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TUCoPS :: Phreaking General Information :: ph08.txt

Compendium of Phreaking Info




<*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*>
<*>    Joe Cosmo Presents.....                                          <*>
<*>                                                                     <*>
<*>          Methods of Phreaking and Telco Security Measures           <*>
<*>                                                                     <*>
<*>                                       June 16, 1988   1:30 am       <*>
<*>                                                                     <*>
<*>                (updated 7/3/88 for CN/A list & Plus One Service)    <*>
<*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*><*>


(formatted to 80 Columns)



   Dedication:  This phile is dedicated to all those great phreakers who taught
me all of this, and to all of the newcomers being born to the phreak world. For
the legends, it is here as their legacy, and for the newcomers, I hope they will
use it as their guide in times of trouble, and may there always be phreakers in
the world.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
   I.  Introduction: What Telephone Fraud Is
  II.  Who Does It and Why
 III.  The Systems That Are Fooled
  IV.  Electronic Toll Fraud
       How Boxes Work
       The Blue Box
       Operation of a Blue Box
       Pink Noise
       The Black Box
       The Red Box
       The Cheese Box
   V.  Divertors
  VI.  Private Branch Exchanges
 VII.  Specialized Common Carriers
       SCC Extenders List
VIII.  PC Pursuit
       How to Originate a PC Pursuit Call
  IX.  Cellular Phone Fraud
       ESN Tampering
       Obtaining ESN's
   X.  CN/A's
       CN/A List (updated 7/3/88)
  XI.  Loops
 XII.  Alliance Teleconferencing
       Billing an Alliance Conference
       Starting a Conference
XIII.  Telephone System Security Measure
       ESS Detection Devices
       Automatic Number Identification and Centralized
            Automatic Message Accounting Tapes
       Dialed Number Recorders
       Trap Codes
       The Lock In Trace
       Stopping a Lock In Trace
       4Tel  (Updated 6/24/88 Thanx to Touch Tone of BC, Canada)
       Evading 4Tel
       Plus One Service  (updated 7/3/88)
       Common Channel Inter-office Signaling
 XIV.  Laws Governing the Rights of Phreakers
  XV.  Conclusion




                I. Introduction: What Telephone Fraud Is
     Telephone fraud is illegally using the communication facilities of
telephone companies. This is commonly known as "phreaking." The writer's purpose
is to explore the methods of phreaking, and the various security measures of
telephone companies.


                           II. Who Does It and Why
     The majority of people who phreak are owners of modems (MOdulators
DEModulators, devices which allow computers to communicate over telephone lines)
and are usually between the ages of twelve and seventeen. When the person
reaches age eighteen, he or she usually stops, since after that age, if the
person in caught, the penalty can become very serious. Phreaking is the
violation of the law on Fraud In Connection With Access Devices, which carries
maximum penalties of 15 years imprisonment and a fine of $50,000, or twice the
value of the fraudulent activity.
     Scattered throughout the country are many different computer bulletin board
systems, or BBS's. These are computer systems established by private users or
large organizations for the exchange of public and private messages and
software. Most are not a local call, though. Since the normal user calls about
ten different BBS's, with even the lowest long-distance rates, the phone bill
each month can range from $100 to $1000. The solution is to phreak. When these
people learn how to phreak, they also realize that besides making free
long-distance calls from their home, they can also make free calls from
payphones. They also find that there are many other facilities that they can
used without paying.


                         III. The Systems That Are Fooled
     Their are three types of telephone operating systems in the U.S., Step by
Step (SxS), Crossbar (XB), and Electronic Switching System (ESS). They are
described in detail in the following paragraphs.

                               Step by Step
     Step by Step (SxS) was the first switching system used in America, adopted
in 1918 and until 1978 Bell had over 53% of all exchanges using Step by Step.  A
long, and confusing train of switches is used for SxS switching.

                               Disadvantages
A. The switch train may become jammed, blocking calls.
B. No DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency), to be discussed later.
C. Much maintenance and much electricity.
D. No "Touch-Tone" dialing.

                              Identification
A. No pulsing digits after dialing or "Touch Tone".
B. Much static in the connections.
C. No Speed calling, Call forwarding, and other services.
D. Pay-phone wants money first before dial-tone.

