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                         PART VI                          *
         *                                                          *
         ************************************************************

REVISED:  27-OCT-84

Preface:

    This article will focus primarily on the standard Western Electric
single-slot coin telephone (aka fortress fone) which can be divided into 3
types:

- Dial-Tone First (DTF)

- Coin-First (CF):  (ie, it wants your $ before you receive a dial tone)

- Dial Post-Pay Service (PP):  you pay after the party answers

Depositing Coins (Slugs):
____________________________________________________________

    Once you have deposited your slug into a fortress, it is subjected to a
gamut of tests. The first obstacle for a slug is the magnetic trap.  This will
stop any light-weight magnetic slugs and coins. If it passes this, the slug is
then classified as a nickel, dime, or quarter.  Each slug is then checked for
appropriate size and weight. If these tests are passed, it will then travel
through a nickel, dime, or quarter magnet as appropriate.  These magnets set up
an eddy current effect which causes coins of the appropriate characteristics to
slow down so they will follow the correct trajectory.  If all goes well, the
coin will follow the correct path (such as bouncing off of the nickel anvil)
where it will hopefully fall into the narrow accepted coin channel.
    The rather elaborate tests that are performed as the coin travels down the
coin chute will stop most slugs and other undesirable coins, such as pennies,
which must then be retrieved using the coin release lever.
    If the slug miraculously survives the gamut, it will then strike the
appropriate totalizer arm causing a ratchet wheel to rotate once for every
5-cent increment (eg, a quarter will cause it to rotate 5 times).
    The totalizer then causes the coin signal oscillator to readout a
dual-frequency signal indicating the value deposited to ACTS (a computer) or
the TSPS operator. These are the same tones used by phreaks in the infamous red
boxes.
    For a quarter, 5 beep tones are outpulsed at 12-17 pulses per second (PPS).
A dime causes 2 beep tones at 5 - 8.5 PPS while a nickel causes one beep tone
at 5 - 8.5 PPS.  A beep consists of 2 tones:  2200 + 1700 Hz.
    A relay in the fortress called the "B relay" (yes, there is also an 'A
relay') places a capacitor across the speech circuit during totalizer read-out
to prevent the "customer" from hearing the red box tones.
    In older 3 slot phones:  one bell (1050-1100 Hz) for a nickel, two bells
for a dime, and one gong (800 Hz) for a quarter are used instead of the modern
dual-frequency tones.

TSPS & ACTS
____________________________________________________________

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    While fortresses are connected to the CO of the area, all transactions are
handled via the Traffic Service Position System (TSPS).  In areas that do not
have ACTS, all calls that require operator assistance, such as calling card and
collect, are automatically routed to a TSPS operator position.
    In an effort to automate fortress service, a computer system known as
Automated Coin Toll Service (ACTS) has been implemented in many areas.  ACTS
listens to the red box signals from the fones and takes appropriate action.  It
is ACTS which says, "Two dollars please (pause) Please deposit two dollars for
the next ten seconds" (and other variations). Also, if you talk for more than
three minutes and then hang-up, ACTS will call back and demand your money.
ACTS is also responsible for Automated Calling Card Service.
    ACTS also provide trouble diagnosis for craftspeople (repairmen
specializing in fortresses).  For example, there is a coin test which is great
for tuning up red boxes.  In many areas this test can be activated by dialing
09591230 at a fortress (thanks to Karl Marx for this information).  Once
activated it will request that you deposit various coins. It will then identify
the coin and outpulse the appropriate red box signal.  The coins are usually
returned when you hang up.
    To make sure that there is actually money in the fone, the CO initiates a
"ground test" at various times to determine if a coin is actually in the fone.
This is why you must deposit at least a nickel in order to use a red box!

Green Boxes:
____________________________________________________________

    Paying the initial rate in order to use a red box (on certain fortresses)
left a sour taste in many red boxer's mouths thus the GREEN BOX was invented.
The green box generates useful tones such as COIN COLLECT, COIN RETURN, and
RINGBACK.  These are the tones that ACTS or the TSPS operator would send to the
CO when appropriate. Unfortunately, the green box cannot be used at a fortress
station but it must be used by the CALLED party.

Here are the tones:

COIN COLLECT       700 + 1100 Hz
COIN RETURN       1100 + 1700 Hz
RINGBACK           700 + 1700 Hz

    Before the called party sends any of these tones, an operator released
signal should be sent to alert the MF detectors at the CO. This can be
accomplished by sending 900 + 1500 Hz or a single 2600 Hz wink (90 ms) followed
by a 60 ms gap and then the appropriate signal for at least 900 ms.
    Also, do not forget that the initial rate is collected shortly before the 3
minute period is up.
    Incidentally, once the above MF tones for collecting and returning coins
reach the CO, they are converted into an appropriate DC pulse (-130 volts for
return & +130 volts for collect). This pulse is then sent down the tip to the
fortress.  This causes the coin relay to either return or collect the coins.
    The alleged "T-Network" takes advantage of this information.  When a pulse
for COIN COLLECT (+130 VDC) is sent down the line, it must be grounded
somewhere.  This is usually either the yellow or black wire. Thus, if the wires
are exposed, these wires can be cut to prevent the pulse from being grounded.
When the three minute initial period is almost up, make sure that the black &
yellow wires are severed; then hang up, wait about 15 seconds in case of a
second pulse, reconnect the wires, pick up the fone, hang up again, and if all
goes well it should be "JACKPOT" time.


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Physical Attack:
____________________________________________________________

    A typical fortress weighs roughly 50 lbs. with an empty coin box. Most of
this is accounted for in the armor plating.  Why all the security?  Well, Bell
contributes it to the following:

        "Social changes during the 1960's made the multislot coin station a
prime target for:  vandalism, strong arm robbery, fraud, and theft of service.
This brought about the introduction of the more rugged single slot coin station
and a new environment for coin service."

As for picking the lock, I will quote Mr. Phelps:

        "We often fantasize about 'picking the lock' or 'getting a master
key.'  Well, you can forget about it. I don't like to discourage people, but it
will save you from wasting alot of your time--time which can be put to better
use (heh, heh)."

    As for physical attack, the coin plate is secured on all four side by
hardened steel bolts which pass through two slots each.  These bolts are in
turn interlocked by the main lock.
    One phreak I know did manage to take one of the 'mothers' home (which was
attached to a piece of plywood at a construction site; otherwise, the permanent
ones are a bitch to detach from the wall!). It took him almost ten hours to
open the coin box using a power drill, sledge hammers, and crow bars (which was
empty -- perhaps next time, he will deposit a coin first to hear if it slushes
down nicely or hits the empty bottom with a clunk.)
    Taking the fone offers a higher margin of success.  Although this may be
difficult often requiring brute force and there has been several cases of back
axles being lost trying to take down a fone!  A quick and dirty way to open the
coin box is by using a shotgun.  In Detroit, after ecologists cleaned out a
municipal pond, they found 168 coin phones rifled.
    In colder areas, such as Canada, some shrewd people tape up the fones using
duct tape, pour in water, and come back the next day when the water will have
froze thus expanding and cracking the fone open.In one case:

        "unauthorized coin collectors" where caught when they brought $6,000 in
change to a bank and the bank became suspicious...

    At any rate, the main lock is an eight level tumbler located on the right
side of the coin box.  This lock has 390,625 possible positions (5 ^ 8, since
there are 8 tumblers each with 5 possible positions) thus it is highly pick
resistant!  The lock is held in place by 4 screws.  If there is sufficient
clearance to the right of the fone, it is conceivable to punch out the screws
using the drilling pattern below (provided by Alexander Mundy in TAP)













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                                   Chapter 5

   What is covered in these last few articles, is the essence of phreaking,
blue boxing & equal access.  These last articles, I hope will be the final
stage of phreak education for now.  Basic telecommunications 7 is a brief intro
to the art of blue boxing, while Better Homes & Blue Boxing will cover it in
full.  Equal access will be an interesting switch, it is installed in my area
already and I have been investigating it.  One thought is to call MCI operators
and box through them, over MCI lines...


















































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************
         *                                                          *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *
         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *
         *                         PART VII                         *
         *                                                          *
         ************************************************************

Preface:

    After most neophyte phreaks overcome their fascination with Metro codes and
WATS extenders, they will usually seek to explore other avenues in the vast
phone network.  Often they will come across references such as "simply dial KP
+ 2130801050 + ST for the Alliance teleconferencing system in LA.". Numbers
such as the one above were intended to be used with a blue box; this article
will explain the fundamental principles of the fine art of blue boxing.

Genesis:
____________________________________________________________

    In the beginning, all long distance calls were connected manually by
operators who passed on the called number verbally to other operators in
series.  This is because pulse (aka rotary) digits are created by causing
breaks in the DC current (see Basic Telcom V). Since long distance calls
require routing through various switching equipment and AC voice amplifiers,
pulse dialing cannot be used to send the destination number to the end local
office (CO).

    Eventually, the demand for faster and more efficient long distance (LD)
service caused Bell to make a multi-billion dollar decision. They had to create
a signaling system that could be used on the LD Network. Basically, they had
two options:

[1]     To send all the signaling and supervisory information (ie, ON & OFF
HOOK) over separate data links.  This type of signaling is referred to as
out-of-band signaling.
                           -or-
[2]      To send all the signaling information along with the conversation
using tones to represent digits.  This type of signaling is referred to as
in-band signaling.

    Being the cheap bastard that they naturally are, Bell chose the latter (and
cheaper) method -- IN-BAND signaling.  They eventually regretted this, though
(heh, heh)...

IN-BAND SIGNALING PRINCIPLES:
____________________________________________________________

    When a subscriber dials a telephone number, whether in rotary or touch-tone
(aka DTMF), the equipment in the CO interprets the digits and looks for a
convenient trunk line to send the call on its way.  In the case of a local
call, it will probably be sent via an inter-office trunk; otherwise, it will be
sent to a toll office (class 4 or higher -- see Telcom IV) to be processed.

    When trunks are not being used there is a 2600 Hz tone on the line; thus,
to find a free trunk, the CO equipment simply checks for the presence of 2600
Hz. If it doesn't find a free trunk the customer will receive a re-order signal

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(120 IPM busy signal) or the "all circuits are busy..." message.   If it does
find a free trunk it "seizes" it -- removing the 2600 Hz.  It then sends the
called number or a special routing code to the other end or toll office.

    The tones it uses to send this information are called multi-frequency (MF)
tones.  An MF tone consists of two tones from a set of six master tones which
are combined to produce 12 separate tones.  You can sometimes hear these tones
in the background when you make a call but they are usually filtered out so
your delicate ears cannot hear them. These are NOT the same as touch-tones.

    To notify the equipment at the far end of the trunk that it is about to
receive routing information, the originating end first sends a Key Pulse (KP)
tone.  At the end of sending the digits, #he originating end then sends a STart
(ST) tone. Thus to call 914-359-1517, the equipment would send KP + 9143591517
+ ST in MF tones.  When the customer hangs up, 2600 Hz is once again sent to
signify a disconnect to the distant end.

History:
____________________________________________________________

    In the November 1960 issue of The Bell System Technical Journal, an article
entitled "Signaling Systems for Control of Telephone Switching" was published.
This journal, which was sent to most university libraries, happened to contain
the actual MF tones used in signaling.  They appeared as follows:

Digit                Tones
-----                -----
  1              700 +  900 Hz
  2              700 + 1100 Hz
  3              900 + 1100 Hz
  4              700 + 1300 Hz
  5              900 + 1300 Hz
  6             1100 + 1300 Hz
  7              700 + 1500 Hz
  8              900 + 1500 Hz
  9             1100 + 1500 Hz
  0             1300 + 1500 Hz
  KP            1100 + 1700 Hz
  ST            1500 + 1700 Hz
  11  (*)        700 + 1700 Hz
  12  (*)        900 + 1700 Hz
  KP2 (*)       1300 + 1700 Hz

(*)  Used only on CCITT SYSTEM 5 for special international calling.

    Bell caught wind of blue boxing in 1961 when it caught a Washington state
college student using one.  They originally found out about blue boxes through
police raids and informants. In 1964, Bell Labs came up with scanning
equipment, which recorded all suspicious calls, to detect blue box usage.
These units were installed in CO's where major toll fraud existed. AT&T
Security would then listen to the tapes to see if any toll fraud was actually
committed.  Over 200 convictions resulted from the project. Surprisingly
enough, blue boxing is not solely limited to the electronics enthusiast; AT&T
has caught businessmen, film stars, doctors, lawyers, college students, high
school students and even a millionaire financier (Bernard Cornfeld) using the
device.  AT&T also said that nearly half of those that they catch are
businessmen.


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    Of course, phone phreaks have achieved an almost cult status. They have
also had their fair share of media.  In October 1971, Esquire published the
infamous "Secrets of the Little Blue Box" article which featured phreaks such
as Captain Crunch, who took his name from the cereal which one gave away
whistles that produced a perfect 2600 Hz pitch; Joe Engressia, the blind
phreak; and Mark Bernay, one of the nation's first and oldest phreaks. Others
such as Apple computer co-founders Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs have also had
blue box backgrounds. 1971 also saw the publication of the first issue of YIPL,
the phone phreak newsletter, (now TAP) under the editorship of supreme yippie
Abbie Hoffman.

Usage:
____________________________________________________________

    To use a blue box, one would usually make a free call to any 800 number or
distant directory assistance (NPA-555-1212).  This, of course, is legitimate.
When the call is answered, one would then swiftly press the button that would
send 2600 Hz down the line.  This has the effect of making the distant CO
equipment think that the call was terminated and it leaves the trunk hanging.
Now, the user has about 10 seconds to enter in the telephone number he wished
to dial -- in MF, that is.  The CO equipment merely assumes that this came from
another office and it will happily process the call. Since there are no records
(except on toll fraud detection devices!) of these MF tones, the user is not
billed for the call.  When the user hangs up, the CO equipment simply records
that he hung up on a free call.

Detection:
____________________________________________________________

    Bell has had 20 years to work on detection devices; therefore, in this day
and age, they are rather well refined.  Basically, the detection device will
look for the presence of 2600 Hz where it does not belong.  It then records the
calling number and all activity after the 2600 Hz.  If you happen to be at a
fortress fone, though, and you make the call short, your chances of getting
caught are significantly reduced (see Telcom VI). Incidentally, there have been
rumors of certain test numbers (see Telcom II) that hook directly into trunks
thus avoiding the need for 2600 Hz and detection!

    Another way that Bell catches boxers is to examine the CAMA (Centralized
Automatic Message Accounting) tapes. When you make a call, your number, the
called number, and time of day are all recorded.  The same thing happens when
you hang up.  This tape is then processed for billing purposes. Normally, all
free calls are ignored. But Bell can program the billing equipment to make note
of lengthy calls to directory assistance.  They can then put a pen register
(aka DNR) on the line or an actual full-blown tap.  This detection can be
avoided by making short-haul (aka local) calls to box off of.

    It is interesting to note that NPA+555-1212 originally did not return
answer supervision.  Thus the calls were not recorded on the AMA/CAMA tapes.
AT&T changed this though for "traffic studies!"

CCIS:
____________________________________________________________

    Besides detection devices, Bell has begun to gradually redesign the network
using out-of-band signaling.  This is known as Common Channel Inter-office
Signaling (CCIS).  Since this signaling method sends all the signaling
information over separate data lines, blue boxing is impossible under it.

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    While being implemented gradually, this multi-billion dollar project is
still strangling the fine art of blue boxing. Of course until the project is
totally complete, boxing will still be possible. It will become progressively
harder to find places to box off of, though.  In areas with CCIS, one must find
a directory assistance office that doesn't have CCIS yet.  Area codes in Canada
and predominately rural states are the best bets.  WATS numbers terminating in
non-CCIS cities are also good prospects.

Pink Noise:
____________________________________________________________

    Another way that may help to avoid  detection is too add some "pink noise"
to the 2600 Hz tone. Since 2600 Hz tones can be simulated in speech, the
detection equipment must be careful not to misinterpret speech as a disconnect
signal.  Thus a virtually pure 2600 Hz tone is required for disconnect.

    Keeping this in mind, the 2600 Hz detection equipment is also probably
looking for pure 2600 Hz or else is would be triggered every time someone hit
that note (highest E on a piano =2637 Hz).  This is also the reason that the
2600 Hz tone must be sent rapidly; sometimes, it won't work when the  operator
is saying "Hello, hello."  It is feasible to send some "pink noise" along with
the 2600 Hz.  Most of this energy should be above 3000 Hz.  The pink noise
won't make it into the toll network (where we want our pure 2600 Hz to hit) but
it should make it past the local CO and thus the fraud detectors.

Construction:
____________________________________________________________

    While step-by-step details for the construction of a blue box is beyond the
scope of this tutorial, it is worthwhile to mention some of the details.

    First there are some alternatives but they are not as good as an actual
blue box.  Many computers are capable of generating MF tones. Thus, your local
phriendly software pirate should have a program compatible for your computer.

    However, it is highly advisable not to box from home as stated in The Ten
Commandments (as interpreted for phreaks by Fred Steinbeck -- TAP #86).

I.     Box thou not over thine home telephone wires, for those who doest must
surely bring the full wrath of the Chief Special Agent down upon thy heads.

    Another alternative that has a moderate success rate involves recording the
tones from a phriend with a box or computer onto a cassette tape.  They can
then be used at a fortress.

    As for actual construction techniques, TAP has devoted many issues to blue
boxing.  Basically, a blue box is merely a device capable of generating two
different tones simultaneously. There are two basic construction methods that I
will outline below for the electronics hobbyist.

    The first involves the use of two 555 timer chips (or a 556 -- i.e., two
555's in one chip).  It offers excellent frequency and voltage stability.
Also, it does not need a diode matrix keypad but used double-pole switches
instead.  Schematics for this type of box can be found in TAP issue #29.

    The other common box makes use of two Intersil 8038CC Function Generators.
It does require a diode matrix keypad though, potentiometers, an LM-100 voltage

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regulator, a 741 Op-amp, and a handful of other parts.  The schematics for this
type of blue box can be found in TAP #26. Both designs draw about 20 ma of
current.

    Also, most blue boxes use telephone earpieces (with the varistor removed)
for speakers.  These can be easily liberated from fortress fones with a small
coping saw.

    Usually, the hardest part about building a blue box is the calibration. A
frequency counter is a must and an oscilloscope won't hurt.

    Some boxes also take timing into account.  It is feasible on the ESS
systems that they check to see if the digits are of uniform length.  If they
aren't, they are probably from a blue box and a trouble card may be dropped.
With this in mind, the Bell standard for MF pulses and interdigit intervals is
around 75 ms.  It varies with the equipment used since ESS can handle higher
speeds and doesn't need interdigit intervals.

Applications:
____________________________________________________________

    Besides dialing normal calls free, i.e., KP+NPA+NNX+XXXX+ST, blue boxes
offer the entire network for exploration.  Emergency break-ins, service
monitoring (aka taps), stacking tandems (the art of busying out all trunks
between two points), re-routing calls, conference calls, and much, much more
... Inward Operator City Codes

         Usually, the INWARD operator for an area is simply KP + NPA + 121 +
ST.  In some area codes, though, there are several large cities and thus

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several inwards.  To find the inward for a specific city, you would say "916
756, operator route, please" to the R&R operator who will then tell you "916
plus 001 plus."  This means that KP+ 916 + 001 + 121 + ST will get you an
inward for Sacramento, CA (916-756).

... City names

         If you want to know the city that corresponds to an area code and
exchange, you simply tell the R&R, "Place name, 914 390, please." In this
example, the R&R operator will respond with "White Plains, NY."

... International Directory Assistance

         If you need a directory route for London, you could say
"International, London, England.  TSPS directory route, please."  The R&R
operator will respond with "Directory to London, England. Country code 44 plus
1 plus 986 plus 3611." Therefore to get a DA operator in London, you would
route yourself to an international sender and KP + 04419863611 + ST.

... Country & City codes

         If you need to know the country and city code for an international
number you can say "International, Sydney, Australia, TSPS numbers route,
please" and get "Country code 61 plus 2."

... International Inwards Routes

         To get routing codes for international inwards say "International,
London, England, TSPS inward route, please." The R&R Operator will respond with
"Country code 44 plus 121."

    Finally, to get language assistance for completing a foreign call you can
tell the foreign inward, "United States calling.  Language assistance in
completing a call to (called party) at (called number)."

151      --  Overseas incoming (212 +& 914+)
160-XX0  --  Various Overseas Operators
161      --  Trouble reporting operator (defunct)
181      --  Coin Refund Operator
18X      --  Overseas senders

    To make an international call, one would KP + 011 + 0CC + ST where CC is
the country code.  This will route you to the appropriate overseas sender. You
will then receive a 480 Hz dial tone.  Here you enter KP + 0CC + city code +
local number + ST and the call is on its way.

    Country codes can be either 1, 2, or 3 digits but they must be padded for
three digits to create a pseudo-country code with extra zero's if necessary.
For example, England, country code 44, becomes 044.

    To see which international sender a certain country (lets use French
Guiana, country code 594, for example) goes through, you can dial KP + 011 +
594 + ST, wait for the Proceed to Send tone then KP + 000 + 0000 + ST and you
will receive a recording saying which ISC (International Switching Center) it
is.  For the example it will say, "This is the international switching center
in Pittsburg, PA -- This is a recording - 4121."  You can actually route calls
to certain senders yourself (KP + NPA + 18X + ST) but it is better off not to
since it may look suspicious if a call is sent through a sender that it

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shouldn't go through.  Here are the senders:

182  -- White Plains, NY
183  -- New York, NY
184  -- Pittsburg, PA
185  -- Orlando, FL
186  -- Oakland, CA
187  -- Denver, CO
188  -- New York, NY

    Also, there tends to be alot of talk about the Code 11, Code 12, KP2, STP,
ST3P, & ST2P keys.  While they do exist the blue boxer need not concern himself
with them.  The first three are used on CCITT System 5.  This is the signaling
system that the International Senders use to send information to other
countries.  These codes are usually added automatically just like the language
assistance digit [which distinguishes operator (or blue box) dialed calls from
customer dialed calls].  The STP, ST3P, & ST2P tones are used when equipment is
communicating with the TSPS.  These also are automatically added when needed in
most cases.

[see Telcom III for more on International Switching Centers (ISC)]

11XXX   -- miscellaneous operators
11501   -- universal cordboard operator
11511   -- conference operator
11521   -- mobile operator
11531   -- marine operator
11541   -- LD incoming switchboard
11551   -- leave word for time & charges (neat stuff)
11561   -- same as 11551 but for hotel/motels
11571   -- overseas operators (language assistance)

    The 11XXX series is interesting scanning material.

Miscellaneous Routing Codes :
____________________________________________________________

    Alliance Teleconferencing has several numbers, a few of which are listed
below:

KP + 213 080 XXXX + ST
KP + 305 025 XXXX + ST
KP + 312 001 XXXX + ST
XXXX = 1050, 1100, or a few others

    Also, at KP + 317 009 + ST there is a MF tone checker.  After the
beep-kerclunk, dial in KP + 999 1234567 890 + ST and it will repeat the digits
that you pulsed if they are of the right frequency.

Tandem Scanning:
____________________________________________________________

    To find all sorts of interesting things, you must look.  Begin scanning
three digit codes in your area (i.e., KP + 000 + ST, KP + 001 + ST, etc.). Keep
track of all of your results. Sometimes you must probe things, send additional
digits and see what happens, send touch-tone, send it 2600 Hz, rip it apart.
You never know, you may run into something phun, like a computer that checks CC
numbers.

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    Incidentally, in some exchange you can dial inwards and other box codes
directly!  For example, 914-121-1111 will get you a NY inward. The only problem
is that a 0 or 1 as the first digit of the exchange is usually *prohibited in
customer dialing. Somebody may have "accidentally" changed this screening code
on your ESS's computer, though -- you never know and it can't hurt to try.
WATS translation numbers also take up some of the 0XX & 1XX codes.

    Finally, certain tones on the blue box can also be used for other purposes.
An MF "2" corresponds to COIN COLLECT while "KP" corresponds to COIN RETURN.
Thus every blue box is also a green box (see Telcom VI).

Coming soon:

Telcom VIII will deal with cordless phones, mobile phones, and other neat
things.

Be careful and have phun,

*****BIOC
*=$=*Agent
*****003






































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The Mark Tabas encounter series presents:

         -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                         Better Homes and Blue Boxing

                                    Part I

                              Theory of Operation
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

  To quote Karl Marx, blue boxing has always been the most noble form of
phreaking. As opposed to such things as using an MCI code to make a free fone
call, which is merely mindless pseudo-phreaking, blue boxing is actual
interaction with the Bell System toll network. It is likewise advisable to be
more cautious when blue boxing, but the careful phreak will not be caught,
regardless of what type of switching system he is under.

  In this part, I will explain how and why blue boxing works, as well as where.
In later parts, I will give more practical information for blue boxing and
routing information.

  To begin with, blue boxing is simply communicating with trunks. Trunks must
not be confused with subscriber lines (or "customer loops") which are standard
telefone lines. Trunks are those lines that connect central offices. Now, when
trunks are not in use (i.e., idle or "on-hook" state) they have 2600Hz applied
to them. If they are two-way trunks, there is 2600Hz in both directions. When a
trunk IS in use (busy or "off-hook" state"), the 2600Hz is removed from the
side that is off-hook. The 2600Hz is therefore known as a supervisory signal,
because it indicates the status of a trunk; on hook (tone) or off-hook (no
tone). Note also that 2600Hz denoted SF (single frequency) signalling and is
"in-band." This is very important. "In-band" means that is is within the band
of frequencies that may be transmitted over normal telefone lines. Other SF
signals, such as 3700Hz are used also. However, they cannot be carried over the
telefone network normally (they are "out-of-band") and are therefore not able
to be taken advantage of as 2600Hz is.

  Back to trunks. Let's take a hypothetical phone call. You pick up your fone
and dial 1+806-258-1234 (your good friend in Armarillo, Texas). For ease, we'll
assume that you are on #5 Crossbar switching and not in the 806 area. Your
central office (CO) would recognize that 806 is a foreign NPA, so it would
route the call to the toll centre that serves you. [For the sake of accuracy
here, and for the more experienced readers, note that the CO in question is a
class 5 with LAMA that uses out-of-band SF supervisory signalling]. Depending
on where you are in the country, the call would leave your toll centre (on more
trunks) to another toll centre, or office of higher "rank". Then it would be
routed to central office 806-258 eventually and the call would be completed.
Illustration:

A---CO1-------TC1------TC2----CO2----B

A=you
CO1=your central office
TC1=your toll office.
TC2=toll office in Amarillo.
CO2=806-258 central office.
B=your friend (806-258-1234)

  In this situation it would be realistic to say that CO2 uses SF in-band

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(2600Hz) signalling, while all the others use out-of-band signalling (3700Hz).
If you don't understand this, don't worry too much.  I am pointing this out
merely for the sake of accuracy. The point is that while you are connected to
806-258-1234, all those trunks from YOUR central office (CO1) to the 806-258
central office (CO2) do *NOT* have 2600Hz on them, indicating to the Bell
equipment that a call is in progress and the trunks are in use.

  Now let's say you're tired of talking to your friend in Amarillo
(806-258-1234) so you send a 2600Hz down the line. This tone travels down the
line to your friend's central office (CO2) where it is detected.  However, that
CO thinks that the 2600Hz is originating from Bell equipment, indicating to it
that you've hung up, and thus the trunks are once again idle (with 2600Hz
present on them). But actually, you have not hung up, you have fooled the
equipment at your friend's CO into thinking you have. Thus,it disconnects him
and resets the equipment to prepare for the next call. All this happens very
quickly (300-800ms for step-by-step equipment and 150-400ms for other
equipment).

  When you stop sending 2600Hz (after about a second), the equipment thinks
that another call is coming towards it (e.g. it thinks the far end has come
"off-hook" since the tone has stopped. It could be thought of as a toggle
switch: tone --> on hook, no tone -->off hook. Now that you've stopped sending
2600Hz, several things happen:

1) A trunk is seized.

2) A "wink" is sent to the CALLING end from the CALLED end indicating that the
CALLED end (trunk) is not ready to receive digits yet.

3) A register is found and attached to the CALLED end of the trunk within about
two seconds (max).

4) A start-dial signal is sent to the CALLING end from the CALLED end
indicating that the CALLED end is ready to receive digits.

Now, all of this is pretty much transparent to the blue boxer. All he really
hears when these four things happen is a <beep><kerchunk>. So, seizure of a
trunk would go something like this:

1> Send a 2600Hz
2> Terminate 2600Hz after 1-2 secs.
3> [beep][kerchunk]

  Once this happens, you are connected to a tandem that is ready to obey your
every command. The next step is to send signalling information in order to
place your call. For this you must simulate the signalling used by operators
and automatic toll-dialing equipment for use on trunks. There are mainly two
systems, DP and MF.  However, DP went out with the dinosaur , so I'll only
discuss MF signalling. MF (multi-frequency) signalling is the signalling used
by the majority of the inter- and intra-lata network. It is also used in
international dialing known as the CCITT no.5 system.

  MF signalling consists of 7 frequencies, beginning with 700Hz and separated
by 200Hz. A different set of two of the 7 frequencies represent the digits 0
thru 9, plus an additional 5 special keys. The frequencies and uses are as
follows:

Frequencies (Hz)  Domestic    Int'l

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--------------------------------------
 700+900             1          1
 700+1100            2          2
 900+1100            3          3
 700+1300            4          4
 900+1300            5          5
1100+1300            6          6
 700+1500            7          7
 900+1500            8          8
1100+1500            9          9
1300+1500            0          0
 700+1700           ST3p       Code 11
 900+1700           STp        Code 12
1100+1700           KP         KP1
1300+1700           ST2p       KP2
1500+1700           ST         ST

  The timing of all the MF signals is a nominal 60ms, except for KP, which
should have a duration of 100ms. There should also be a 60ms silent period
between digits. This is very flexible, however, and most Bell equipment will
accept outrageous timings.

  In addition to the standard uses listed above, MF pulsing also has expanded
usages known as "expanded inband signalling" that include such things as coin
collect, coin return, ringback, operator attached, and operator released. KP2,
code 11, and code 12 and the ST_ps (STart "primes") all have special uses which
will be mentioned only briefly here.

  To complete a call using a blue box, once seizure of a trunk has been
accomplished by sending 2600Hz and pausing for the <beep><kerchunk>, one must
first send a KP. This readies the register for the digits that follow.  For a
standard domestic call, the KP would be followed by either 7 digits (if the
call were in the same NPA as the seized trunk) or 10 digits (if the call were
not in the same NPA as the seized trunk). [Exactly like dialing a normal fone
call]. Following either the KP and 7 or 10 digits, a STart is sent to signify
that no more digits follow. Example of a complete call:

1> Dial 1-806-258-1234
2> wait for a call-progress indication (such as ring, busy, recording, etc.)
3> Send 2600Hz for about 1 second.
4> Wait for about 2 seconds while a trunk is seized.
5> Send KP+305+994+9966+ST

  The call will then connect if every-thing was done properly. Note that if a
call to an 806 number were being placed in the same situation, the area code
would be omitted and only KP+ seven digits+ST would be sent.

  Code 11 and code 12 are used in international calling to request certain
types of operators. KP2 is used in international calling to route a call other
than by way of the normal route, whether for economic or equipment reasons.

  STp, ST2p, and ST3p (prime, two prime, and three prime) are used in TSPS
signalling to indicate calling type of call (such as coin-direct dialed).

   This has been Part I of Better Homes and Blue Boxing. I hope you enjoyed and
learned from it. If you have any questions, comments, threats or insults,
please fell free to drop me a line. If you have noticed any errors in this text
(yes, it does happen), please let me know and perhaps a correction will be in

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order.  Part II will deal mainly with more advanced principles of blue boxing,
as well as routings and operators.

  Note 1: other highly trunkable areas include: 816,305,813,609,205. I
personally have excellent luck boxing off of 609-953-0000. Try that if you have
any trouble.





















































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         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
                         Better Homes and Blue Boxing

                                    Part II

                            Practical Applications
         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

(It is assumed that the reader has read and understood Part I of this series).

  The essential purpose of blue boxing in the beginning was merely to receive
toll services free of charge. Though this can still be done, blue boxing has
essentially outlived its usefulness in this area. Modern day "extenders" and
long distance services provide a safer and easier way to make free fone calls.
However, you can do things with a blue box that just can't be done with
anything else. For ordinary toll-fraud, a blue box is impractical for the
following reasons:

1. Clumsy equipment required (blue box or equivalent)
2. Most boxed calls must be made through an extender. Not for safety reasons,
but for reasons I'll explain later.
3. Connections are often sacrificed because considerable distances must be
dialed to cross a seizable trunk, in addition to awkward routing.

  As stated in reason #2, boxed calls are usually made through an extender.
This is for billing reasons. If you recall from Part i, 2600Hz is used as a
"supervisory" signal. That is, it signals the status of a trunk--"on-hook" or
"off-hook." When you seize a trunk (by briefly sending 2600Hz), your end (the
CALLING end) goes on hook for the duration of the 2600Hz and then goes off-hook
once again when the 2600Hz is terminated.  The CALLED end recognizes that a
call is on the way and attaches a register, which interprets the digits which
are to be sent. Now, understand that even though your end has come off-hook (no
2600Hz present), the other end is still on-hook. You may wonder then, why, if
the other end (the CALLED end) is still on-hook, there is no 2600Hz coming the
other way on the trunk, when there should be. This is correct.  2600Hz *IS*
present on the trunk when you seize it and afterwards, but you cannot hear it
because of a Band Elimination Filter (BEF) at your central office.

  Back to the problem. Remember that when you seize a trunk, 2600Hz is indeed
coming the other way on the trunk because the CALLED end is still on-hook, but
you don't actually hear it because of a filter. However, the Bell equipment
knows it's there (they can "hear" it). The presence of the 2600Hz is telling
the billing equipment that your call has not yet been completed (i.e., the
CALLED end is still on-hook). When finally you do connect with your boxed call,
the 2600Hz from the called end terminates.  This tells the billing equipment
that someone picked up the fone at the CALLED end and you should begin to be
billed. So you do start to get billed, but for the call to the trunk, NOT the
boxed call. Your billing equipment thinks that you've connected with the number
you used to seize the trunk. Illustration:

1. You call 1+806-258-2222 (directly)
2. Status of trunks:

<----------------------------------->
(You)                    806-258-2222
No 2600Hz-------> <------------2600Hz

  When you seize a trunk (before the number you called answers) there is no

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affect on your billing equipment.  It simply thinks that you're still waiting
for the call to complete (the CALLED end is still on-hook; it is ringing, busy,
going to recorder or intercept operator.

  Now, let's say that you've seized a trunk (806-258-2222) and for example,
KP+314+949+1705+ST. The call is routed from the tandem you seized to:
314-949-1705. Illustration:

<------------------>O<--------------->
(You)              806         314-949
    tandem
No 2600Hz----------> <----------2600Hz

  Note that the entire path towards the right (the CALLED end) has no 2600Hz
present and is therefore "off-hook." The entire path towards the left (the
CALLING end) does have 2600Hz present on it, indicating that the CALLED end has
not picked up (or come "off-hook"). When 314-949-1705 answers, "answer
supervision" is given and the 2600Hz towards the left (the CALLING end)
terminates. This tells your billing equipment, which thinks that you're still
waiting to be connected with 806-258-2222, that you've finally connected.
Billing then begins to 806-258-2222. Not exactly an auspicious beginning for an
aspiring young phone phreak.

  To avoid this, several actions may be taken. As previously mentioned, one may
avoid being charged for the number called to seize a trunk by using an extender
(in which case the extender will get billed). In some areas, boxing may be
accomplished using an 800 number, generally in the format of 800-858-xxxx (many
Amarillo numbers) or 800-NN2-xxxx (special intra-state class in-WATS numbers).
However, boxing off of 800 numbers is impossible in many areas. In my area,
Denver, I am served by #1A ESS and it is impossible for me to box off of any
800 number.

  Years ago, in the early days of blue boxing (before my time), phreaks often
used directory assistance to box off of because they were "free" long distance
calls. However, because of competitive long distance companies, directory
assistance surcharges are now $0.50 in many areas. It is additionally advised
that directory assistance numbers not be used to box from because of the
following:

  Average DA calls last under 2 minutes. When you box a call, chances are that
it will last considerably longer. Thus, the Bell billing equipment will make a
note of calls to directory assistance that last a long time. A call to a
directory assistant lasting for 4 hours and 17 minutes may appear somewhat
suspicious.

  Although the date, time, and length of a DA call do not appear on the bill,
it is recorded on AMA tape and will trip a trouble report if it were to last
too long. This is how most phreaks were discovered in the old days. Also,
sometimes too many calls lasting too long to one 800 number may raise a few
eyebrows at the local security office.

  Assuming you can complete a blue box call, the following are listed routings
for various Bell internal operators.  These are in the format of KP+NPA+
special routing+1X1+ST, which I will explain later. The 1X1 is the actual
operator routing, and NPA and NPA+ special routing are used for out-of-area
code calls and out-of-area code calls requiring special routing, respectively.

KP+101+ST ...... Toll test board.

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KP+121+ST ...... Inward Operator.
KP+131+ST ...... Directory assistance.
KP+141+ST ...... was rate & route. Now only works in 312, 815, 717, and a few
others. It has been replaced with a universal rate & route number
800+141+1212.
KP+151+ST ...... Overseas completion operator (inbound). Works only in certain
NPAs, such as 303.
KP+181+ST ...... In some areas, toll station for small towns.

  Thus, if you seize a trunk in 806 NPA and wanted an inward (in 806), then you
would dial KP+121+ST. If you wanted a 312 inward and were dialing on an 806
trunk, an area code would be required.  Thus, you would dial KP+312+121+ST.
Finally, some places in the network require special routing, in addition to an
area code. An example is Franklin Park, Ill. It requires a special routing of
032. For this, you would dial KP+312+032+121+ST for a Franklin Park inward
operator.

  Special routings are in the format of 0XX. They are used primarily for load
balance, so that traffic flow may be evenly distributed. About half of the
exchanges in the network require special routing. Note that special routings
are NEVER EVER EVER used to dial normal telephone numbers, only operators.

  Operator functions:

TOLL TEST BOARD- Generally a cordboard position that assists in trunk testing.
They are not used by operators, only switchmen.

INWARD- Assists the normal TSPS (0+) operator in completing calls out of the
TSPS's area. Also, inwards perform emergency interrupts when the number to be
interrupted is out of the area code of the original (TSPS) operator. For
example, a 303 operator has a customer that needs an emergency interrupt on
215-647-6969. The 303 operator gets the routing for the inward that covers
215-647, since she cannot do the interrupt herself. The routing is found to be
only 215+ (no special routing required). So, the 303 operator keys
KP+215+121+ST. An inward answers and the 303 says to her, "Inward, this is
Denver. I need an emergency interrupt on 215-647-6969. My customer's name is
Mark Tabas." The inward will then do the interrupt (off the line, of course).
If the number to be interrupted had required special routing, such as, say,
312-456-1234 (spec routing 032), then the 303 operator would dial
KP+312+032+121+ST for the inward to do that interrupt.

DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE- These are the normal NPA+555+1212 operators that assist
customers with obtaining telefone directory listings. Not much toll-fraud
potential here, except maybe $0.50.

RATE AND ROUTE-   These operators are reached by dialing KP+800+141+1212+ST.
They assist normal (TSPS) operators with rates and routings (thus the name).
The only uses I typically have for them are the following:

 1. Routing-
    Information-    In the above example, when the 303 operator needed to dial
an inward that served 215-647, she needed to know if any special routing was
required and, if so, what it was. Assuming she would use rate and route, she
would dial them and say nicely, "Operator's route, please, for 215-647." Rate &
route would respond with "215 plus."  This means that the operator would dial
KP+215+121+ST to reach the inward that serves 215-647.  If there were special
routing required, such as in 312-456, rate & route would respond with "312 plus
032 plus." In that case, the operator would dial KP+312+032+ST for the inward

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that serves 312-456.

  It is good practice to ask for "operator's route" specifically, as there are
also "numbers route" and "directory routes." If you do not specifically ask for
operator's route, rate & route will generally assume that is what you want
anyway.

"Numbers"   route refers to overseas calls. Example, you want to know how to
reach a number in Geneva, Switzerland (and you already have the number). You
would call routing and say "Numbers route, please, Geneva, Switzerland." The
operator would respond with: "Mark 41+22. 011+041+ST (plus) 041+22" The "Mark
41+22" has to do with billing, so disregard it. The 011+041 is access to the
overseas gateway (to be discussed in Part iii) and the 041+ 22+ is the routing
for Geneva from the overseas sender.

"Directory" routings are for directory assistance overseas. Example: you want a
DA in Rome, Italy. You would call rate & route and say, "Directory routing
please, for Rome, Italy." They would respond with "011+039+ST (plus) 039+1108
STart." As in the previous example, the 011+039 is access to the overseas
gateway. The 039+1108 is a directory assistant in Rome.

 2. Nameplace information-  Rate & Route will give you the location of an NPA+
exchange. Example: "Nameplace please, for 215-648." The operator would respond
with "Paoli, Pennsylvania." This isn't especially useful, since you can get the
same information (legally) by dialing 0, but using rate & route is often much
faster and it avoids having to hang up when you are already on a trunk.