                                 Crossbar
      Crossbar has been Bell's primary switcher after 1960.  Three types of
Crossbar switchings exist, Number 1 Crossbar (1XB), Number 4 Crossbar (4XB), and
Number 5 Crossbar (5XB). A switching matrix is used for all of the phones in an
area. When someone calls, the route is determined and is connected with the
other phone. The matrix is positioned in horizontal and vertical paths,
organizing the train of switches more effectively, and therefore, stopping the
equipment from jamming. There are no definite distinguishing features of
Crossbar switchings from Step by Step.


                         Electronic Switching System
     ESS is the most advanced system employed, and has gone through many kinds
of revisions. The latest system to date is ESS 11a, which is used in Washington
D.C. for security reasons. ESS is the country's most advanced switching system,
and has the highest security system of all. With its many special features, it
is truly the phreaker's nightmare.

                               Identification
A. Dialing 911 for emergencies.
B. Dial-tone first for pay-phones.
C. Calling services, including Call forwarding, Speed dialing, and Call
waiting.
D. Automatic Number Identification for long-distance calls (ANI), to be
discussed later.
E. "Touch Tone"


                             IV. Electronic Toll Fraud
     The ETF's are electrical devices used to get free long-distance calls. The
devices are more commonly known as colored boxes, and using them is known as
"boxing." Boxing is one of the oldest way to phreak, and therefore, it is also
the most dangerous, since the telephone companies are very much aware of their
existence. Colored boxes are not used only for phreaking. There are many types
which have other uses (such as the Tron Box, which lowers your electric bill),
so only those used in telephone fraud will be discussed.

                                 How Boxes Work
     In the beginning, all long distance calls were connected manually by
operators who passed on the called number verbally to other operators in series.
This is because pulse (rotary) digits are created by causing breaks in the DC
current.  Since long distance calls call for routing through various switching
equipment and AC voice amplifiers, pulse dialing cannot be used to send the
destination number to the end local office (CO).
     Eventually, the demand for faster and more efficient long distance service
caused Bell to make a multi-billion dollar decision. They had to create a
signaling system that could be used on the LD Network. They had two options:

{1} To send all the signaling and supervisory information (eg., ON and OFF HOOK)
over separate data links.  This type of signaling is referred to as out-of-band
signaling.

{2} To send all the signaling information along with the conversation using
tones to represent digits.  This type of signaling is called in-band signaling.


The second seemed to be the most economical choice, and so, it was incorporated
in ESS.
     Then, in the 1960's, when the first ESS systems were employed, a toy
whistle was put in each box of Captain Crunch Cereal as a premium. A young radio
technician in the United States Air Force became fascinated with the whistle
when he discovered that by blowing it into the telephone after dialing any long
distance number, the trunk line would remain open without toll charges
accounting. From then on, any number could be dialed for free. The truth was
that the whistle produced a perfect-pitch 2600 Hz tone, the one used to signify
a disconnect in ESS switching equipment. To overcome the initial charge for the
for the long distance call, he later used toll-free 800 numbers.
     Being a skilled technician, Captain Crunch (he began to use the name as an
alias) soon went beyond the simple whistle and experimented with other
frequencies, creating many of the boxes discussed in the following paragraphs.

                                 The Blue Box
     The "Blue Box" was so named because of the color of the first one
discovered by the authorities. The design and hardware used in the Blue Box is
very sophisticated, and its size varies from a large piece of apparatus to a
miniaturized unit that is approximately the size of a "king size" package of
cigarettes.
     The Blue Box contains 12 or 13 buttons or switches that emit the
multi-frequency tones used in the normal operation of the telephone toll (long
distance) switching network. In effect, the the Blue Box can let a person become
the operator of a phone line. The Blue Box enables its user to originate
fraudulent toll calls by circumventing (fooling) toll billing equipment. The
Blue Box may be directly connected to a phone line, or it may be acoustically
coupled to a telephone handset by placing the Blue Box's speaker next to the
transmitter, or the telephone handset.