*NOTE*   On Rate & Route: As a blue boxer, always ask for "IOTC" routings.
(e.g., "IOTC operator's route", "IOTC numbers route", etc.) This tells them
that you want cordboard-type routings, not TSPS, because a blue boxer is
actually just a cordboard position (that Bell doesn't know about).

OVERSEAS COMPLETION
OPERATOR (inbound)-  These operators (KP+151+ST) assist in  the completion of
calls coming in to the United States from overseas. There are KP+151+ST
operators only in a few NPAs in the country (namely 303). To use one, you would
seize a trunk and dial KP+303+151+ST. Then you would tell the operator, for
example, "This is Bangladesh calling. I need U.S.  number 215-561-0562 please."
[in a broken Indian accent]. She would connect you, and the bill would be sent
to Bangladesh (where I've been billing my KP+151+ST calls for two years).

Other internal Bell Operators.

KP+11501+ST ...... universal operator
KP+11511+ST ...... conference op
KP+11521+ST ...... mobile op
KP+11531+ST ...... marine op
KP+11541+ST ...... long distance terminal
KP+11551+ST ...... time & charges op
KP+11561+ST ...... hotel/motel op
KP+11571+ST ...... overseas (outbound) op

  These 115X1 operators are identical in routing to the 1X1 operators listed
previously, with one exception. If special routing is required (0XX), then the
trailing 1 is left off.

Examples:


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A 312 universal op ... KP+312+11501+ST
A Franklin Park (312-456) universal op (special routing 032 required)........
KP+312+032+1150+ST  [The trailing 1 of 11501 is left off].

Purposes of 115X1 operators.

UNIVERSAL- Used for collect/callback calls to coin stations.

CONFERENCE- This is a cordboard conference operator who will set up a
conference for a customer on a manual operation basis.

MOBILE- Assists in completion of calls to mobile (IMTS) type telefones.

MARINE- Assists in completion of calls to ocean going vessels.

LONG DISTANCE TERMINAL- Now obsolete.Was used for completion of long distance
calls.

TIME & CHARGES- Will give exact costs of calls. Used to time calls and inform
customer of exactly how much it cost.

HOTEL/MOTEL- Handles calls to/from hotels and motels.

OVERSEAS
COMPLETION (outbound)- assists in completion of calls to overseas points. Only
works in some, if any NPAs, because overseas assistance has been centralized to
IOCC (covered in Part III).

  Note that all KP+1X1+ST and KP+115X1+ST operators automatically assume that
you are a TSPS or cordboard operator assisting a customer with a call. DO NOT
DO ANYTHING TO JEOPARDIZE THIS! If you do not know what to do, don't call these
operators! Find out what to do first.

  This concludes Part II. There is one final part in which I will explain
overseas dialing, IOCC (International Overseas Completion Centre), RQS
(Rate/Quote System), and some basic scanning.























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         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
                         Better Homes and Blue Boxing

                                   Part III

                              Advanced Signalling
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

(It is assumed that the reader has read and understood parts i & ii before
proceeding to this part).

  In Parts I & II, I covered basic theory and domestic signalling and
operators. In this part I will explain overseas direct boxing, the IOCC, the
RQS, and some basic scanning methods.

Overseas Direct Boxing.

  Calling outside of the United States and Canada is accomplished by using an
"overseas gateway." There are 7 over-seas gateways in the Bell System, and each
one is designated to serve a certain region of the world. To initiate an
overseas call, one must first access the gateway that the call is to be sent
on. To do this automatically, decide which country you are calling and find its
country code.  Then, pad it to the left with zeros as required so it is three
digits. [Add 1, 2, or 3 zeros as required].

Examples:

Luxembourg (352) is 352 (stays the same)
Spain (34)   becomes 034 (1 zero added)
U.S.S.R. (7) becomes 007 (2 zeros added)

  Next, seize a trunk and dial KP+011+ CC+ST. Note that CC is the three digit
padded country code that you just determined by the above method. [For
Luxembourg, dial KP+011+352+ST, Spain KP+011+034+ST, and the U.S.S.R. KP+011+
007+ST]. This is done to route you to the appropriate overseas gateway that
handles the country you are dialing. Even though every gateway will allow you
to dial every dialable country, it is good practice to use the gateway that is
designated for the country you are calling.

  After dialing KP+011+CC+ST (as CC is defined above) you should be connected
to an overseas gateway. It will acknowledge by sending a wink (which is audible
as a <beep><kerchink> and a dial tone. Once you receive international dial
tone, you may route your call one of two ways: a) as an operator-originated
call, or b) as a customer-originated call. To go as a operator-originated call,
key KP+ country code (NOT padded with zeros)+ city code+number+ST. You will
then be connected, providing the country you are calling can receive
direct-dialed calls. The U.S.S.R. is an example of a country that cannot.

Example of a boxed int'l call:

To make a call to the Pope (Rome, Italy), first obtain the country code, which
is 39. Pad it with zeros so that it is 039. Seize a trunk and dial
KP+011+039+ST. Wait for sender dial tone and then dial KP+39+6+6982+ST.  39 is
the country code, 6 is the city code, and 6982 is the Pope's number in Rome. To
go as an operator-originated call, simply place a zero in front of the country
code when dialing on the gateway. Thus, KP+0+39+6+6982+ST would be dialed at
sender dial tone. Routing your call as operator-originated does not affect much
unless you are dialing an operator in a foreign country

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  To dial an operator in a foreign country, you must first obtain the operator
routing from rate & route for that country. Dial rate & route and if you're
trying to get an operator in Yugoslavia, say nicely, "IOTC Operator's route,
please, for Yugoslavia." [In larger countries it may be necessary to specify a
city].  Rate & route will respond with, "38 plus 11029". So, dial your overseas
gateway, KP+011+038+ST, wait for sender dial tone, and key KP+0+38+11029+ST.
You should then get an operator in Yugoslavia. Note that you must prefix the
country code on the sender with a 0 because presumably only an operator here
can dial an operator in a foreign country.

  When you dial KP+011+CC+ST for an overseas gateway, it is translated to a
3-digit sender code of the format 18X, depending on which sender is designated
to handle the country you are dialing. The overseas gateways and their 3-digit
codes are listed below.

182 ..... White Plains, NY
183 ..... New York, NY
184 ..... Pittsburg, PA
185 ..... Orlando, FL
186 ..... Oakland, CA
187 ..... Denver, CO
188 ..... New York, NY

  Dialing KP+182+ST would get you the sender in White Plains, and KP+183+ST
would get the sender in NYC, etc., but the KP+011+CC+ST is highly suggested (as
previously mentioned). To find out what sender you were routed to after dialing
KP+011+CC+ST, dial (at int'l dial tone): KP+0000000+ST.

  If you have difficulty in reaching a sender, call rate and route and ask for
a numbers route for the country you're dialing. Sometimes, KP+011+ padded
country code+ST will not work.  I have found this in many 3-digit country
codes. Luxembourg, country code 352, for example, should be KP+011+352+ST
theoretically. But it is not. In this case, dial KP+011+ 003+ST for the
overseas gateway. If you have trouble, try dialing KP+00+ first digit of
country code+ST, or call rate The IOCC.

  Sometimes when you call rate and route and ask for an "IOTC numbers route" or
"IOTC operators route" for a foreign country, you will get something like
"160+700" (as in the case of the Soviet Union). This means that the country is
not dialable directly and must be handled through the International Overseas
Completion Centre (IOCC). For an IOCC routing, pad the country code to the
RIGHT with zeros until it is 3 digits. Then KP+160 is dialed, plus the padded
country code, plus ST.  Examples:

The U.S.S.R. (7) ...... KP+160+700+ST
Japan (81) ............ KP+160+810+ST
Uraguay (598) ......... KP+160+598+ST

  You will then be routed to the IOCC in Pittsburg, PA, who will ask for
country, city, and number being dialed.  Many times they will ask for a
ringback [thanks to Telenet Bob] so have a loop ready. They will then place the
call and call you back (or sometimes put you through directly). Some calls,
such as to Moscow, take several hours.

The Rate Quote System (RQS).

  The RQS is the operator's rate/quote system. It is a computer used by TSPS

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(0+) operators to get rate and route information without having to dial the
rate and route operator. In Part ii, I discussed getting an inward routing for
dialing-assistance and emergency interrupts from the rate and route operators
(KP+800+141+1212+ST). The same information is available from RQS. Say you want
the inward routing for 305-994. You would seize a trunk and dial KP+009+ST (to
access the RQS).  Sometimes, if you seize a trunk in an NPA not equipped with
RQS, you need to dial an NPA that is equipped with RQS first, such as 303.
Anyway, after you dial KP+009+ST or KP+303+009+ST, you will receive a wink
(<beep><kerchink>) and then RQS dial tone. At RQS dial tone, for an inward
routing for 305-994 you would dial KP+06+305+994+ST. That is,
KP+06+NPA+exchange+ST. RQS will respond with "305 plus 033 plus". This means
you would dial KP+305+033+121+ST for an inward that services 305-994.  If no
special routing were required, RQS would have responded with "305 plus" and you
would simply dial: KP+305+121+ST for an inward.

  Another RQS feature is the echo feature. You can use it to test your blue
box. Dial RQS (KP+009+ST) and then key KP+07+1234567890+ST. RQS will respond
with voice identification of the digits it recognized, between the KP+07 and
ST.

  RQS can also be used for rates and directory routings, but those are seldom
needed, so they have been omitted here.

Simple Scanning.

  If you're interested in scanning, try dialing on a trunk, routings in the
format of KP+11XX1+ST. Begin with 11001 and scan to 11991. There are lots of
interesting things to be found there, as Doctor Who (413 area) can tell you.
Those 11XX1 routings can also be prefixed with an NPA, so if you want to scan
area code 212, dial KP+212+ 11XX1+ST.

  There, now you know as much about blue boxing as most phreaks. If you read
and understand the material, and put aside preconceived ideas of what blue
boxing is that you may have acquired from inexperienced people or other
bulletin boards, you should be well on you way to an enlightening career in
blue boxing. If you follow the guidelines in Part I to box, you should have no
problem with the fone company. Comments made by "phreaks" on bulletin boards
that proclaim "tracing" of blue boxers are nonsense and should be ignored
(except for a passing chuckle).

NOTE 1: CCIS and the downfall of blue boxing.

CCIS stands for Common Channel Inter-office Signalling. It is a signalling
method used between electronic switching systems that eminiates the use of
2600Hz and 3700Hz supervisory signals, and MF pulsing. This is why many places
cannot be boxed off of; they employ CCIS, or out-of-band signalling, which will
not respond to any tones that you generate on the line. Eventually, all
existing toll equipment will be upgraded or replaced with CCIS or T-carrier. In
this case, we'll all be boxing with microwave dishes. Until then (about 1995 by
current BOC/AT&T estimates), have fun!

If you have ANY questions about this text, please feel free to drop me a line.
I will respond to all mail, messages, etc. Insults are also welcomed. And if
you discover anything interesting scanning, be sure to let me know.

Mark Tabas
$LOD$


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This text was prepared in full by Mark Tabas for:

K.A.O.S.
Philadelphia, PA.
[215-465-3593].

Any sysop may freely download this text and use it on his/her BBS, provided
that none of it be altered in any way.

Technical acknowledgements:

Karl Marx, X-Man, High-Rise Joe, Telenet Bob, Lex Luthor, TUC, John Doe, Doctor
Who (413 area), The Tone Sweep, Mr. Silicon, K00L KAT, The Glump.

References:

1. Notes on the BOC Intra-LATA Networks Bell System publication, 1983.
2. Notes on the Network Bell System publication, 1983.
3. Engineering and Operations in the Bell System Bell System publication,
4. Notes on Distance Dialing Bell System publication, 1968.
5. Early Medieval Architecture.
.......................................
(c) February 6, 1900         Mark Tabas
.......................................


































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                          BY FRED STEINBECK (TAP #88)

        IT SEEMS THAT FEWER AND FEWER PEOPLE HAVE BLUE BOXES THESE DAYS, AND
THAT IS REALLY TOO BAD.  BLUE BOXES, WHILE NOT ALL THAT GREAT FOR MAKING FREE
CALLS (SINCE THE TPC CAN TELL WHEN THE CALL WAS MADE, AS WELL AS WHERE IT WAS
TOO AND FROM), ARE REALLY A LOT OF FUN TO PLAY WITH.  SHORT OF BECOMING A REAL
LIVE TSPS OPERATOR, THEY ARE ABOUT THE ONLY WAY YOU CAN REALLY PLAY WITH THE
NETWORK.
        FOR THE FEW OF YOU WITH BLUE BOXES, HERE ARE SOME PHRASES WHICH MAY
MAKE LIFE EASIER WHEN DEALING WITH THE RATE & ROUTE (R&R) OPERATORS.  TO GET
THE R&R OP, YOU SEND A KP + 141 + ST.  IN SOME AREAS YOU MAY NEED TO PUT
ANOTHER NPA BEFORE THE 141 (I.E., KP + 213 + 141 + ST), IF YOU HAVE NO LOCAL
R&R OPS.
        THE R&R OPERATOR HAS A MYRIAD OF INFORMATION, AND ALL IT TAKES TO GET
THIS DATA IS MUMBLING CRYPTIC PHRASES.  THERE ARE BASICALLY FOUR SPECIAL
PHRASES TO GIVE THE R&R OPS.  THEY ARE NUMBERS ROUTE, DIRECTORY ROUTE, OPERATOR
ROUTE, AND PLACE NAME.
        YOU GET AN R&R AN AREA CODE FOR A CITY, ONE CAN CALL THE R&R OPERATOR
AND ASK FOR THE NUMBERS ROUTE.  FOR EXAMPLE, TO FIND THE AREA CODE FOR CARSON
CITY, NEVADA, WE'D ASK THE R&R OP FOR "CARSON CITY, NEVADA, NUMBERS ROUTE,
PLEASE." AND GET THE ANSWER, "RIGHT... 702 PLUS." MEANING THAT 702 PLUS 7
DIGITS GETS US THERE.
        SOMETIMES DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE ISN'T JUST NPA + 131.  THE WAY TO GET
THESE ROUTINGS IS TO CALL R&R AND ASK FOR "ANAHEIM, CALIFORNIA, DIRECTORY
ROUTE, PLEASE." OF COURSE, SHE'D TELL US IT WAS 714 PLUS, WHICH MEANS 714 + 131
GETS US THE D.A. OP THERE.  THIS IS SORT OF POINTLESS EXAMPLE, BUT I COULDN'T
COME UP WITH A BETTER ONE ON SHORT NOTICE.
        LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO FIND OUT HOW TO GET TO THE INWARD OPERATOR FOR
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA.  THE FIRST SIX DIGITS OF A NUMBER IN THAT CITY WILL BE
REQUIRED (THE NPA AND AN NXX).  FOR EXAMPLE, LET US USEM 916 756. WE WOULD CALL
R&R, AND WHEN THE OPERATOR ANSWERED, SAY, "916 756, OPERATOR ROUTE, PLEASE."
THE OPERATOR WOULD SAY, "916 PLUS 001 PLUS."  THIS MEANS THAT 916 + 001 + 121
WILL GET YOU THE INWARD OPERATOR FOR SACRAMENTO.
      DO YOU KNOW THE CITY WHICH CORRESPONDS TO 503-640?  THE R&R OPERATOR
DOES, AND WILL TELL YOU THAT IT IS HILLSBORO, OREGON, IF YOU SWEETLY ASK FOR
"PLACE NAME, 503 640, PLEASE."
        FOR EXAMPLE, LET'S SAY YOU NEED THE DIRECTORY ROUTE FOR SVEG, SWEDEN.
SIMPLY CALL R&R, AND ASK FOR, "INTERNATIONAL, BADEN, SWITZERLAND.  TSPS
DIRECTORY ROUTE, PLEASE."  IN RESPONSE TO THIS, YOU'D GET, "RIGHT... DIRECTORY
TO SVEG, SWEDEN.  COUNTRY CODE 46 PLUS 1170."  SO YOU'D ROUTE YOURSELF TO AN
INTERNATIONAL SENDER, AND SEND 46 + 1170 TO GET THE D.A. OPERATOR IN SWEDEN.
        INWARD OPERATOR ROUTINGS TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES ARE OBTAINED THE SAME WAY
"INTERNATIONAL, LONDON, ENGLAND, TSPS INWARD ROUTE, PLEASE." AND GET "COUNTRY
CODE 44 PLUS 121."  THEREFORE, 44 PLUS 121 GETS YOU INWARD FOR LONDON.
        INWARDS CAN GET YOU LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE IF YOU DON'T SPEAK THE
LANGUAGE. TELL THE FOREIGN INWARD, "UNITED STATES CALLING.  LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE
IN COMPLETING A CALL TO (CALLED PARTY) AT (CALLED NUMBER)."
        R&R OPERATORS ARE PEOPLE ARE PEOPLE TOO, Y'KNOW.  SO ALWAYS BE POLITE,
MAKE SURE USE OF 'EM, AND DIAL WITH CARE.

NOTE:  AS A RESULT OF THE BREAK-UP, R&R IS NOW KP+800+141+1212+ST








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                                 Verification
                               By Fred Steinbeck

>From TAP issue # 88  10-83

   There has been a great deal of controversy in the realm of phreakdom over a
mysterious subject known under a number of different names, including
"Verification", "Autoverification", "Verify", "Autoverify", "Verify Busy", and
even "VFY BY".  All of these names basically mean the same thing: the ability
to listen to another person's telephone line from any telephone in the
direct-dialable world.
   Needless to say, Bell System is very tight lipped about knowledge regarding
verification.  Indeed, the infamous book 'Notes on long distance dialing' ('68
edition) says, "Care must be taken to insure that the customer never gains
verification capabilities."  With a printed policy like that, you can imagine
what their real-world policy is like!  Even their own rate and route operators
will not give verification on routing codes (at least in my experience), one
even responding, "What?! You must be crazy! We don't give those out!" Before
you get too far into this article, I will state simply: I don't know how to
verify. However, I have been fooling with various things related to it, and
collecting information on it for some time now. Therefore, while I can't do it
(yet), I may be able to point some other bright TAPer on the right track, and
perhaps he or she will show us all how.  If you have knowledge not covered in
this article, but don't want to write an article on your own, please send your
ideas, comments, or information to Project Verify, C/O TAP   Verify has also
been called "Autoverify", and I have no idea why.  This is not, to my
knowledge, a Bell System term (at least I've never seen it in any manuals)  As
far as I know, there is verify, which means being able to listen to speech
(kind of; see below) on a line, and there is the "Emergency Interrupt which
allows you to take part in the conversation taking place on the line in
question.  It has been suggested that "Autoverify" is the same as an emergency
interrupt , but I tend to disagree with this idea.  It should be noted that the
verification circuitry does not actually let an operator listen to a
conversation without making a beep on the line every so often.  Instead, she
will hear encrypted speech.  However, I believe with the proper methods, verify
can be converted to an emergency interrupt.
   Verification is normally done either by your normal "0" (TSPS) operator, if
the call is in your home NPA (HNPA), or by an inward operator (IO).  If the
call is outside your HNPA, your normal operator will call the IO for the
NPA,and say, "Verify Busy" or "Emergency Interrupt" please, 555 1212."  The IO
will perform whatever magic he or she must, and then report back.  If the call
is in your HNPA, though, the "0" operator can do the verification herself by
using the "VFY BY" key on her keyshelf.  However, in some areas, the operator
uses a routing code to accomplish verification, and this the is loop hole we
shall attack.
  It follows that if a IO or "0" operator can do it, so can we, with a blue box
Now, courtesy of Robert Allen (who brought it to my attention) and Susan
Thunder (who apparently discovered it), here is what used to work for getting
operators to hook you into conversations with other people (i.e.,let you listen
to them till you hung up): You'd call the operator and say "Operator, TSPS
Maintenance Engineer Calling.  Ring forward to 001 + NPA + 7d, ring back to my
number, hit ring forward, no AMA, and then position release.
   This creates some problems, and you must be familiar with the TSPS
console(by dialing "0"), you are on the "back", or incoming part of a loop.
When she places a call for you, the call goes out on the "forward", or outgoing
part of the loop.  If an operator wants to make a call, she punches KP FWD
(keypulse forward), the number, and ST. Ring FWD puts a 90 volt ringing signal
across the forward part of the line (and may dial the number as well).  The

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problem arises from the fact that I don't know if Ring FWD will actually dial a
call, and if there is some other subtle difference between it an KP FWD.
   Let us assume ringing forward makes a call from the TSPS console to whatever
number is given.  Ring back causes your phone to ring (it is assumed you hung
up after giving her your instructions; if you didn't you'd hear an annoying 90
volts across the earpiece...) "No AMA" means "no automatic message accounting",
so nobody gets billed for the call, although it will show up on a tape
somewhere.  "Position Release" removes the operator from the circuit, and
allows her to receive other calls.  This leaves an unaccounted-for ring
forward.
   The verification circuit, as you know, likes to encrypt conversation, which
is something we don't want.  Well, the second Ring FWD sends another  90 volts
crashing against the verify circuitry, which Juda Gerad thinks removes the
voice encryption from the line, puts the operator (and you) in circuit, and
puts a beep tone on the line every five seconds.  This seems to make sense, and
I am inclined to agree with him.
   The bit about "....001 + NPA + 7D" causes the thought "MF routing code" to
spring immediately to mind.  Now, the above trick was supposed to work in the
213 NPA.  I have tried both "KP+001+213+7D+ST", and some other area codes.  I
generally get nothing, a reorder signal, or a tandem recording.
   Here's some food for thought: On an official Telco sheet I have, labeled "
213 NPA MF Routing Codes", 001 is listed as "VFY BY", or verify busy for the
213 NPA.  002 is listed for the 805 NPA.  Ma Bell likes to have standardized
routing codes, such logical, then, that 001 would be a sort of "standard"
verify code, and other prefixes would be tacked on at 002,003, etc. However, I
have heard from a retired operator that verification codes are different from
area to area, and are not always nice numbers like 001, 002.  Ah, well, a guy
can hope, can't he?
   Some suggestions for future attacks on this dilemma: Everyone call your
operators and subtly ask questions.  I have found the tend to give information
out easier if you ask for something that you would ordinarily have to be a
company employee to know about, such as rate steps, operator routings, etc.
    Casually let slip that you used to be (or still are) an operator, or that
you work for company security.  Also, you might want to blue box some codes
like 001 followed by your NPA and the last 7D of a busy number.  If you get a
sort of "whispery noise", try blasting the line with a ringing signal (you
might piggyback another line onto yours and call the piggyback to generate the
90 volts) and see if that does anything.





















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                      ===================================
                      EQUAL ACCESS AND THE AMERICAN DREAM
                      ===================================


by

Mark Tabas
P.O. Box 620401
Littleton, CO 80162

July 7, 1985



  The American Dream means many things to many people.  To the small, typical
businessman, it means building a good, strong business based on hard work and
perseverance; indeed, with nothing limiting his potential but he amount of work
he is willing to put into his business.  To a large businessman, the American
Dream means living and working in a country where a single corporation can have
a profit exceeding the gross national product of an entire third world nation.
    To the individual, the American Dream is the right to choose -- everything
from one's breakfast cereal to a long-distance service, as well as the formal
right outlined by our founding fathers: those of life, liberty, and the pursuit
of happiness.
  To the phone phreak, I think the American Dream is, in a sort of twisted way,
the uninhibited pursuit of knowledge.  This quest could scarcely remain
unchecked in many other countries.  Analogous to this quest is the thriving of
the Bell System, which until January 1, 1984 consisted of the American
Telephone and Telegraph Company, the largest corporation in the history of the
world.  Did the American Dream die on January first or did the divestiture of
AT&T cause a giant step forward for competition and free enterprise in the
United States?  I do not know.  I do know that the other nations of the world
were amazed that the United States would dissolve the entity that brought the
finest and most universal telephone system in the world, and did so at a time
when the majority of the rest of the world was still using two dixie cups and a
string.
  The unfairness of the situation is that AT&T built the telephone system of
this nation and is now being bound and gagged and having its possessions
distributed to others, whom AT&T also wrought.  All in the name of fairness,
free competition, and "equal access".  Where was was MCI during the century
that AT&T built he communications system of this nation?  Well, I believe in
Equal Access, Wholly.  And, since I believe in equal access and its
implications for equality for all so strongly, I feel that MCI, Sprint, and
others should take the same amount of time to build their respective toll
networks: 100 years. Therefore, if the United States Justice Department were
truly the fair and just administrator that it portrays itself to be, MCI would
not have a hand in the long-distance cache until about 2080.  That's only
fair.
  There is no doubt that MCI is a sub-standard organization.  They consist of
incompetent employees, inferior equipment, and an inferior marketing strategy.
They are mockingly imitative of AT&T, except in the quality of their service,
which is practically unusable.  It is also interesting that with less than 2%
market share, MCI calls itself "the nation's long-distance company."  The point
to this diatribe is this.  It's time for these long-distance companies such as
MCI and Sprint to grow up.  With Equal Access, they are going to become real
long-distance companies, not the joke organizations they are now, and I think
it may just take them one hundred years to do so.

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                                 ============
                                 Equal Access
                                 ============

  Equal Access, as it applies to the telecommunications industry, is "the
requirement that each Bell Operating Company provide exchange access to all
long-distance carriers that is equal in type and quality to that provided AT&T
communications."  This is the official provision set forth by the United States
Justice Department in the Modification of the Final Judgment, August 24, 1982.
All this means is that each long-distance-distance company will have "equal
access" to all of the same types of services that AT&T currently enjoys.  There
are four types of long-distance carrier services, divided into "feature
groups."  They follow.

FG A:   "line side access."  This is the standard 7-digit dialup+code (for
billing purposes) +destination telephone number.  It is currently in use by
most long-distance carriers.

FG B:   "trunk side access."  These are the 950 exchange numbers. They also
utilize an authorization code for billing.  As with FG A, automatic     number
identification (ANI) (i.e. calling number) is not provided to the carrier, but
will be in the future.

FG C:   "1+ dialing."  Currently, only AT&T is able to get this type of
service. It is 1/0+7 of 10 digit direct long distance dialing.  ANI (for
billing) is provided.

FG D:    "equal access."  This will allow for 1/0+7 or 10 digit direct
long-distance dialing (presubscription carrier) and 10xxx+1/0+7 or 10 digit
long-distance dialing (alternate carrier).  ANI for billing is provided at the
long-distance carrier's option.  Billing may also be handled by the individual
long distance company or the local Bell Operating Company.

  Feature groups C and D are mutually exclusive (i.e. both cannot exist in a
particular area at the same time).  Areas which have Feature Group C (AT&T
long-distance only) are non-Equal Access, and areas which have Feature Group D
(multiple long distance carriers) are Equal Access regions.
  Feature Group B, the 950 exchange numbers will be used in areas in which it
is not feasible to provide with Equal Access, such as step-by-step offices
(yes, they CAN have 950 numbers), some crossbar offices, and some independent
telcos, which are not bound by the provisions of Equal Access and may provide
to their customers any type of long-distance service(s) they wish.  The 950
exchange is now active in many areas.  It is mainly used as a universal
"roaming" access port for many long-distance carriers, but when an office is
converted to Equal Access, the 950 capability is removed.  Thus, in an Equal
Access region, one cannot complete a call to a 950 telephone number.
  I personally am looking very forward to Equal Access.  My area is not
scheduled for full implementation of it until late 1985 or early 1986, and by
this time many of the alternate long distance carriers' networks will be in
place (or well under way).  Think about what Equal Access means.  Equality for
all long distance carriers.  Access to common facilities, such as: busy-line
verification lines, Bell System information, signalling specifications. etc.
After full implementation of Equal Access, one will be able to take advantage
of and manipulate the services of more than just one carrier.  It will no
longer be phreaks vs. AT&T.
  When your area is ready to initiate Equal Access, you will receive a notice
in the mail informing you of some of the details of Equal Access, and will ask

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you to specify your choice of "primary carrier." In some cases you will need to
specify both inter-LATA carrier (IC), which handles calls out of your LATA
(Local Access and Transport Area), and an international carrier (INC), which
will handle calls destined for other countries.  Recent market studies have
shown that between 80 and 90 per cent of residential customers will continue to
be served by AT&T for their long-distance service after Equal Access.  So much
for competition.
  You will probably be faced with many long-distance companies to choose from,
including but not limited to: AT&T, MCI, Sprint, ITT, Western Union, Dial U.S.,
Call America, TMC, and U.S. Telephone. Whichever you choose will become your
"primary carrier."  Your primary carrier will handle your call each time you
pick up you fone and dial 1+7 or 10 digits or 0+7 or 10 digits, inter-LATA
only. That is, if you dial a toll call that is within your LATA, it will be
handled by your local telephone company (Bell), not by your primary carrier,
even though it is a toll call.  Let's use an example.  The state of Colorado
consists of two LATAs.  For this example, I will use three cities in Colorado:
Denver (in LATA1), Sterling (LATA1 also), and Colorado Springs (in LATA2).
Note here that even though Denver ad Sterling are in the same LATA, and Denver
and Colorado Springs are not, Sterling is actually much farther away from
Denver than Colorado Springs.  This is because LATA boundaries were designed
giving consideration to high toll-traffic regions, to bring in revenue.  Toll
traffic between Denver and Colorado Springs is very high, so the two cities
were placed in separate LATAs (or, more correctly, they were separated by a
LATA boundary).  Toll traffic between Denver and Sterling is very low, of the
two cities were allowed to remain in the same LATA.  Now, if everyone in
Colorado Springs were to pack up and move to Sterling (though who knows what
the hell for), the LATA boundaries in Colorado would be changed so that Denver
and Sterling were in different LATAs.  The primary factor in determining LATAs
is money.
  If I made a call to Sterling from my home in Denver, the call would be routed
entirely via Mountain Bell long-distance facilities.  No long distance carrier
would be involved because Denver and Sterling are in LATA1.  If I made a call
to Kelley, the blonde babe in Colorado Springs, the call would be handled by a
long distance carrier (in this case, AT&T) because Denver is in LATA1 and
Colorado Springs is in LATA2.  Here is a table to simplify this:

Customer dials          LATA          Carrier
-----------------------------------------------------------------
7 digits                same          Bell
1+7 digits              same          Bell
1+7 digits              diff          LD carrier (currently AT&T)
1+10 digits             diff          LD carrier (currently AT&T)
-----------------------------------------------------------------

  Note several things here.  First, not all areas need to dial a 1 when dialing
any number, local or long distance, but the central offices will still discern
whether the call is in the same LATA as the customer or a different one and
handle the call appropriately. Secondly, some step-by-step offices require a
1+NPA to be dialed for calls within the same LATA and, in fact, all numbers
outside of the office itself.  But, for the most part, the above table is
standard for common switching networks.

                              ==================
                              Alternate Carriers
                              ==================

  Your normal long distance carrier will handle all your toll calls which cross
over LATA boundaries when you dial directly, 1+.  If you wish to place your

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call via another carrier's network, whether for cost, quality, or circuit
availability reasons, you may do so in Equal Access regions.  To access an
alternate long distance carrier after Equal Access, a customer dials
10xxx+1/0+7 or 10 digit telefone number.  Note that xxx is the "carrier access
code (CAC)."  A few CACs currently in use are listed below.

220 ........ Western Union   666 ........ Lexitel
222 ........ MCI             777 ........ Sprint
333 ........ US Telefone     888 ........ SBS
444 ........ Allnet

  Thus, in an Equal Access region, to dial Fred in Orlando, a customer would
dial 1+305+994+9966 to place his call on his primary carrier, or to place it on
another network, he could dial: 10222+1+305+994+9966, and the call would go
over MCI facilities (in this case).  Eventually, after many more long distance
services get into the act, there will be a directory of the various long
distance companies and their CACs, and deciding which carrier to use for any
particular call to get the bet rate will be beyond the ability of everyone
except phone phreaks.

                               ================
                               The 950 Exchange
                               ================

  As discussed, the 950 central office exchange is currently a "roaming" access
port for various long distance carriers.  In areas that have 950, the access to
carriers is standardized.  Thus, someone travelling to several different areas
need only know the 950 number of the carrier he uses to access it from any area
(provided that it have 950 active).  Originally, the 950 exchange was designed
to correspond with the 10xx carrier access code used for Equal Access.  For
example, 950-1022 would be the same carrier as 1022 (+telephone number).
However, it was later found that the 100 codes available for use as 10xx CACs
would be insufficient to handle he number of long distance carriers.  So, the
common carrier access code was increased by one digit, to 10xxx, thus
increasing the number of possible CACs to 1000. To keep the 950 exchange
consistent with the non CAC, the Bell Operating Companies have opted to change
the 950-10xx to 950-0xxx. The xxx in the 950-0xxx remains the same as the xxx
in the 10xxx carrier access code.  The new modified 950 numbering pan is now
active in Philadelphia (Bell Atlantic) among other areas.
  After Equal Access is well under way, the 950 exchange will be used in
certain areas that cannot be equipped for the standard Equal Access dialing
plans.  This includes step-by-step, #1 crossbar, #5 crossbar, #2ESS, and #3ESS
offices.  Customers in areas served by these types of switching equipment will
dial 950-0xxx, wait for acknowledgement tone from the carrier, and then dial a
"personal identification number" and destination telefone number,and the call
will be completed on the selected carrier's facilities.  Initially, billing
will be handled by the carrier itself, and supervisory information and ANI will
not be provided by the local Bell Operating Company.
  There are three main advantages to the 950 central office exchange and
protocol.  They are: a) universal access for all areas, b) 950-exchange numbers
are "trunk side access."  This means that the long distance carrier has direct
trunks going to it from a Bell toll office or local central office.  These
trunks are interoffice lines, not customer type (POTS) lines, and supposedly
insure higher quality of connection.  And, c) 950-exchange numbers are toll and
message unit free.  On metered-usage (i.e., not "flat rate") customer lines,
they cost nothing.  In most areas they are free from coin stations, with
Colorado as one notable exception.


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                                     =====
                                     Costs
                                     =====

  Each long-distance carrier must choose the type(s) of service it wishes to
provide to its customers.  These different types of service were outlined
earlier as "Feature Groups."  The costs of these Feature Groups vary directly
with the complexity and quality of the service itself.  The following table
outlines the cost to the carrier of each available Feature Group.  It is based
on the monthly rate per line for 9000 minutes of circuit use, and assumes the
carrier and Bell switch are 15 miles apart.

FG              non-Equal Access            Equal Access
--------------------------------------------------------
A                  $329.94                    $709.20
B                   329.94                     721.80
C                   752.40                    ** N/A **
D                  ** N/A **                   752.40
--------------------------------------------------------

  These figures are a lot more significant than they might appear. They
indicate that after Equal Access, in order to compete with the giants such as
AT&T, MCI, etc., smaller long distance companies will use Feature Group A or B
type service in order to provide significantly lower rates to their customers
than companies subscribing to Feature Group D service (like AT&T, MCI, etc).
This will cause a unique type of equilibrium to form.  Customers willing to
dial an access number, authorization code, and destination number and put up
with lower quality service will be able to save a lot of money. This seems
faintly reminiscent of pre-Equal Access times....

                             ====================
                             Directory Assistance
                             ====================

  Each Bell Operating Company will be responsible for providing intra-LATA
operator services.  When a customer dials (1)+411 or (1)+555+1212 for local
directory assistance, he will reach a Bell operator who will service requests
for listed numbers within the customer's LATA.  Requests for numbers in LATAs
other than the calling customer's may be handled at the discretion of the local
operating company.  Initially, the Bell Operating Companies will meet the
responsibility for providing directory assistance services by contracting it to
a long distance carrier or carriers (currently AT&T).  All inter-LATA directory
assistance services will be provided by the inter-LATA carrier (IC).  ICs may
also provide 800 Enterprise service or other toll free type directory
assistance services.  See table.

=================================================================
Intra-LATA:
=================================================================
  HNPA            411/555-1212         BOC
 *FNPA            NPA+555-1212         BOC
  HNPA            10xxx+555-1212       intra-LATA carrier
 *FNPA            10xxx+NPA+555-1212   intra-LATA carrier

=================================================================
Inter-LATA:
=================================================================
  HNPA            (10xxx)+1+555-1212       IC

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  FNPA            (10xxx)+1+NPA+555-1212   IC
=================================================================
* When LATA boundaries cross NPA boundaries (rare).
FNPA = Foreign Numbering Plan Area (area code).
HNPA = Home Numbering Plan Area (area code).

  At first glance, the above table appears somewhat complex.  But, if you
understand the concept of LATAs and carriers, it is easily understood.
Essentially, all local Bell Operating Companies will maintain their own
directory assistance services.  When a customer dials 411 or 555-1212, he will
reach a BOC directory assistant. Additionally, each long distance carrier that
wishes to provide directory assistance to its customers will also have DA
facilities. And, when a customer dials a directory assistant (NPA+555-1212) on
a carrier, he will reach an operator of that particular long distance carrier.
The key here is LATAs.  If a customer wants to find a number that is within his
LATA, no long distance carrier is involved.  It is handled strictly by the
Local Bell Operating Company.  If a customer is seeking a number that is not
within his LATA, he must use the services of an inter-LATA (long-distance)
carrier.

                            ======================
                            TSPS Operator Services
                            ======================

  Traffic Service Position System (TSPS) operator services will be handled much
in the same fashion as directory assistance services, with a few differences.
As with DAs, each Bell Operating Company and each inter-LATA carrier will
maintain its own TSPS operator facilities (or cordboard I suppose, if they
cannot afford TSPS).  When a customer dials simply 0 (operator), he will reach
a BOC TSPS operator.  The BOC TSPS will be able to handle all types of
intra-LATA operator-assisted traffic including (but not limited to): collect,
third party billing, Bell credit card, coin, verification and emergency
interrupt, and requests for emergency aid.  BOC TSPS will be unable to complete
calls for customers outside of the customer's LATA.  Thus, inter-LATA operator
assistance will be handled by an inter-LATA carrier TSPS (IC TSPS).  An IC TSPS
will handle all previously mentioned types of calls that require inter-LATA
transport (i.e., the call originates and terminates in different LATAs).  When
a customer dials 0+NXX-XXXXX or 0+NPA+NXX-XXXX, the central office will
determine if the call is destined for another LATA.  If it is not, the call
will be sent to the Bell TSPS for appropriate handling.  If the call is bound
for another LATA (and his determination is made based on the NXX or NPA+NXX),
then the call will be sent off to the customer's primary long-distance carrier
(since only 0+ was dialed).  If the customer wishes to use a different
carrier's operator services, he would dial 10xxx+0+number, and the carrier
specified by the 10xxx carrier access code would receive the call.  Note: if a
customer dials 10xxx+0+number, and the call is an intra-LATA call, he will get
a recording, "We're sorry, the number you dialed cannot be reached with the
carrier access code you dialed.  Please check the code and try again or call
your carrier for assistance."  (Western Electric KS-22550 central office tape
list no. 46.)  Until the Bell Operating Companies can install their own TSPS
facilities and networks, they will (continue to) lease capacity from AT&T TSPS.
That is, AT&T will handle the intra-LATA traffic for the BOCs on a contract
basis.  In the meantime, AT&T will continue to handle its own long-distance
operator services while the other inter-LATA carriers will have to implement
their own operator networks from scratch.  My estimation is that you won't be
able to dial 10222+0 for an MCI TSPS operator until sometime around the year
2590.  And even then they will probably be cordboard.
  In addition to the changes in TSPS described above, there will be certain

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modifications to the software and hardware involved in the TSPS operator
system.  Most critical, and of paramount importance to the telecommunications
enthusiast is changes in circuit associated signalling (CAS).  This is
signalling to and from the TSPS facility. When a customer dials 0 (operator) or
10xxx+0 (IC operator), a succession of events occurs.  First, the end office
seizes a trunk to the appropriate operator facility (this assumes that no
access tandem is involved).  The operator service facility responds with a wink
(proceed signal) and the end office outpulses the CALLED number (or KP+ST if 0
only dialed).  The operator service (OS) facility will then come off-hook to
signal that it is ready to receive ANI information. The end office outpulses
the ANI information in the format of KP+II+7 digits+ST (or ST').  If there is
ANI failure, a KP+02+ST (or ST') will be sent.  "ST'" stands for STart "prime",
and is indicative of a coin call (i.e., dial 0 from a coin station).  A normal
ST terminating the ANI sequence means that the call is originating from a
noncoin station.  See table for ultimate description.