                           Operation of a Blue Box
     To understand the steps of a fraudulent Blue Box call, it is necessary to
understand the basic operation of the Direct Distance Dialing (DDD) telephone
network. When a DDD call is originated, the calling number is identified as an
integral part of establishing the connection. This may be done either
automatically by ANI in ESS, or in some cases, by an operator asking the calling
party for his telephone number. This information is entered on a tape in the
Centralized Automatic Message Accounting (CAMA) office. This tape also contains
the number assigned to the trunk line over which the call is to be made. The
information relating to the call contained on the tape includes the called
number's identification, time of origination of the call, and if the called
number answered the call. The time of disconnect is also recorded. The various
data entries with of the call are correlated to provide billing information for
use by the caller's telephone company's accounting department.
     The typical Blue Box user usually dials a number that will route the call
into the telephone network without charge. For example, the user will very often
call a well-known INWATS (toll-free) number. The Blue Box user, after gaining
this access to the network when somebody picks up and in effect, "seizing"
control of the line, operates a key on the Blue Box which emits a 2600 Hertz
(cycles per second, abbreviated as Hz) tone. This tone causes the switching
equipment to release the connection to the INWATS customer's line. The 2600 Hz
tone is the signal to the switching system that the calling party has hung up.
In fact though, the local trunk on the calling party's end is still connected to
the toll network. The Blue Box user now operates the "KP" (Key Pulse) key on the
Blue Box to notify the toll switching equipment that switching signals are about
to be emitted. The user then pushes the "number" buttons on the Blue Box
corresponding to the telephone number being called. After doing so, he/she
operates the "ST" (Start) key to tell the switching equipment that signaling is
complete. If the call is completed, only the portion of the original call prior
to the operation of the 2600 Hz tone is recorded on the CAMA tape. The tones
emitted by the Blue Box are not recorded on the CAMA tape. Therefore, because
the original call to the INWATS number is toll-free, no billing is rendered in
connection with the call.

     The above are the steps in a normal operation of a Blue Box, but they may
vary in any one of the following ways:

A. The Blue Box may include a rotary dial to apply the 2600Hz tone and the
switching signals. This type of Blue Box is called a "dial pulser" or "rotary
SF" Blue box.

B. A magnetic tape recording may be used to record the Blue Box tones. Such a
tape recording could be used in lieu of a Blue Box to fraudulently place calls
to the phone numbers recorded on the magnetic tape.

     All Blue Boxes, except "dial pulse" or "Rotary SF" Blue Boxes,
must have the following four common operating capabilities:

A. It be able to emit the 2600 Hz tone. This tone is used by the toll network to
indicate, either by its presence or its absence, an "on hook" (idle) or "off
hook" (busy) condition of a trunk line.

B. The Blue Box must have a "KP" tones that unlocks or readies
the multi-frequency receiver at the called end to receive the
tones corresponding to the called phone number.

C. The Blue Box must be able to emit DTMF, tones used to transmit phone numbers
over the toll network. Each digit of a phone number is represented by a
combination of two tones. For example, the 2 is 700 Hz and 900 Hz.

D. The Blue Box must have an "ST" key which consists of a combination of two
tones that tell the equipment at the called end that all digits have been sent
and that the equipment should start connecting the call to the called number.

     The following is a chart of the multi-frequency (MF) tones produced by the
normal Blue Box.

700  :   1   :   2   :   4   :   7   :  11   :    2600 X
900  :   +   :   3   :   5   :   8   :  12   :
1100 :   +   :   +   :   6   :   9   :  KP   :
1300 :   +   :   +   :   +   :  10   :  KP2  :
1500 :   +   :   +   :   +   :   +   :  ST   :
     : 700   : 900   :1100   :1300   :1500   :

     The "Dial Pulser" or "Rotary SF" Blue Box requires only a dial
with a signalling capability to produce a 2600 Hz tone.


                                Pink Noise
     Since telephone companies have such advanced equipment to detect Blue
Boxes, to help avoid detection "pink noise" is sometimes added to the 2600 Hz
tone.
     Since 2600 Hz tones can be simulated in speech, the detection equipment of
the switching system must be attentive not to misinterpret speech as a
disconnect signal. Thus, a virtually
pure 2600 Hz tone is required for disconnect. This is also the reason why the
2600 Hz tone must be sent rapidly; sometimes, it will not work when the person
called is speaking. It is feasible, though, to send some "pink noise" along with
the 2600 Hz.  Most of this energy should be above 3000 Hz.  The pink noise will
not reach the toll network, where we want our pure 2600 Hz to hit, but it will
go through the local CO and thus, the fraud detectors.