Inter-LATA calls MF-pulsed

type of call       customer dials    cld num          ANI
============================================================
noncoin:
============================================================
  direct dialed    10xxx+1+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST''   KP+II+7d+ST
  operator assist  10xxx+0         KP+ST'''        KP+II+7d+ST
  special toll     10xxx+0+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST'''  KP+II+7d+ST

============================================================
coin:
============================================================
  direct dialed    10xxx+1+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST     KP+II+7d+ST
  operator assist  10xxx+0         KP+ST'          KP+II+7d+ST
  special toll     10xxx+0+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST'    KP+II+7d+ST

=============================================================================
Intra-LATA calls
=============================================================================
noncoin:
=============================================================================
  direct dialed       10xxx+1+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST''         KP+II+7d+ST'
  operator assist     10xxx+0              KP+ST'''              KP+II+7d+ST'
  special toll        10xxx+0+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST'''        KP+II+7d+ST'

=============================================================================
coin:
=============================================================================
  direct dialed       10xxx+1+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST           KP+II+7d+ST'
  operator assist     10xxx+0              KP+ST'                KP+II+7d+ST'
  special toll        10xxx+0+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST'          KP+II+7d+ST'
=============================================================================
Note: ST=Start, ST'=STart prime, ST''=Start double prime, ST'''=STart triple
prime.

  Once again, the above table appears somewhat intimidating in its complexity.
All these STs, ST primes, etc.  Actually, the only purpose of the starts is to
distinguish to the TSPS machine exactly what type of call the customer is
placing and from what type of telefone he is calling.  "Special toll" calls are
collect, credit card, and third-party billing type calls.  Here is an example
of a complete dialing and outpulsing sequence for an operator service call:

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from a coin fone, a customer dials 0+ (or 10xxx+) 303+979-9997.  The central
office would seize a trunk to the operator service facility and outpulse:
KP+303+979-9997+ST'.  This indicates to the operator service facility that the
call is a special toll call originating from a coin telephone.  The OS facility
comes off-hook and the central office would then outpulse KP+00+232+9969+ST.
This is he ANI information, and the ST indicates that the call is inter-LATA
(if it were intra-LATA, the sequence would be terminated with ST' instead).
  Perhaps now I should explain screening.  Certain telefones are "screened"
against placing certain types of calls.  A screening code is a two digit
information carrier.  For instance, 00 is "identified line" (no special
treatment), 01 is multiparty ONI (operator number identification), 02 is ANI
failure, 06 is hotel/motel, 07 is coinless (hospital/inmate fone), 08 is
inter-LATA restricted, 68 is hotel inter-LATA restricted, 78 is coinless
(hospital inmate) inter-LATA restricted, etc.  A 98 is an AT&T Charge-A-Call
fone (those blue fuckers).  More screening codes are allocated as they are
needed. Note that the original TSPS screening design only allowed for single
digit information digits.  They were later found to be insufficient.
  I believe that the operator services have been adequately covered, so I will
now move on to other aspects of Equal Access.

                                 =============
                                 Routing Codes
                                 =============

  The TTC (terminating toll centre) and special routing codes will continue to
be used in inter-LATA networks.  These 0xx and 1xx type codes, which sometimes
precede operator routing codes, will be assigned to various ICs on an
individual basis.  When 0xx and 1xx codes serve as pseudo-central office code,
they will be coordinated such that it will avoid IC conflicts.  The
Numbering/Dialing Planning Group of the Central Services Organization (sounds
like some sort of Communist governing body) will provide assistance where the
assignment of coordinated codes is necessary.

                              ==================
                              Special Area Codes
                              ==================

  Special area codes, also called Service Area Codes (SACs) presented the
designers of Equal Access with an interesting problem.  SACs are N00 type area
codes, such as 700, 800, and 900.  They are used for special services and
unlike normal area codes, are not associated with a particular state or region.
Each long distance carrier will be allocated its own exchanges in each service
area code.  Thus, when a customer places a call to a number in a service area
code, the central office will examine the exchange of the telefone number and
route the call over the proper carrier's facilities.  The customer will be
totally oblivious to this process. Current SACs include 700 (teleconferencing),
800 (toll free services), and 900 (dial-it services).  There are currently
plans under way to implement the 600 area code, although its exact uses are not
yet clear.

                               ================
                               Signalling to IC
                               ================

  Each long distance carrier that wishes to serve a particular LATA must
establish a point of presence (POP) in that LATA.  A carrier's POP is a toll
office that receives toll traffic destined for another LATA.  A POP is a centre
for inter-LATA transport of toll traffic. This traffic will be directed to it

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from a Bell central office, either an end office or an access tandem (AT).  An
access tandem is simply a Bell office which directs long distance traffic from
a number of local end offices to a number of different inter-LATA carriers.  To
pass call details (such as called and calling numbers) from the Bell local
office to the inter-LATA carrier, a signalling system was designed that employs
current multifrequency (MF) signalling protocol.  When a customer dials
10xxx+(1/0)+(NPA)+NXX+, the end office will seize a trunk to the appropriate IC
as determined by the 10xxx CAC (or primary carrier if no CAC is dialed).  Note:
this happens as soon as the customer finishes dialing the exchange, even though
he may still be dialing the last four digits of he telefone number.  After the
the signal to proceed.  Then, the end office will send ANI information, in the
format of: KP+II+10 digit ANI+ST.  If the carrier is not to receive ANI
information from the Bell Operating Company (i.e., they are not paying for it),
then only KP+ST is sent. Presumably, by now the customer has completed dialing
the last four digits of the destination telefone number, so the end office will
send: KP+7 or 10 digit CALLED number+ST.  Note several things here: 1) The IC
does not send a wink when it is ready to receive CALLED number information.  2)
ANI information is ten digits, plus a two-digit screening code, and 3) The
central office's outpulsing to the IC overlaps the customer's dialing.
  Some ANI screening codes include: 00 (identified POTS), 01 (ONI multiparty),
02 (ANI failure), 06 (hotel without room identification), 07 (coinless,
hospital, inmate, etc.), 08 (inter-LATA restriction), 10 (test call), 20 (AIOD
calls, listed DN sent), 27 (coin call), and 95 (test call).  These are the same
or similar as the screening codes used in operator service signalling.
  In addition to the domestic signalling design outlined above, a new
international signalling system has been designed for use with Equal Access.
It also uses two-stage, overlapping outpulsing.  After a customer has completed
dialing (10xxx)+011+CC (CC is country code), the Bell end office will seize a
trunk to he appropriate IC (or international carrier, if direct routing is
available).  The IC/INC will respond with a wink, and the end office will
outpulse: KP+1NX+YXX+CCC+ST.  Each of these three groups of routing information
indicate something different abut the international call being placed. The 1NX
is the "international system routing code, one for each type of call routing."
I have absolutely no idea what that means, and no one I have talked to at Bell,
AT&T, MCI, CCITT, ITT, the CSO and FCC have any idea either.  Next, the YXX is
the carrier routing code.  It is actually XXX, Which is the three digits of the
10xxx CAC for the particular carrier being accessed.  Finally, CCC is the
country code, padded with a zero if necessary.
  One may wonder why the CAC is signalled forward when a trunk is seized
directly to the carrier itself.  The reason for this is that in some cases a
direct trunk to the carrier is not available and the call must be routed
through an access tandem, which is responsible for routing calls to a variety
of different long distance carriers.

                             ====================
                             Switch Compatibility
                             ====================

  Full-feature Equal Access will become available first for Western Electric
#1ESS switching systems.  It will be available first in generic 1E8 (1AE8 for
#1A ESS).  Later, generic 5E2 for #5ESS, generic 2B4 for #2B ESS, generic
BCS-16 for Northern Telecom DMS-100, and generics 209 and 302 for DMS-10 will
provide full-feature Equal Access capabilities in those types of end office
switching equipment.  The Western Electric #4ESS, #1 and 1A ESS, #5ESS, and the
Northern Telecom DMS-200 machines which serve as toll offices or access tandems
will be capable of receiving the new Equal Access signalling format, after
required generic development.  Other switches (such as all crossbar offices)

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will not be able to handle the new signalling format.

                                     =====
                                     LATAs
                                     =====

  LATAs, Local Access and Transport Areas, are the entire key to the
administration of Equal Access.  They can be thought of as miniature area
codes.  A telefone call can never cross a LATA boundary except on an inter-LATA
carrier.  However, there are certain exceptions to this. For example, in the
state of Colorado, which consists of two LATAs, the local Bell Operating
Company (Mountain Bell), which serves as the intra-LATA (i.e., calls to/from
the same LATA) carrier, may also serve as inter-LATA (to/from different LATAs)
carrier within Colorado.
  There are also exceptions in the corridor region of the New York/New
Jersey/Pennsylvania area.
  The forty-eight continental United States consist of 161 LATAs. Some states,
such as Deleware, consist of only one LATA, while others, such as Illinois, can
have up to 14 or more.  Each LATA is given a name.  For instance, Pennsylvania
consists of six LATAs: Philadelphia, Capital, Northeast, Altoona, Pittsburgh,
and Erie (independent telco).

                                ==============
                                A Few Thoughts
                                ==============

  In 1973, Chrysler, A&P, RCA, Phillips Petroleum, S.S. Kresge, Boeing
Aircraft, International Harvester, Woolworth's, Greyhound, Firestone, Litton,
and General Foods, among others, each reported annual profits of less than $150
million.  In that same year, the Telephone Company wrote off, as being
uncollectable, debts of $150 million.
  In 1974, the Bell System had direct interests in at least 276 organizations,
many of them not related to the telefone industry. Bell also had interlocking
financial arrangements with such corporations as the Chase Manhattan Bank, IBM,
Prudential Insurance, Sears Roebuck, General Motors, U.S. Steel, and Lever
Brothers.  Should the need have arisen, the Bell System in 1974 could have
exercised control of 400 billion dollars, fully one-third of that year's gross
national product.

From: Hyde, J. Edward, The Phone Book. Henry Regnery Publishing Company,
Chicago Illinois, 1976.  ISBN 0-8092-8008-6.

  There are many viewpoints as to the future course of the telefone industry.
The general consensus among most Telco employees is that the children of AT&T
(i.e., the seven regional holding companies into which the Bell System was
divided) will someday be reassembled into the original Bell System, and all
will be well and good in the world of telecommunications again.  I tend to
disagree with this.  I think that within three decades the entire telefone
industry will be consolidated and nationalized.  It will be owned and operated
entirely by the United States Federal Government.  This will accomplish several
goals of the government.  First, the immense revenue from telefone services
will provide great financial resources for the federal government.  Rates for
telefone services will skyrocket far out of the range of affordability, quality
of service will deteriorate to a point of unusability, and meanwhile
politicians will get rich.
  Second, once the government controls the telefone system, monitoring the
general public will become infinitely easier.  Big Brother will be able to keep
and eye, or rather, an ear on the general population, and giant step forward in

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ultimate government control of peoples' lives will be achieved.  Most people
won't know anything about this, and even if they do, they won't give a shit
because by then the fucking government will have already invaded every
remaining private aspect of the individual's life.
  To those who find it utterly unthinkable that the federal government would
ever assume control of the telefone industry, I would call attention to the
situation that existed between 1917 and 1919.  During this time the government
controlled the phone system of the United States.  J. Edward Hyde sums it up
beautifully:

     Between 1917 and 1919, the Federal Government did control the phone
industry.  Since then, the most charitable historians have blamed the
subsequent mess on the First World War.  Others blame it on the democrats.  But
the fact is that it was a fiasco of the bureaucracy's own making, combined with
intracompany sabotage.
     Today, in those countries where the phone service is nationally owned, the
service runs from poor to nonexistent.  Would you want the government that gave
you the Russian wheat deals, Defense Department     overruns, Amtrak, and the
Postal Service handling your phone problems?

From: Hyde, J. Edward, The Phone Book. Henry Regnery Publishing Company,
Chicago, Illinois, 1976.  ISBN 0-8092-8008-6, p. 170.

Technical References:

Notes on the BOC intra-LATA Networks.  American Telephone & Telegraph Company,
1983.

The Phone Book.  J. Edward Hyde, 1976.

Bell System Technical Journal.  Volume 58, Number 5.

Engineering and Operations in the Bell System.  American Telephone & Telegraph
Company, 1983.


Acknowledgements:   Karl Marx, Telenet Bob, and the scores of Telco employees
in Denver, White Plains, Omaha, and North Jersey who were very helpful in
patiently answering my many questions about Equal Access.

Thanks to Mack the Knife for magnetic transfer of this illustrious file, a
tedious task for which I have no time.

Thanks to the following printers for their cooperation and professional manner
in helping me with final production of this file:

Kinko's Print Shop
7155 West Colfax
Lakewood, CO

Office Products and Printing
5035 S. Kipling Suite B4
Littleton, CO

This has been a Mark Tabas Encounter Series production.  Questions, comments,
and requests may be addressed to:

Tabas

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P.O. Box 620401
Littleton, CO 80162

Requests for copies of this or any other Encounter Series file are honored for
free, but please enclose a self-addressed medium sized first class mailing
envelope with 73 cents postage.

Special thanks to Steve Reger, who was kind enough to shoot my neighbor's dog,
whose incessant barking constantly distracted me as I labored to complete this
file.

(for Amy) cl/KIABB!/jd















































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               Equal Access and Modem Autodialers by Shadow 2600

    Now that AT&T is being divested of its local telephone companies, phone
customers across the nation have to choose their long distance carrier as equal
access is phased in.  Advertising campaigns emphasize such aspects as low rates
and operator assistance, but no one mentions a factor that will affect modem
users who use auto dialers for long distance calls.  Not all of the alternate
long distance carriers provide called party answering supervision on all calls.
Called party answering supervision basically has the telephone company start
billing only when the called party answers the telephone.  However, many of the
alternate long distance companies still operate with the "fixed timeout" basis
for charging.  That is, if a call is held for a fixed length of time (usually
30 seconds) the charging starts, whether or not the call was answered.  This
could cause modem owners large bills if they use autodialers to make long
distance calls.  Modems are usually set up to wait up to one minute when
attempting to make a call, and thus have to timeout through busy signals, long
call setup sequences, extender waits, and similar problems.  This could result
in many billed but never answered calls.

    Some of the other carriers provide it on calls to some cities, and others
not support it at all.  Only AT&T Communications provides called party
answering supervision on all calls to all points at this time.  It is almost
impossible to get information on how a long distance company charges its calls
as as they don't want to reveal how their billing is handled.  The alternate
carriers get called party supervision when the destination location goes equal
access.  However, there has been no quick action on the part of the alternate
long distance companies to make use of the supervision data as they would have
to get equipment for passing the information back to the billing computer at
the originating point.  Thus called party answering supervision information
often ends up being ignored by these carriers even when available.  Another
point to remember is that called party answering supervision's availability
depends on whether the destination has equal access, not the originating
location.  The lower long distance rates of alternate long distance rates must
be weighed against the time out problem as it affects autodialing modems.  One
way to circumvent this is merely to set your modem to a shorter
waiting-for-connect time, but this may not provide enough time for the call to
go through.  [For more information on this and other telecommunications topics
call the Private Sector BBS at (201) 366- 4431]





















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==Phrack Inc.==
Volume One, Issue Two, Phile #6 of 9

                Toward Universal Information Services Via ISDN
                DDDDDD DDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDD DDDD
                                 by Taran King

                From PROTO newsletter of AT&T Bell Laboratories
         ------------------------------------------------------------
Phase one, the Present.
DDDDD DDDD DDD DDDDDDDD
  The local network of today, although still largely voice-oriented, is already
on the path to Universal Information Services.  Lightguide fiber is
dramatically expanding the capacity of local networks, helping to lower the
costs and increase the demand for high-band width, Information Age services.
And public networks are increasingly digital and geared for data and special
 services.  For example:

o   The AT&T Network Systems 5ESS (TM <riiiight>) switch, designed by Bell
Laboratories, can serve as the hub of a local deployment of remote modules at
locations up to 100 miles from a host central office.

o   The Integrated Special Services Network (ISSN) is a channel network that
provides special services, customer control options and digital private lines
rearrangeable under software control. The ISSN incorporates digital carrier
terminating equipment such as the D4 Channel Bank, D5 Digital Terminal System
and Digital Access and Cross-connect System (DACS).

o   The New Centrex is bringing greater levels of customer control, improved
services and a broad range of data capabilities to the business customer.

   Today's public networks consist of multiple or overlay networks. The public
switched network, or circuit network, mainly for voice, is the base network.
Two kinds of overlay networks provide special services.  Channel networks carry
private lines leased by large customers and transmit much of today's data and
image traffic; they also handle traffic for network operations support.  Packet
networks carry data communications, while packet switching is used internally
to public networks for common channel signaling to set up, route and take down
calls, or to give customers information. "Overlay networks help
telecommunications companies efficiently meet growing demand for digital
transmission and special services," says Stan Johnston, Market Planning
Manager, Network Systems Evolution, in AT&T Network Systems. "Their integration
into a single network, however, would be still more effective."

Phase two, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
DDDDD DDDD DDD DDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDDDDDD DDDDDDD DDDDDDD

  The ISDN is a concept to which AT&T is committed - and it's the foundation
for Universal Information Services.  The central idea of ISDN, as AT&T Network
Systems sees it, is to provide an individual user a link to the local central
into two 64,000-bit channels, which may carry voice or data or both, and one
16,000-bit channel for packetized signaling information or data transport.
Such a link provides convenient "integrated" network access by accommodating
voice, data and signaling over a single line.
  The ISDN will make it easier for a customer to get varied services from
public and private networks.  More bandwidth for big customers will be
available through another ISDN access standard, the extended digital subscriber

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line, which provides 1.5 billion bits per second as 24 channels of 64,000 bits
each.
   In 1986, new software from Bell Labs will enable the 5ESS switch to
accommodate ISDN-sized 144,000-bit channels that standardize and simplify
subscribers' use of local networks.  AT&T is committed to future products that
will also be ISDN-compatible.  Other vendors, too, some of whom already plan to
build premises, terminal, and other equipment to ISDN standards, will make ISDN
a cooperative effort.
   By providing integrated digital access to networks, ISDN will make important
progress toward the goal of Universal Information Services. But overlay
networks will continue to divvy up the transport job.  And messages needing
less than 144,000 bits per second will not fill their allotted bandwidth,
leaving capacity under utilized.

Phase three, Universal Information Services.
DDDDD DDDDDD DDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDD
   Rooted in the fertile ground of 5ESS switches, ISDN equipment and
technologies such as wideband packet transport, Universal Information Services
will bear fruit during the 1990s.  From a single kind of network will hang
services as different as apples, oranges and pears. Just as network access was
integrated in ISDN, transport functions will increasingly be integrated by
powerful new network equipment evolved from equipment developed for the ISDN.
Where customers once got standard-sized ISDN channels, they'll get big
bandwidth for large jobs, little bandwidth for small jobs.



































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                TOWARD UNIVERSAL INFORMATION SERVICES VIA ISDN

Phase one, the present. The local network of today, although still largely
voice oriented, is already on the path to Universal Information Services.
Lightguide fiber is dramatically expanding the capacity of local networks,
helping to lower the costs and increase the demand for high-bandwidth,
Information Age services. And public networks are increasingly digital and
geared for data and special services.  For example:

   *  The AT&T Network Systems 5ESS switch, designed by Bell Laboratories, can
serve as the hub of a local digital network through deployment of remote
modules at locations up to 100 miles from a host central office.

   *  The Integrated Special Services Network (ISSN) is a channel networks that
provides special services, customer control options and digital private lines
rearrangeable under software control. The ISSN incorporates digital carrier
terminating equipment such as the D4 Channel Bank, D5 Digital Terminal System
and Digital Access and Cross-connect Systems (DACS).

   *  The New Centrex is bringing greater levels of customer control, improved
services and a broad range of data capabilities to the business customer.

 Todays public networks consist of multiple or overlay networks.  The public
switched network, or circuit network, is the base network.  Two kinds of
overlay networks provide special services.  Channel networks carry private
lines leased by large customers and transmit much of today's data and image
traffic; they also handle traffic for network operations support.  Packet
networks carry data communications, while packet switching is used internal to
public networks for common channel signaling to set up, route and take down
calls, or to give customers information.
   "Overlay networks help telecommunications companies efficiently meet growing
demand for digital transmission and special services," says Stan Johnston,
Market Planning Manager, Network Systems Evolution, in AT&T Network Systems.
"Their integration into a signal network, however, would be still
more effective."
   Phase two, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).  The ISDN is a
concept to which AT&T is commited--and it's the foundation for Universal
Information Services.  The central idea of ISDN, as AT&T Network Systems sees
it, is to provide an individual user a link to the local central office of
generous bandwidth--a digital subscriber line that can carry 144,000 bits per
second.  The bandwidth is subdivided into two 64,000-bit channels, which may
carry voice or data or both, and one 16,000-bit channel for packetized
signaling information or data transport.  Such a link provides convenient
"integrated" network access by accommodating voice, data and signaling over a
single line.
   The ISDN will make it easier for a customer to get varied services from
public and private networks.  More bandwidth for big customers will be
available through another ISDN access standard, the extended digital subscriber
line, which provides 1.5 million bit per second as 24 channels of 64,000 bits
each.
   In 1986, new software from Bell Labs will enable the 5ESS switch to
accommodate ISDN-sized 144,000-bit channels that standardize and simplify
subscribers' use of local networks.  AT&T is committed to future products that
will also be ISDN-compatible.  Other vendors, too, some of whom already plan to
build premises, terminal and other equipment to ISDN standards, will make ISDN
a cooperative effort.
   By providing integrated digital access to networks, ISDN  will make
important progress toward the goal of Universal Information Services.  But

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overlay networks will continue to divvy up the transport job.  And messages
needing less than 144,000 bits per second will not fill their allotted
bandwidth, leaving capacity underutilized.
   Phase three, Universal Information Services.  Rooted in the fertile ground
of 5ESS switches, ISDN equipment and technologies such as wideband packet
transport, Universal Information Services will bear fruit during the 1990s.
>From a single kind of network will hang services as different as apples,
oranges and pears.  Just as network access was integrated in ISDN, transport
functions will increasingly be integrated by powerful new equipment evolved
from equipment developed for the ISDN.  Where customers once got standard-
sized ISDN channels, they'll get big bandwidth for large jobs, little bandwidth
for small jobs.

*** retyped from PROTO, AT&T Bell Laboratories report to executives on new
technologies, without written permission from the editors.  (heh, heh.)

Subscriptions:  $15.00 per year, published bi-monthly.  Send check payable to
"Bell Laboratories PROTO," to PROTO Circulation Manager, Room 3E-230, 150 John
F. Kennedy Parkway, Short Hills, N.J.  07078.

:LIQUID:CRYSTAL:
wisdom is safety




































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==Phrack Inc.==
Volume One, Issue Two, Phile #7 of 9

         @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
         @                                                          @
         @                   _  _        _______                    @
         @                  | X/ |      / _____/                    @
         @                  |_||_|etal / /hop                       @
         @                  __________/ /                           @
         @                 /___________/                            @
         @            Headquarters of Phrack Newsletter             @
         @                     (314) 432-0756                       @
         @                    Proudly Presents                      @
         @                      MCI Overview                        @
         @                   Written on 11/16/85                    @
         @                           by                             @
         @                                                          @
         @              Knight Lightning & Taran King               @
         @                                                          @
         @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

MCI Communications Corporation, headquartered in Washington, D.C., provides a
full range of domestic and international telecommunications services, including
voice and data, telex and cable, paging and mobile telephone, and time
sensitive message delivery.

Since its founding in 1968, MCI has grown to more than $1.6 billion in annual
sales and serves more than 1.9 million business, residential and government
customers through its four major business units:

MCI Telecommunications

MCI Airsignal

MCI International

MCI Digital Information Services


MCI TELECOMMUNICATIONS

   MCI Telecommunications provides domestic interstate long distance service
throughout all 50 states, plus Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and major
calling areas of Canada.  It is also authorized to provide varying degrees of
intrastate long distance service in some states.

MCI also is the first long distance carrier other than AT&T to offer direct
dial service overseas.  International telephone service is available to all
residential and commercial customers (with the exception of Private Line
customers).  In October, 1984 the first international service agreements were
announced with the following countries:  Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, East
Germany, Greece, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.

Total capital investment in MCI's long distance network is approximately $2
billion.  MCI's network, the second largest in the U.S., employs microwave
optical fiber, satellite and various digital transmission technologies.

Subscribers - Domestic Long Distance (as of 10/84)

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-----------   ----------------------
Residential              1.4 million
Commercial                .3 million
     Total               1.7 million

Operations - (as of 10/84)
Network Miles...20,543 (microwave, optical fiber, satellite)
Circuits.......238,000
Employees........9,500 (full-time, approx.)

MCI AIRSIGNAL

MCI Airsignal provides personal message delivery and car telephone services.
MCI Message Service is offered in more than 50 metropolitan areas.  In 1984,
service will commence in New York City, Baltimore-Washington, Los Angeles, and
Chicago.  MCI car telephone service is offered in 20 markets.

Personal Message Delivery Service

ALPHANUMERIC MESSAGE SERVICE

Displays up to 40-character message using letters and/or numbers. Memory and
recall ability.  Alerts subscriber with a silent visual alert or a soft tone.

DISPLAY MESSAGE SERVICE

Displays up to 24-digit message (e.g., phone number, stock quotes, sales
figures, coded messages).  Memory and recall capability.  Alerts customer to
message with a silent visual alert or a soft tone.

TONE MESSAGE SERVICE

Notifies customer of a message with a soft tone.

VOICE MESSAGE SERVICE

Receives message in actual voice of caller.

EXPRESS MESSAGE SERVICE

Receives and stores messages.  Instantly alerts subscriber via pager when a
message is received.

Car Telephone Service

Enables customers to place calls to or receive calls from anywhere in the
world, 24 hours a day, as they travel in their cars.  With the advent of new
cellular technology, both the quality and the accessibility of car telephone
service will vastly improve.

MCI has thus far obtained franchises to operate a new kind of mobile phone
service,  cellular telephone, in Minneapolis and Pittsburgh, and has received
favorable decisions from FCC administration law judges authorizing service in
Los Angeles, Denver-Boulder, and Kansas City. MCI has applied for licenses to
provide cellular service in 81 metropolitan areas.

MCI Airsignal Branch Sales Offices


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Personal Message Service/Conventional Mobile Phone Service

Birmingham                             (205)  942-2924
Sacramento                             (916)  444-2350
Memphis                                (901)  682-9658
Cleveland                              (216)  464-7311
Dallas                                 (214)  788-5111
Fresno                                 (209)  486-7410
Las Vegas                              (702)  382-7461
Denver                                 (303)  778-7878
Portland                               (503)  227-2556
Philadelphia                           (215)  677-9845
Atlanta                                (404)  252-2114
West Florida                           (813)  875-3404
Minneapolis                            (612)  544-8175
Kansas City                            (913)  648-8090
Miami                                  (305)  491-0122
Pittsburgh                             (412)  343-1611
Houston                                (713)  464-2516
Bakersfield                            (805)  832-2346

Cellular Telephone Offices

            Minneapolis-St. Paul                   (612)  544-3312
            Los Angeles                            (714)  527-0385
            Elsewhere in California                (800)  344-3455
            Headquarters - Washington, D.C.        (202)  429-9660


MCI INTERNATIONAL

MCI International provides private-line voice service to several overseas
countries, and data and message services, including telex, cablegram, leased
channel, and packet switching communications, to more than 200 overseas points.
MCI has moved into two new areas of service:  International direct-dial
telephone service and international electronic mail and hard-copy delivery
services.

International Record Services

TELEX SERVICE   (domestic and international) permits instantaneous, two-way,
written communications with other subscribers worldwide.  Customers can send
messages at any time, even though the receiving terminal may be unattended. MCI
International offers access to its telex service from a variety of terminals
and networks; not only subscribers with telex terminals but also those with
communicating word processors, data terminals or computers that communicate
over telephone lines can take advantage of MCI International telex service.  To
subscribers connected to its own telex network, MCI International offers World
Message Services--a package of communications offerings including telex,
cablegram and MCI Mail services.  Various service enhancements are available to
save time, improve operating efficiency and simplify records keeping for telex
users.

CABLEGRAM SERVICE, the traditional means of international written
communications, offers flexibility in delivery and economical rates for shorter
messages.  Cablegrams can be delivered to virtually any overseas
point.Subscribers with telex terminals or various other types of equipment can
access and TELUS cablegram switch and take advantage of such service

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enhancements as abbreviated addressing and departmental billing.

LEASED
CHANNEL SERVICE  provides an exclusive line between a U.S. firm and it's
overseas office for private communications 24 hours a day.  Each MCI
International leased channel is tailored to meet the needs of a specific
customer for teleprinter, facsimile, voice and/or data traffic. For subscribers
with several offices requiring private communications with each other, MCI
International offers a versatile message-switching service. Voice/data leases
can be configured to meet a whole array of communicating needs; for example,
one channel might carry data traffic from a computer at night, voice
communications during office hours, and simultaneous teleprinter messages at
any time.  Data channels can handle requirements for traffic at any speed from
1200 bits per second to 1.544 megabits per second.

IMPACS SERVICE   uses packet-switching technology to provide international
communications service between data terminals and computers.  Impacs offers
on-line, real-time connections and enables many types of incompatible systems
to communicate.  Impacs service offers virtually error-free transmission
because of the error-detection and retransmission capability of the network.

INSTALINK SERVICE allows businesses overseas to use regular telex equipment to
access remote computing systems and databases in the U.S.  Subscribers can
retrieve data from a computer-based information service or use a computing
system connecting to a packet-switching network in the U.S.

INTERNATIONAL
FACSIMILE SERVICE enables subscribers to send duplicates of original documents
overseas quickly and efficiently, even when neither the sender or the receiver
has facsimile transmission equipment, or when the sender and receiver have
incompatible equipment.

DATEL SERVICE  provides automatic or voice-coordinated data transmission at
speeds up to 2400 bits per second. Either digital or analog facsimile traffic
can be transmitted via Datel.  Datel facilities are conditioned to ensure
high-quality transmission.  The MCI International switching center allows
communications between incompatible terminals.

MARITIME SERVICES   provide instant, high--quality contact between ships at sea
or offshore rigs, and between these vessels and land-based subscribers
worldwide.

International Voice Services

PRIVATE
LINE SERVICE   provides, fast, easy access to a single overseas location at an
economical monthly rate.  This technically efficient system maximizes the use
of line capacity by recognizing idle time and assigning a speaker to a
transmission path only when the path is needed.  Users can dial a four-digit
extension from a regular business phone to reach a key overseas location.

International Mail Services

WORLD
MESSAGE SERVICE   subscribers can access the domestic electronic mail and
hard-copy delivery offerings of MCI Mail.  In addition, MCI International is
developing fast, low-cost services that will deliver electronic messages and
high-quality printed documents worldwide.

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Customer Service

THE CUSTOMER TROUBLE REPORTING ASSISTANCE CENTER at MCI International addresses
customer concerns such as equipment maintenance and service performance
questions.  Customer service specialists, on duty 24 hours a day on business
days, answer questions and electronically route service requests to technicians
nationwide.

MCI DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES CORP.

MCI Digital Information Services, MCI's newest unit, provides high-speed,
low-cost, time-sensitive message delivery (MCI Mail), either electronically or
via hard copy.

MCI Mail   provides time-sensitive document delivery to anyone, anywhere vial
MCI's long-distance telephone network.  MCI Mail can reach a recipient
instantly, in four hours or less, or overnight by noon the next day.  Prices
are as much as 90 percent lower than comparable time-sensitive mail delivery
services.  MCI Mail can be delivered electronically, terminal to terminal, or
laser printed on letterhead stationery with the customer's signature.

MCI Mail customers can even order gifts and services direct through MCI Mail,
ranging from software and paper for personal computers to investment advisory
services to travel specials.

There are no sign-up, monthly service charges or "connect time" charges for MCI
Mail.  MCI Mail can be used by virtually any personal computer, word processor,
electronic typewriter, data terminal, telex, or other digital communications
device.  The service is accessed by a local telephone call or 800 number.

MCI Mail

INSTANT delivery to an "electronic" mailbox.

FOUR-HOUR paper delivery by courier to 17 major metropolitan areas regardless
of point of origin.

OVERNIGHT paper delivery by courier by noon the next day in 20,000 continental
U.S. cities.

MCI LETTER transmitted electronically to the MCI digital postal center nearest
its destination, then delivered locally by the U.S. Postal Service.

TELEX DISPATCH enables MCI Mail subscribers to transmit messages to the more
than 1.6 million telex subscribers worldwide.

VOLUME MAIL enables customers to send large mailings in a variety of letter
formats, at substantial savings in delivery time and expense.

         ============================================================
              Look for more MCI Files coming to Metal Shop soon!

                 This has been a Knight Lightning Presentation
         ============================================================




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                               Reference Tables

   Just some notes that you will always try to find but can never!
























































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==Phrack Inc.==
Volume One, Issue One, Phile #5 of 8

                            Using MCI Calling Cards
                                      by
                               Knight Lightning
                                    of the
                                  2600 Club!

How to dial international calls on MCI:

               "Its easy to use MCI for international calling."

1.  Dial your MCI access number and authorization code (code = 14 digit number,
however the first 10 digits are the card holders NPA+PRE+SUFF).

2.  Dial 011

3.  Dial the country code

4.  Dial the city code and the PRE+SUFF that you want.

Countries served by MCI:

Country                          code|Country                     code
-------------------------------------|--------------------------------
Algeria..........................213 |New Zealand..................064
Argentina........................054 |Northern Ireland.............044
Australia........................061 |Oman.........................968
Belgium..........................032 |Papua New Guinea.............675
Brazil...........................055 |Qatar........................974
Canada................Use Area Codes |Saudi Arabia.................966
Cyprus...........................357 |Scotland.....................044
Denmark..........................045 |Senegal......................221
Egypt............................020 |South Africa.................027
England..........................044 |Sri Lanka....................094
German Democratic Republic           |Sweden.......................046
(East Germany)...................037 |Taiwan.......................886
Greece...........................030 |Tanzania.....................255
Jordan...........................962 |Tunisa.......................216
Kenya............................254 |United Arab Emirates.........971
Kuwait...........................965 |Wales........................044
Malawi...........................265 |
======================================================================

Thats 33 countries in all. To get the extender for these calls dial 950-1022 or
1-800-624-1022.

For local calling:

1.  Dial 950-10222 or 1-800-624-1022

2.  Wait for tone

3.  Dial "0", the area code, the phone number, and the 14 digit authorization
code. You will hear 2 more tones that let you know you are connected.

  - Knight Lightning -->  The 2600 Club!

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=====================================================================


























































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            AT&T INTERNATIONAL DIALING COUNTRY CODES AS OF 2-17-85

                             FILE BY:  Lock Lifter
                          +=========================+

*UNITED KINGDOM/IRELAND
------------------------------------
IRELAND.........................353
UNITED KINGDOM...................44

*EUROPE
------------------------------------
ANDORRA..........................33
AUSTRIA..........................43
BELGIUM..........................32
CYPRUS..........................357
CZECHOLSLOVAKIA..................42
DENMARK..........................45
FINLAND.........................358
FRANCE...........................33
GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.......37
GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF.....49
GIBRALTAR.......................350
GREECE...........................30
HUNGARY..........................36
ICELAND.........................354
ITALY............................39
LIECHTENSTEIN....................41
LUXEMBOURG......................352
MONACO...........................33
NETHERLANDS......................31
NORWAY...........................47
POLAND...........................48
PORTUGAL........................351
ROMANIA..........................40
SAN MARINO.......................39
SPAIN............................34
SWEDEN...........................46
SWITZERLAND......................41
TURKEY...........................90
VATICAN CITY.....................39
YUGOSLAVIA.......................38

*CENTRAL AMERICA
------------------------------------
BELIZE..........................501
COSTA RICA......................506
EL SALVADOR.....................503
GUATEMALA.......................502
HONDURAS........................504
NICARAGUA.......................505
PANAMA..........................507

*AFRICA
------------------------------------
ALGERIA.........................213
CAMEROON........................237
EGYPT............................20

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ETHIOPIA........................251
GABON...........................241
IVORY COAST.....................225
KENYA...........................254
LESOTHO.........................266
LIBERIA.........................231
LIBYA...........................218
MALAWI..........................265
MOROCCO.........................212
NAMIBIA.........................264
NIGERIA.........................234
SENEGAL.........................221
SOUTH AFRICA.....................27
SWAZILAND.......................268
TANZANIA........................255
TUNISIA.........................216
UGANDA..........................256
ZAMBIA..........................260
ZIMBABWE........................263

*PACIFIC
------------------------------------
AMERICAN SAMOA..................684
AUSTRAILIA.......................61
BRUNEI..........................673
FIJI............................679
FRENCH POLYNESIA................689
GUAM............................671
HONG KONG.......................852
INDONESIA........................62
JAPAN............................81
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF...............82
MALAYSIA.........................60
NEW CALEDONIA...................687
NEW ZEALAND......................64
PAPUA NEW GUINEA................675
PHILIPPINES......................63
SAIPAN..........................670
SINGAPORE........................65
TAIWAN..........................886
THAILAND.........................66

*INDIAN OCEAN
------------------------------------
PAKISTAN.........................92
SRI LANKA........................94

*SOUTH AMERICA
------------------------------------
ARGENTINA........................54
BOLIVIA.........................591
BRAZIL...........................55
CHILE............................56
COLOMBIA.........................57
ECUADOR.........................593
GUYANA..........................592
PARAGUAY........................595
PERU.............................51

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SURINAME........................597
URUGUAY.........................598
VENEZUELA........................58

*NEAR EAST
------------------------------------
BAHRAIN.........................973
IRAN.............................98
IRAQ............................964
ISRAEL..........................972
JORDAN..........................962
KUWAIT..........................965
OMAN............................968
QATAR...........................974
SAUDI ARABIA....................966
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES............971
YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC.............967

*CARIBBEAN/ATLANTIC
------------------------------------
FRENCH ANTILLES.................596
GUANTANAMO BAY (US NAVY BASE)....53
HAITI...........................509
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES............599
ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON.........508

*INDIA
------------------------------------
INDIA............................91

*CANADA
------------------------------------
TO CALL CANADA, DIAL 1 + AREA CODE +
LOCAL NUMBER.

*MEXICO
------------------------------------
TO CALL MEXICO, DIAL 011 + 52 + CITY CODE+ LOCAL NUMBER.

***NOTES :DO NOT FORGET ABOUT THE TIME DIFFERENCE WHEN CALLING OUTSIDE OF YOUR
TIME ZONE. CALLING CARDS CAN BE USED OVER SEAS TO CALL BACK INTO THE U.S. FOR
FURTHER INFORMATION CALL TOLL-FREE 1-800-874-0000. DIAL '#' AFTER THE COMPLETE
NUMBER TO MAKE THE CALL GO THROUGH FASTER.
















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                    **************************************
                    *                                    *
                    *    International Dialing Codes     *
                    *         Country + Routing          *
                    *                                    *
                    *      (Typed by The Dagda Mor)      *
                    *       (Edited by The Jammer)       *
                    *                                    *
                    **************************************

To dial international calls:

International Access Code + Country code + Routing code

Example :

To call Frankfurt, Germany, you would do the following:

011 + 49 + 611 + (# wanted) + # sign(octothrope)

The # sign at the end is to tell Bell that you are done entering in all the
needed info.

Here is the list of Country Codes, listed next to the country, and the routing
codes listed next to the city.

Andorra- 33          Argentina- 54
-------              ---------
all points- 078      Buenos Aires- 1


Australia- 61        Austria- 43
---------            -------
Melbourne- 3         Innsbruck- 5222
Sydney- 2            Vienna- 222


Bahrain- 973         Belgium- 32
-------              -------
no routing needed    Antwerp- 31
                     Brussels- 2


Belize- 501          Bolivia- 591
------               -------
no routing needed    La Paz- 2


Brazil- 591          Chile- 56
------               -----
Brasilia-61          Santiago- 2
Rio de Janeiro- 21   Valparaiso- 31
Sao Paulo- 11


China- 86            Colombia- 56
-----                --------
Tainan- 62           none needed

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Taipei- 2


Costa Rica- 506      Cyprus- 357
----- ----           ------
no routing needed    Nicosia- 21


Denmark- 45          Ecuador- 593
-------              -------
Aalborg- 8           Cuenca- 4
Copenhagen 1 or 2    Quito- 2


El Salvador- 503     Fiji- 679
----------           ----
no routing needed    none needed


France- 33           Germany- 49
------               -------
Bordeaux- 56         Berlin- 30
Marseille- 91        Bonn- 228
Nice- 93             Frankfurt- 661
Paris- 1             Munich- 89


German. Rep- 37      Greece- 30
------- ---          ------
                     Rhodes- 241


Guam- 671            Guatamala- 502
----                 ---------
no routing needed    Guatemala City- 2


Guyana- 592          Haiti- 509
------               -----
Georgetown- 02       Port Au Prince- 1


Hoduras- 504         Hong Kong- 852
-------              ---- ----
no routing needed    Hong Kong- 5
                     Kowloon- 3


Indonesia- 62        Iran- 98
---------            ----
Jakarta- 21          Teheran- 21


Iraq- 964            Ireland- 353
----                 -------
Baghdad- 1           Dublin- 1
                     Galway- 91

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Israel- 978          Italy- 39
------               -----
Haifa- 4             Florence- 55
Jerusalem- 2         Naples- 81
Tel Aviv- 3          Rome- 6
                     Venice- 41


Ivory Coast- 225     Japan- 81
----- -----          -----
no routing needed    Hiroshima- 822
                     Tokyo- 3
                     Yokohama- 45


Kenya- 254           Korea- 82
-----                -----
Nairobi- 2           Pusan- 51
                     Seoul- 2


Kuwait- 965          Liberia- 231
------               -------
no routing needed    none needed


Libya- 218           Lechtenstein- 4
-----                ------------
Tripoli- 21          All points- 75


Luxembourg- 352      Malaysia- 60
----------           --------
no routing needed    Kuala Lumpur- 3


Monaco- 33           Netherlands- 31
------               -----------
All points- 93       Amsterdam- 20
                     Rotterdam- 10
                     The Hague- 70


New Caledonia- 687   New Zealand- 64
--- ---------        --- -------
no routing needed    Auckland- 9
                     Wellinton- 4


Nicaragua- 505       Nigeria- 234
---------            -------
Managua- 2           Lagos- 1


Norway- 47           Panama- 507
------               ------

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Bergen- 5            none needed
Oslo- 2


Papua New Guinea-675 Paraguay- 595
----- --- ------     --------
no routing needed    Asuncion- 21


Peru- 51             Phillippines- 63
----                 ------------
Arequipa- 542        Manila- 2
Lima- 14

Portugal- 351        Romania- 40
--------             -------
Lisbon- 19           Bucuresti- 0


San Marino- 39       Saudi Arabia- 966
--- ------           ----- ------
All points- 541      Riyadh- 1


Senegal- 221         South Africa- 27
-------              ----- ------
no routing needed    Cape Town- 21
                     Pretoria- 12


Spain- 34            Sri Lanka- 94
-----                --- -----
Barcelona- 3         Colombo- 1
Canary Is.- 28
Madrid- 1
Seville- 54


Suriname- 597        Sweden- 46
--------             ------
no routing needed    Goteborg- 31
                     Stockholm- 8


Switzerland- 41      Tahiti- 689
-----------          ------
Berne- 31            none needed
Geneva- 22
Lucerne- 41
Zurich- 1


Thailand- 66         Tunisia- 216
--------             -------
Bangkok- 2           Tunis- 1


Turkey- 90           United Arab

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------               Emirates- 971
Istanbul- 11         --------
                     Abu Dhabi- 2
                     Ajman- 6
                     Al Ain- 3
                     Aweir- 49
                     Dubai- 4
                     Fujairah- 91
                     Jebel Dhana- 5
                     Sharjah- 6
                     Umm-Al-Quwain- 6


United Kingdom- 44   USSR- 7
------ -------       ----
Belfast- 232         Kiev- 044
Cardiff- 222         Leningrad- 812
Edinburgh- 31        Minsk- 017
Glasgow- 41          Moscow- 095
Liverpool- 51        Tallinn- 0142
London- 1

Vatican City- 39     Venezuela- 58
------- ----         ---------
All points- 6        Caracas- 2
                     Maracaibo- 61

Yugoslavia- 38
----------
Belgrade- 11
Zagreb- 41




























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                    **************************************
                    *                                    *
                    *           MAX ACCESS PORTS         *
                    *                                    *
                    *        (LEXITEL CORPORATION)       *
                    *                                    *
                    *   WORD PROCESSED BY THE DAGDA MOR  *
                    *                                    *
                    **************************************

ADRIAN,MI............313-263-0191  LIVONIA, MI..........313-261-6970
AKRON,OH.............216-275-9814  LOS ANGELES, CA......213-624-9041
ANN ARBOR, MI........313-451-2121  LOUISVILLE, KY.......502-568-6204
ATLANTA, GA..........404-525-1769  MARION, OH...........614-387-1011
AVON LAKE, OH........216-933-2823  MCKEESPORT, PA.......412-664-4870
BADEN, PA............412-869-1360  MENTOR, OH...........216-255-1645
BALTIMORE, MD........301-444-7280  MIDDLETOWN, OH.......513-423-1066
BEAVER FALLS, PA.....412-847-3640  MILWAUKEE, WI........414-933-1880
BIRMINGHAM, MI.......313-649-0730  MINNEAPOLIS, MN......612-375-0280
BOSTON, MA...........617-267-9134  MONESSEN, PA.........412-684-8710
BUFFALO, NY..........716-854-0802  MORTON GROVE,IL......312-950-1066
BUTLER, PA...........412-285-9081  NEWARK, NJ...........201-624-5040
CANTON, OH...........216-455-1425  NEWARK, OH...........614-349-8754
CHICAGO, IL..........312-950-1066  NEW CASTLE, PA.......412-656-9420
CHILLICOTHE, OH......614-772-1066  NEW YORK, NY.........212-950-1066
CINCINNATI, OH.......513-421-1880  OAK LAWN, IL.........312-950-1066
CLEVELAND, OH........216-771-6614  PHILADELPHIA, PA.....215-751-9711
COLUMBUS, OH.........614-950-1066  PITTSBURG, PA........412-391-9532
DALLAS, TX...........214-653-1047  PLYMOUTH, MI.........313-451-2121
DAYTON, OH...........513-223-0366  PONTIAC, MI..........313-332-0500
DETROIT, MI..........313-950-1066  PORT HURON, MI.......313-982-7115
ELK GROVE, IL........312-950-1066  PHOENIX, AZ..........602-242-0252
ELYRIA, OH...........419-323-4431  QUEENS, NY...........718-204-7330
FINDLAY, OH..........419-424-5934  SANDUSKY, OH.........419-625-1289
GLEENSHAW, PA........412-486-7394  SHARON, PA...........412-983-0100
GRAND RAPIDS, MI.....616-456-7925  SPRINGFIELD, OH......513-950-1066
GREENSBURG, PA.......412-836-8110  STEUBENVILLE, OH.....614-283-1756
HACKENSACK, NJ.......201-342-2815  ST. LOUIS, MO........314-289-9100
HOUSTON, TX..........713-224-0982  ST. PAUL, WI.........612-375-0280
INDIANA, PA..........412-349-8760  TOLEDO, OH...........419-255-1316
INDIANAPOLIS, IN.....317-638-4442  TROY, OH.............513-335-2303
KALAMAZOO, MI........616-342-0266  TURTLE CREEK, PA.....412-823-1500
KANSAS CITY, MO......816-474-6193  WASHINGTON, DC.......202-479-4411
KOKOMO, IN...........317-453-9932  WASHINGTON, PA.......412-225-1800
LA GRANGE, IL........312-950-1066  WARREN, MI...........313-268-9120
LANCASTER, OH........614-687-0159  XENIA, OH............513-376-2991
LANSING, MI..........517-950-1066  YOUNGSTOWN, OH.......216-746-2021
LAFAYETTE, IN........317-423-5492  ZANESVILLE, OH.......614-454-6815











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      ******************** METROFONE ACCESS NUMBERS ********************

ANAHEIM, CA          (714)527-7055  LOS ANGELES, CA      (213)992-8282
ATLANTA, GA          (404)223-1000  LOS ANGELES, CA      (213)202-6117
AUSTIN, TX           (512)474-6057  MIAMI, FL            (305)326-3300
BALTIMORE, MD        (301)659-7700  MILWAUKEE, WI        (414)277-1805
BEAUMONT, TX         (713)833-9331  MINNEAPOLIS, MN      (612)370-9000
BOSTON, MA           (617)482-3222  NEW ORLEANS, LA      (504)566-8500
BUFFALO, NY          (716)852-9200  NEW YORK, NY         (212)732-7430
CHICAGO, IL          (312)853-4700  NEWARK, NJ           (201)645-9220
CINCINNATI, OH       (513)241-1747  OAKLAND, CA          (415)836-6900
CLEVELAND, OH        (216)861-5163  OKLAHOMA CITY, OK    (405)232-9011
COLUMBUS, OH         (614)224-0577  OMAHA, NE            (402)422-1120
CULVER CITY, CA      (213)410-0078  PHILADELPHIA, PA     (215)351-0100
DALLAS, TX           (214)742-4500  PITTSBURGH, PA       (412)261-5720
DAYTON, OH           (513)228-1576  RENO, NV             (702)329-1025
DENVER, CO           (303)623-5326  RICHMOND, VA         (804)225-1920
DETROIT, MI          (313)963-4847  ST. LOUIS, MO        (314)342-1130
EL MONTE, CA         (213)350-1028  SACRAMENTO, CA       (916)443-6921
ELK GROVE, IL        (312)981-8870  SAN ANTONIO, TX      (512)224-9600
FT. LAUDERDALE, FL   (305)462-3530  SAN DIEGO, CA        (714)233-0327
FT. WORTH, TX        (817)338-1639  SAN FRANCISCO, CA    (415)956-0162
HACKENSACK, NJ       (201)487-3155  SAN JOSE, CA         (408)947-7606
HARTFORD, CT         (203)522-0003  SAN MATEO, CA        (415)579-6001
HAWTHORNE, NJ        (201)427-1100  SANTA ANA, CA        (714)972-9515
HINSDALE, IL         (312)986-0566  SEATTLE, WA          (206)382-0910
HOUSTON, TX          (713)224-9417  SKOKIE, IL           (312)679-8120
HUNTINGTON BEACH, CA (714)972-8515  SYRACUSE, NY         (315)474-3911
INDIANAPOLIS, IN     (317)635-6284  TOLEDO, OH           (419)243-1046
KANSAS CITY, KS      (913)621-3186  WASHINGTON, DC       (202)737-2051
LONG ISLAND, NY      (516)443-5402
LOS ANGELES, CA      (213)629-1026



























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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                 Area Codes In Numerical Order, by The Jammer
______________________________________________________________________

201 Newark           New Jersey    519 London           Ontario
202 Washington D.C   (all)         601 Mississippi      (all)
203 Connecticut      (all)         602 Arizona          (all)
205 Alabama          (all)         603 New Hampshire    (all)
206 Seattle          Washington    605 South Dakota     (all)
207 Maine            (all)         606 Winchester       Kentucky
208 Idaho            (all)         607 Binghamton       New York
212 Bronx            Nyc, New York 608 Madison          Wisconsin
212 Manhattan        Nyc, New York 609 Trenton          New Jersey
213 Los Angeles      California    612 St. Paul         Minnesota
214 Dallas           Texas         613 Ottawa           Ontario
215 Philadelphia     Pennsylvania  614 Columbus         Ohio
216 Cleveland        Ohio          615 Nashville        Tennessee
217 Springfield      Illinois      616 Grand Rapids     Michigan
218 Duluth           Minnesota     617 Boston           Massachusetts
219 Gary             Indiana       618 Alton            Illinois
301 Maryland         (all)         619 San Diego        California
303 Colorado         (all)         700 Teleconference   (all)
304 West Virginia    (all)         701 North Dakota     (all)
305 Miami            Florida       702 Nevada           (all)
305 Orlando          Florida       703 Alexandria       Virginia
307 Wyoming          (all)         704 Charlotte        North Carolina
308 Abott            Nebraska      705 North Bay        Ontario
309 Peoria           Illinois      712 Councilbluffs    Iowa
312 Chicago          Illinois      713 Houston          Texas
313 Detroit          Michigan      714 Anaheim          California
314 St. Louis        Missouri      715 Bay City         Wisconsin
315 Syracuse         New York      716 Buffalo          New York
316 Wichita          Kansas        716 Rochester        New York
317 Indinapolis      Illinois      717 Harrisburg       Pennsylvania
318 Lake charles     Lousiana      800 Toll Free        (all)
319 Davenport        Iowa          801 Utah             (all)
401 Rhode Island     (all)         802 Vermont          (all)
402 Omaha            Nebraska      803 South Carolina   (all)
404 Atlanta          Georgia       804 Richmond         Virgina
405 Oklahoma City    Oklahoma      805 Bakersfield      California
406 Montana          (all)         806 Amarillo         Texas
408 San Jose         California    807 Thunder Bay      Ontario
412 Pittsburg        Pennsylvania  808 Hawaii           (all)
413 Springfield      Massachusetts 809 Bermuda          (all)
414 Milwaukee        Wisconsin     809 Bahamas          (all)
415 San Francisco    California    809 Puerto Rico      (all)
416 Toronto          Onterio       809 Virgin Islands   (all)
417 Joplin           Missouri      812 Evansville       Indiana
418 Quebec           Quebec        812 Dade park        Kentucky
419 Toledo           Ohio          814 Johnston         Pennsylvania
501 Arkansas         (all)         815 Rockford         Illinois
502 Frankfort        Kentucky      816 Independence     Missouri
503 Oregon           (all)         817 Fort Worth       Texas
504 New Orleans      Louisiana     818 Burbank          California
504 Baton Rouge      Louisiana     819 Trois Riv.       Quebec
505 New Mexico       (all)         900 Dial-it          (all)
507 Rochester        Minnesota     901 Memphis          Tennessee
509 Pullman          Washington    904 Talahassee       Florida
512 Austin           Texas         906 Escanaba         Michigan

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

513 Cincinnati       Ohio          907 Alaska           (all)
514 Montreal         Quebec        912 Savannah         Georgia
515 Des Moines       Iowa          913 Kansas  City     Kansas
516 Hempstead        New York      915 El Paso          Texas
517 Lansing          Michigan      916 Sacramento       California
518 Albany           New York      918 Tulsa            Oklahoma
                                   919 Raleigh          North Carolina




















































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

==Phrack Inc.==
Volume One, Issue Two, Phile #5 of 9

Updated from November 26, 1985
Tac Dialups taken from Arpanet
by Phantom Phreaker

                   TAC DIALUPS SORTED BY LOCATION 26-NOV-85

State/Country         300 Baud             1200 Baud              1200 Type
-------------      ---------------       -----------------        ---------

  ALABAMA
   Anniston Army Depot [M]
   (ANNIS-MIL-TAC)   (205) 235-6285 (R4)    (205) 235-7650               B/V
                     (205) 237-5731 (R8)    (205) 237-5731 (R8)          B/V
                     (205) 237-5770 (R8)    (205) 237-5779 (R8)          B/V
                     (205) 237-5805 (R8)    (205) 237-5805 (R8)          B/V

   *Please note:  When accessing the Anniston TAC you must first enter a
   <RETURN>, then enter DDN <RETURN>.  After you receive CLASS DDN START,
   proceed as normal.

   Gunter AFS [M]

   (GUNTER-TAC)      (205) 279-3576
                     (205) 279-4682

   Redstone Arsenal [M]
   (MICOM-TAC)       [none known]

  ARIZONA
   Ft. Huachuca [M]
   (HUAC-MIL-TAC)    [none known]

   Yuma [M]
   (YUMA-TAC)        (602) 328-2186         (602) 328-2186               B/V
                     (602) 328-2187         (602) 328-2187               B/V
                     (602) 328-2188         (602) 328-2188               B/V

  CALIFORNIA (NORTHERN)
   Alameda [M]
   (ALAMEDA-MIL-TAC)     [none known]

   Menlo Park [M]
   (SRI-MIL-TAC)     (415) 327-5440 (R3)    (415) 327-5440 (R3)          B

   (USGS3-TAC) [M]   [no dialups]

   Moffett Field [M]
   (AMES-TAC)        [no dialups; contact NSC for access]
                     William Jones - (415) 694-6482
                                     (FTS) 494-6482
                                      (AV) 359-6482

   Monterey [M]
   (NPS-TAC)         [none known]


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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

   Sacsamento [M]
   (MCCLELLAN1-MIL-TAC)   [none known]
   (MCCLELLAN2-MIL-TAC)   [none known]

   Stanford [A]
   (SU-TAC)          (415) 327-5220

  CALIFORNIA (SOUTHERN)
   China Lake [M]
   (NWC-TAC)         [none known]


   Edwards AFB [M]
   (EDWARD-MIL-TAC)  [none known]

   El Segundo [M]
   (AFSC-SD-TAC)     (213) 643-9204     (213) 643-9204                  B/V

   Los Angeles [A]
   (USC-TAC)         (213) 749-5436

   Los Angeles [A]
   (USC-ARPA-TAC)    [none known]

   San Diego [M]
   (ACCAT-TAC)   (619) 225-1641 (R4)    (619) 225-6903                  V
                 (619) 225-6946 (R3)
                                        (619) 223-2148                  V
                 (619) 226-7884 (R2)

   Santa Monica
   (RAND-ARPA-TAC) [A]
                 (213) 393-9230
                 (213) 393-9237
                 (213) 393-9238
                 (213) 393-9239

   (RAND2-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]

  COLORADO
   Denver Fed Ctr [M]
   (USGS2-TAC)       (303) 232-0206         (303) 232-0206              B/V

   Lowry Air Force Base [M]
   (LOWRY-MIL-TAC)   [none known]

  D.C.
   Washington
    [Andrews AFB] [M]
   (AFSC-HQ-TAC)  (301) 967-7930 (R16)     (301) 967-7930 (R16)         B
                  (301) 736-2990 (R4)      (301) 736-2990 (R4)          B
                  (301) 736-2998 (R2)      (301) 736-2998 (R2)          B

   (PENTAGON-TAC) (202) 553-0229 (R14)  (202) 553-0229 (R14)            B

  FLORIDA
   Eglin AFB [M]
   (AFSC-AD-TAC)     (904) 882-8202         (904) 882-8202              B/V

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                     (904) 882-8201         (904) 882-8201              V

   MacDill AFB [M]
   (MACDILL-MIL-TAC)  [none known]

   Naval Air Station - Jacksonville [M]
    (JAX1-MIL-TAC)    [none known]

   Naval Air Station - Orlando [M]
    (ORLANDO-MIL-TAC) [none known]

  GEORGIA
   Robins AFB [M]
   (ROBINS-TAC)      (912) 926-2725         (912) 926-2725              B/V
                     (912) 926-2726
                     (912) 926-3231
                     (912) 926-3232
                     (912) 926-2204         (912) 926-2204              B/V
   HAWAII
   Camp H.M. Smith [M]
   (HAWAII2-TAC)     (808) 487-5545         (808) 487-5545              B

  ILLINOIS
   Scott AFB [M]
   (SCOTT-TAC)       [none known]

   (SCOTT2-MIL-TAC)  [none known]

  KANSAS
   Ft. Leavenworth [M]
   (LVN-MIL-TAC)     (913) 651-7041 (R8)  (913) 651-7041 (R8)           B

  LOUISIANA
   Navy Regional Data Automation Center [M]
   (NORL-MIL-TAC)    (504) 944-7940       (504) 944-7940                B
                     (504) 944-7948 (R2)  (504) 944-7948 (R2)           B
                     (504) 944-7951 (R5)  (504) 944-7951 (R5)           B
                     (504) 944-8702 (R8)  (504) 944-8702 (R8)           B

  MARYLAND
   Aberdeen Proving Ground [M]
   (BRL-TAC)      (301) 278-6916 (R4)   (301) 278-6916 (R4)             B/V

   Bethesda [M]
   (DAVID-TAC)    (202) 227-3526 (R16)  (202) 227-3526 (R16)            B/V

   Patuxent River [M]
   (PAX-RV-TAC)      (301) 863-4815        (301) 863-4815               B/V
                     (301) 863-4816        (301) 863-4816               B/V
                     (301) 863-5750 (R6)   (301) 863-5750 (R6)          B/V

   Silver Spring [M]
   (WHITEOAK-MIL-TAC)   (301) 572-5960 (R10)   (301) 572-5960 (R10)     B
                        (301) 572-5970 (R10)   (301) 572-5970 (R10)     B

  MASSACHUSETTS
   Hanscom AFB [M]
   (AFGL-TAC)     (617) 861-3000 (R8)   (617) 861-3000 (R8)             B

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                  (617) 861-4965 (R8)   (617) 861-4965 (R8)

   Cambridge
   (BBN-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]

   (BBN-ARPA-TAC) [A]  [no dialup capability]

   (CCA-ARP-TAC) [A]   [none known]

   (MIT-TAC) [A]
                        (617) 491-5669        (617) 258-6224            V
                        (617) 491-5708        (617) 258-6225            V
                        (617) 491-5734        (617) 258-6227            V
                        (617) 491-5819        (617) 258-6248            V
                        (617) 491-5826
                        (617) 491-5841
                        (617) 491-5849
                        (617) 491-6769
                        (617) 491-6772
                        (617) 491-6937
                        (617) 258-6241
                        (617) 258-6242
                        (617) 258-6243

  MICHIGAN
   U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM) - Warren [M]
   (TACOM-TAC)       [none known]

  MISSOURI
   St. Louis [M]
   (STLA-TAC)        [none known]

  NEBRASKA
   Offutt AFB [M]
   (SAC1-MIL-TAC)    [none known]

   (SAC2-MIL-TAC)    (402) 292-4638 (R10)   (402) 292-4638 (R10)         B

   (SAC-ARPA-TAC) [A]
                     (402) 294-2398         (402) 294-2398               B
                     (402) 291-2018         (402) 291-2018               B
                     (402) 292-7054         (402) 292-7054               B

  NEW JERSEY
   Dover [M]
   (ARDC-TAC)        (201) 724-6731         (201) 724-6731               B/V
                     (201) 724-6732         (201) 724-6732               B/V
                     (201) 724-6733         (201) 724-6733               B/V
                     (201) 724-6734         (201) 724-6734               B/V

   Fort Monmouth [M]
   (FTMONMOUTH1-MIL-TAC)   (201) 544-2052         (201) 544-2052         B/V
                           (201) 544-2062         (201) 544-2062         B/V
                           (201) 544-2072         (201) 544-2072         B/V
                           (201) 544-2396         (201) 544-2396         B/V
                           (201) 544-2430         (201) 544-2430         B/V

   (FTMONMOUTH2-MIL-TAC)   (201) 544-4254 (R3)    (201) 544-2430         B

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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                                  (201) 544-2636         B
                                                  (201) 544-2638         B
          (201) 544-2777         B

  NEW MEXICO
   Albuquerque [M]
   (AFWL-TAC)        [none known]

  White Sands [M]
   (WSMR-TAC)       [no dialups; contact NSC for access]
                    Claude (Skeet) Steffey - (505) 678-1271
                                             (FTS) 898-1271
                                              (AV) 258-1271

  NEW YORK
   Griffiss AFB
   (RADC-ARPA-TAC) [A] [no dialup capability]

   (RADC-TAC) [M]
                     (315) 339-4913 (R5)
                     (315) 337-2004           (315) 337-2004              B/V
                     (315) 337-2005           (315) 337-2005              B/V

                     (315) 330-2294           (315) 330-2294  (FTS) 952   B/V

                     (315) 330-3587           (315) 330-3587  (FTS) 952   B/V

  NORTH CAROLINA
   Ft. Bragg [A]
   (BRAGG-ARPA-TAC)  (919) 396-1131 (R10)     (919) 396-1426  (R5)        B/V
                                              (919) 396-1491  (R8)        B/V
   Ft. Bragg [M]
   (BRAGG-MIL-TAC)   [none known]

  OHIO
   Wright-Patterson AFB [M]
   (WPAFB-TAC)       (513) 258-4218
                     (513) 258-4219
                     (513) 258-4987
                     (513) 258-4988
                     (513) 258-4989
                     (513) 258-4990

   (WPAFB2-MIL-TAC)  (513) 257-2172 (R8)     (513) 257-2172 (R8)        B
                     (513) 257-2690 (R8)     (513) 257-2690 (R8)        B
                     (513) 257-3625 (R8)     (513) 257-3625 (R8)        B

  OKLAHOMA
   Tinker AFB [M]
   (TINKER-MIL-TAC)  [none known]


  PENNSYLVANIA
   New Cumberland Army Depot [M]
   (NCAD-MIL-TAC)    [none known]

   (NCAD2-MIL-TAC)   [none known]


                                    Page 189




                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

  TEXAS
   Brooks AFB [M]
   (BROOKS-AFB-TAC)  (512) 536-3081 (R6)  (512) 536-3081 (R6)              B/V

   Richardson [A]
   (COLLINS-TAC)     (214) 235-2131       (214) 235-2131                   B
                     (214) 235-2143       (214) 235-2143                   B
                     (214) 235-2178       (214) 235-2178                   B
                     (214) 235-2204       (214) 235-2204                   B
                     (214) 235-2251       (214) 235-2251                   B
                     (214) 235-2278       (214) 235-2278                   B

  UTAH
   Dugway Proving Ground [M]
   (DUGWAY-MIL-TAC)  [none known]

   Salt Lake City (University of Utah) [A]
   (UTAH-TAC)        (801) 581-3486       (801) 581-3486                   B/V

  VIRGINIA
   Alexandria [M]
   (DARCOM-TAC)      (202) 274-5300       (202) 274-5300                   B
                     (202) 274-5320 (R6)  (202) 274-5320 (R6)              B

   Arlington
   (ARPA1-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]

   (ARPA2-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]

   (ARPA3-TAC) [A]   [no dialup capability]

   Dahlgren [M]
   (NSWC-TAC)        (703) 663-2162 (R8)     (703) 663-2162 (R8)          B

   Langley Air Force Base [M]
   (LANGLEY-MIL-TAC) [none known]

   McLean [M]
   (DDN-PMO-MIL-TAC) [none known]


   (MITRE-TAC) [M]
                     (703) 442-8020 (R15)
                     (703) 893-0330 (R10)    (703) 893-0330 (R10)         B/V

   Norfolk [M]
   (NORFOLK-MILTAC)  (804) 423-0241 (R2)     (804) 423-0241 (R2)          B
                     (804) 423-0247 (R2)     (804) 423-0247 (R2)          B
                     (804) 423-0346 (R4)     (804) 423-0346 (R4)          B
                     (804) 423-0480          (804) 423-0480               B
                     (804) 423-0486 (R2)     (804) 423-0486 (R2)          B
                     (804) 423-0489          (804) 423-0489               B
                     (804) 423-0570          (804) 423-0570               B
                     (804) 423-0572 (R2)     (804) 423-0572 (R2)          B
                     (804) 423-0577 (R2)     (804) 423-0577 (R2)          B
                     (804) 423-0651          (804) 423-0651               B
                     (804) 423-0654 (R3)     (804) 423-0654 (R3)          B
                     (804) 423-0841 (R2)     (804) 423-0841 (R2)          B

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                     (804) 423-0845          (804) 423-0845               B
                     (804) 423-0849          (804) 423-0849               B
                     (804) 423-0858          (804) 423-0858               B
                     (804) 423-0950          (804) 423-0950               B
                     (804) 423-0952          (804) 423-0952               B
                     (804) 423-0955 (R3)     (804) 423-0955 (R3)          B
                     (804) 423-0959          (804) 423-0959               B

   Reston
   (DCEC-ARPA-TAC) [A]   [no dialups available]

   (DCEC-MIL-TAC) [M]
                     (703) 437-2892 (R5)     (703) 437-2928               B
                     (703) 437-2925          (703) 437-2929               B
                     (703) 437-2926
                     (703) 437-2927

  WASHINGTON
   Seattle [A]
   (WASHINGTON-TAC)  [no dialup capability]

  ENGLAND [M]
   (CROUGHTON-MIL-TAC)   [none known]

  GERMANY [M]
   (FRANKFURT-MIL-TAC)
                     (M) 2311-5641 (R8)                                   B

   (RAMSTEIN2-MIL-TAC) [none known]

  ITALY [M]
   (AGNANO-MIL-TAC)

  JAPAN [M]
   (BUCKNER-MIL-TAC)

   (ZAMA-MIL-TAC)

  KOREA [M]
   (KOREA-TAC)       (M) 264-4951 (R8)                                    B

  PHILIPPINES [M]
   (CLARK-MIL-TAC)

  SPAIN [M]
   (MILNET-TJN-TAC)  [none known]

   (ROTA-MIL-TAC)    [none known]

  Notes:

  1.  "(R10)" following phone number indicates a rotary with 10 lines.

  2.  For alternate phone numbers, FTS=Federal Telephone System.
  3.  (M)=Military DoD Telephone System.

  4.  [M] denotes a MILNET TAC and [A] denotes an ARPANET TAC.


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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

  5.  "1200 Type" refers to the modem compatibility for 1200 baud only:
       B/V =  Bell and Vadic
       B   =  Bell 212A only
       V   =  Vadic 3400 only

  6.  This list is contained in the file NETINFO:TAC-PHONES.LIST at
      SRI-NIC.




















































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                        >>==========================<<
                        >>==> TELCO TEST NUMBERS <==<<
                        >>====> as of 5/16/85 <=====<<
                        >>=> compiled and updated <=<<
                        >>====> by Shadow 2600 <====<<
                        >>==========================<<

011-44-61-2468011 : US dial tone then "When this system changes, this is the
new dial tone you hear" (UK is changing dialtone)

201-226-0709 : alternating tones, then "warble"
201-267-9922 : sweep tone
201-267-9966 : 600 ohm termination
201-232-9924 : (tone 1,2,5-beep, bleep; 9,#- 1200 baud static, beep, bleep;
6-tone, higher tone, bleep)
201-232-9959 : tone 11 sec. silence, repeats...
201-233-9972 : multitude of clicks
201-233-9974 : busy 15 sec. then tone w/ clicks
201-241-9916 : hissing with clicks
201-328-9971 : 1000 hrtz tone
201-376-9907 : "is being checked for trouble.  Please try again later"
201-464-9915 : low tone 15 sec, silence
201-464-9916 : low tone 2 sec, silence
201-464-9963 : buzz
201-464-9974 : busy 15 sec, low tone
201-543-9902 : "If you'd like to make a call, hang up and try it again."
201-543-9903 : "We're sorry, your call did not go through."
201-543-9904 : "the number you have dialed requires a .20 cents deposit."
201-655-9900 : "cannot be completed as dialed from the phone you are using"
201-769-0205 : People's Express Reservation system
203-771-4920 : telephone company employee newsline
207-866-4411 : 1000 hrtz tone
212-233-9980 : (tone 1,2,3,*-tone, higher tone, bloop; 5-tone, bloop; 9,#-
static,beep,bloop)
212-369-7003 : "you have reached 212-369-7003 in zone 3" (?)
212-799-5017 : ABC New York feed line
213-621-4141 : telephone employee newsline
213-935-1111 : sweep tone with echo at top of range (?)
215-489-0036 : tone, bloop (1,2,5-tone bloop, 3,6,9-tone, higher tone,tone)
215-489-0040 : "please check your instruction manual or call repair service for
assistance"
215-489-0042 : "if you like to make a call please hang up and try again"
215-489-0043 : "We're sorry, your call did not go through."
215-489-0044 : "The call you have made requires a 25 cent deposit"
215-489-0045 : "You must first dial a 1 when dialing this number."
215-489-0074 : LOUD tone, stops, repeats
215-489-0075 : 600 ohm termination (silence)
215-489-0078 : tone, silence
215-489-0080 : 600 ohm termination
215-489-0097 : tone, (lower pitched than -0078) silence (also at -0098)
215-489-0104 : 1000 hrtz tone
216-861-8300 : tone, then higher tone
301-256-9987 : 1000 hertz
301-546-7777 : "Due to Telephone Company facility trouble your call cannot be
completed at this time"
301-725-9904 : "deposit .20"
305-263-0000 : repeating bloop (keypress 2 : slow reorder w/ bloops, clicks)
305-994-9963 : pay fone instructions

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305-994-9966 : "telephone you are calling from is not in service"
312-222-9948 : tone (keypress 1,2,3,6,7,*-tone, high tone, bleep,
4-tone,bloop,9, #-static,beep,bloop)
312-222-9954 : "Test Center"
312-222-9990 : clicks, ticking like
312-222-9996 : LOUD tone, repeats
312-368-8000 : Illinois Bell Communicator (employee newsline)
312-592-0000 : tone (keypress 2222, then other digits, at re-order type * to
restart) (?)
313-223-7223 : telephone employee newsline
313-333-9981 : LOUD tone, silence
313-333-9989 : high tone (enter touchtones for a while, eventually get
"metallic" echo, then 5-high pitched tone, random re-orders)
313-333-9990 : beep, click repeats, with "winks"
313-333-9994 : tone bloop (keypress in 2-tone,bloop, 3-tone, higher tone,tone,
9-static, beep,bloop)
313-333-9995 : 600 ohm termination (silence)
313-333-9996 : weird siren/sweep tone, multi-frequency
313-430-4300 : beep, beep, beep, then reorder
313-698-9998 : sweep tone
314-247-5511 : Southwestern Bell Telenews (employee newsline)
315-471-9934 : "deposit 5 cents for next five minutes"
408-255-0081 : (any two 2,4,8,0-tone)
408-294-6969 : beep, click, computer voice repeats number
408-395-1110 : (tone 2-bleep,glitch; 3-beep,higher beep;#then number-loud
tone,bleep)
408-738-8190 : (tone 1,3,6,7,*-tone, high tone, tone;2-beep,cluck;9,#-
static,tone,beep)
408-745-6060 : high pitched tone, low tone then repeats
408-994-0044 : tone end of loop
412-633-3333 : telephone company employee newsline
414-628-0001 : continuous tone
414-628-0002 : continuous tone (higher pitched, sounds like muted dial)
414-628-0004 : high pitched tone, bloop, silence
414-628-0006 : brief very high tone (also -0007) (multiple keypresses of
2,5,8,0 tone repeats)
414-628-0010 : loud tone, stops, repeats...
414-628-0011 : loud tone, stops
414-628-0013 : 600 ohm termination (silence) (also -0017, two in an exchange?)
414-628-0014 : continuous tone (sounds like weird dial), eventually stops
414-628-0015 : LOUD tone, repeats
414-628-0028 : "Your call cannot be completed as dialed
414-678-3511 : Wisconsin Bell Newsline
414-781-0004 : high tone, silence (keypress 2,5-beep,bleep, 3,6-beep,longbeep,
bloop, 9-static,bloop)
415-284-1111 : one sweep, then silence
415-327-0046 : sweep tone
415-388-0037 : tone,bloop (keypress 2-tone,bloop, 3-tone,high tone,tone,
9-static,beep,bloop)
415-472-0046 : sweep w/ glitch at top
415-545-8800 : Pacific Bell Newsline
415-467-0097 : fast DTMF tones, keypress to repeat
415-777-0020 : 1000 hrtz tone
415-777-0037 : tone, bloop (keypress 2-beep,bloop, 3,6-tone,higher tone,
9-static,beep,bloop)
415-777-0046 : sweep tone with echo
415-777-0105 : tone,bloop (keypress 2-beep,bleep, 3,6-tone, higher tone,
tone,9-static,beep,bloop

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415-826-0022 : tone, click, tone (sounds like a busy)
415-994-0710 : multitude of clicks
512-472-2181 : "if you would like to make a call, please hang up and try
again"
512-472-4263 : garbled recording (?)
512-472-9833 : "you must first dial a 1 or 0 before calling this number"
512-472-9936 : "please check your instructions or call your business office for
assistance"
512-472-9941 : "insert 25 cents"
516-222-3825 : LOUD tone
516-234-9914 : New York Telephone Newsline
518-471-2272 : New York Telephone Newsline
518-789-3299 : weird busy, multitude of clicks
609-267-9966 : busy with clicks in background
609-267-9967 : 600 ohm termination (silence)
609-267-9968 : 1000 hrtz tone
609-267-9971 : LOUD tone, stops, repeats
609-267-9972 : rings with clicks in background (also -9973 and -9974)
609-877-9924 : high tone (tone in 1,2,5-tone, bloop; 3,6,*-tone, higher tone,
bleep; #-static, beep, bleep)
609-877-9929 : 1000 hrz tone
617-553-9953 : tone end of loop
617-890-9900 : sweep tone
617-955-1111 : telephone company employee newsline
619-748-0002 : tone increases in pitch, silence, repeats in monotone
619-748-0003 : sweep, repeat, hangs up
702-789-6711 : Nevada Bell Newsline
713-354-0000 : touch tone in #, then new #, then 5 - listed, 9 - unlisted)
713-482-3199 : "We're sorry, all circuit are busy now."
713-652-5111 : touch tones echo back "metallic", something about "drivers
licence number" replys in a female recorded voice
717-255-5555 : Bell of Pennsylvania "Inside Line" (employee newsline)
718-429-9900 : "Please slide a valid credit card through the slot now"
800-221-5959 : tone (# makes it ring)
800-228-8466 : Sensaphone (tm) demo (time etc. (EST) (wait 7+ rings))
800-321-3048 : non-connecting loop with 800-321-3049
800-321-3052 : loop (don't know where other end is)
800-321-6366 : Centagram's Voice Memo System (extension 100 for demo)
800-323-6321 : tone, stops, bloop repeats
800-327-0000 : "Announcement three, Dallas" (changes sometimes)
800-344-4001 : non-connecting loop with 800-344-4002
800-524-0000 : "Announcement 1 Atlanta"
800-554-5924 : Cable News Network audio feed
800-824-8274 : "Enter your password service code"
802-955-1111 : telephone company newsline
808-533-4426 : Hawaiian Telephone Newsline
816-391-1122 : recorder (keypress 1-toggle on/off, 3-rewind, 4-stop, 7-play)
907-269-0955 : tone (sounds like extender, doesn't take touch tone (?))
914-232-9901 : "Daytona, New York DMS-100 verification"
914-268-9901 : "Congers DMS 100 Verification"
914-268-9903 : "your call cannot be completed as dialed"
914-268-9968 : (keypress 2-high tone, 3-high, higher tone, 6,0-click, 7- hangs
up, sometimes 0,#,*-harmony)
914-359-9901 : repeats the number dialed ("914-359-9901")
914-359-9960 : weird tone, stops, clicks, repeats
914-623-9968 : (keypress 2,5-beep glitch, 3,6-tone highertone)
916-480-8000 : Pacific Bell Newsline


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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                        WHAT A TSPS CONSOLE LOOKS LIKE

--- NON/COIN ---- ------------- COIN ------------- --------- HOTEL ---------

 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----    ----   -----   ---       ---    ----
!VFY ! !OVER! !SCRN! !INWD! !EMER!  !STA ! ! 0+ ! !DIAL!     !STA ! ! 0+ !
!DIAL! !POST! !TONE! !STA ! ! 0+ !  !DIAL! !QST ! !    !     !    ! !    !
 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----    ----   ----   ----       ----   ----

----- OUTGOING TRUNKS -----    RING RELEASE

 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   -----   ----   ----   ----   ----
! DA ! !R&R ! !SWB ! !OGT ! !BACK! ! FWD ! !CALL! !T&C ! !NFY ! !CHG !
 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   -----   ----   ----   ----  ! DUE!
                                                                 ----
 ---    ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----
!KEY ! !BACK! !FWD ! ! SR ! !MAKE! !MTCE! !POS ! !BACK! !    ! !    !
!CLG ! !    ! !    ! !    ! !BUSY! !TRFR!  ----   ----   ----   ----
 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----

              ----------------- AMA -----------------
              ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----
STATION -----!PAID! !COL ! !SPL ! !SPL ! !AUTO! !DDD !
             !    ! !    ! !CLG ! !CLD ! !COL ! !    !
              ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----

              ----   ----   ----   ----          ----
PERSON ----- !PAID! !COL ! !SPL ! !SPL !        ! NO !
             !    ! !    ! !CLG ! !CLD !        !AMA !
              ----   ----   ----   ----          ----

               ----         ----         ----
              !CLG !       !CLG !       !CLG !
              !    !       !    !       !    !
               ----         ----         ----
























                                    Page 196




                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                                   Box Plans

   Hmm...  I wonder!  This is still under construction (Ha Ha).
























































                                    Page 197




                        The Official Phreaker's Manual

                           THE INFINITY TRANSMITTER

                            TYPED BY THE GHOST WIND

                         FROM THE BOOK BUILD YOUR OWN
         LASER, PHASER, ION RAY GUN & OTHER WORKING SPACE-AGE PROJECTS
                       BY ROBERT IANNINI (TAB BOOKS INC)

Description:  Briefly, the Infinity Transmitter is a device which activates a
microphone via a phone call.  It is plugged into the phone line, and when the
phone rings, it  will immediately intercept the ring and broadcast into the
phone any sound that is in the room. This device was originally made by
Information Unlimited, and had a touch tone decoder to prevent all who did not
know the code from being able to use the phone in its normal way.  This
version, however, will activate the microphone for anyone who calls while it is
in operation.
NOTE:  It is illegal to use this device to try to bug someone. It is also
pretty stupid because they are fairly noticeable.
Parts List:
Pretend that uF means micro Farad, cap= capacitor

Part           #          Description
----           -          -----------
R1,4,8         3         390 k 1/4 watt resistor
R2             1         5.6 M 1/4 watt resistor
R3,5,6         3         6.8 k 1/4 watt resistor
R9,16          2         100 k 1/4 watt resistor
R10            1         2.2 k 1/4 watt resistor
R13,18         2         1 k 1/4 watt resistor
R14            1         470 ohm 1/4 watt resistor
R15            1         10 k 1/4 watt resistor
R17            1         1 M 1/4 watt resistor
C1             1         .05 uF/25 V disc cap
C2,3,5,6,7     5         1 uF 50 V electrolytic cap or tant
                          (preferably non-polarized)
C4,11,12       3         .01 uF/50 V disc cap
C8,10          2         100 uF @ 25 V electrolytic cap
C9             1         5 uF @ 150 V electrolytic cap
C13            1         10 uF @ 25 V electrolytic cap
TM1            1         555 timer dip
A1             1         CA3018 amp array in can
Q1,2           2         PN2222 npn sil transistor
Q3             1         D4OD5 npn pwr tab transistor
D1,2           2         50 V 1 amp react. 1N4002
T1             1         1.5 k/500 matching transformer
M1             1         lar





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