                               The Black Box
     The Black Box is the easiest type to build. The box stops a call from being
charged to some one only if it is hooked to the line of the person being called.
     In the normal telephone cable, there are four wires: a red, a green, a
black, and a yellow. The red & green wires are often referred to as tip (T) and
ring (R).
     When a telephone is on-hook (hung up) there is approximately 48 volts of DC
current (VDC) flowing through the tip and ring. When the handset of a phone is
lifted, switches close, causing a loop to be connected (which is known as the
"local loop,") between the telephone and the CO.  Once this happens DC current
is able to flow through the telephone with less resistance.  This causes a relay
to energize and signal to other CO equipment that service is being requested.
Eventually, a dial tone is emitted. This also causes the 48 VDC to drop down
into the vicinity of 13 volts. The resistance of the loop also drops below the
2500 ohm level. Considering that this voltage and resistance drop is how the CO
detects that a telephone was taken off hook, how a Black Box works is by
allowing the voltage to drop enough to allow talking, but not enough to signal
to the CO equipment to start billing. To do this, a 10,000 Ohm, .5 Watt resistor
is incorporated in t{b=
1loop on the called party's line.

                                    The Red Box
     A Red Box is a device that simulates the sound of a coin being accepted by
a payphone. When a coin is put in the slot of a payphone, the first obstacle is
the magnetic trap. This will stop any light-weight magnetic slugs. If it passes
this, the coin is then classed as a nickel, dime, or quarter. Each coin is then
checked for appropriate size and weight. If these tests are passed, it will then
travel through a nickel, dime, or quarter magnet as proper. These magnets start
an eddy current effect which causes coins of the appropriate characteristics to
slow down so they will follow the correct trajectory.
     If all goes well, the coin will follow the correct path, striking the
appropriate totalizer arm, causing a ratchet wheel to rotate once for every
5-cent increment (eg, a quarter will cause it to rotate 5 times). The totalizer
then causes the coin signal oscillator to readout a dual-frequency signal
indicating the value deposited to the Automated Coin Toll Service computer
(ACTS) or the Traffic Service Position System (TSPS) operator. These are the
tones emitted by the Red Box.
     For a quarter, five beep tones are outpulsed for 66 milliseconds (ms). A
dime causes two beep tones for 33 ms, while a nickel causes one beep tone at
also  33 ms. A beep consists of two frequencies, 2200 Hz and 1700 Hz. As with a
Blue Box, Red Box tones can be recorded on a magnetic tape.
     Since any call from a payphone is originated with a "ground test," in which
the TSPS operator or the ACTS computer checks for the presence of the first coin
inserted into the phone, by verifying use of the magnetic, weight, and size
traps, when using a Red Box, it is necessary to put in at least one coin.

                                   The Cheese Box
     A Cheese Box lets a normal telephone emulate a payphone. By emulating a
payphone, using a blue box now becomes safe, because if the CO equipment
recognizes the call as one from a payphone, it does not record it on a CAMA
tape. Since a normal telephone does not have a slot to enter coins, a Red Box is
needed to generate the sound of a coin dropping.


                                  V. Divertors
     A divertor is a special service that allows businesses to "divert" calls if
no one answers after a certain number of rings. For example, a person calls a
company, and nobody answers. After about three rings, a few clicks are heard,
then a few fainter rings are heard. The building receiving the call has changed
from the company to another building, usually somebody's house. What has
happened is that the call has been re-routed from building A to building B. In
effect, the number called is not really changed, but instead, building A has
answered the call, called building B, and connected the two lines together. If
the person in building B disconnects, the caller is still connected to building
A. With the way the divertor equipment works in the telephone company, the phone
line of building A will then emit a dial tone and the caller has total control
of the line, and can originate another call, charging it to building A.



                            VI. Private Branch Exchange
     A Private Branch Exchange (PBX) is a system of out-WATS (Wide Area
Telephone Service) lines and in-WATS lines. An out-WATS line allows a business
to make as long-distance calls each month for a flat rate. An in-WATS line is a
toll-free number (800 number) that is also leased to businesses for flat rates.
PBX's save corporations much money when their salesmen, distributors, and
franchisees must make many calls from different parts of the country. It works
much like specialized common carriers (to be discussed later).
     First, the employee calls the company on the in-WATS line. The switching
equipment picks up the phone, and send a tone to the employee indicating for him
to enter the access code of the PBX. If the access code is correct, then the
line is connected to the out-WATS line, and the employee can make a call.
     To use PBX's, phreakers must find the access code of the PBX. This can be
done very easily, since the code is usually only a few digits. One way is to
dial different combinations manually on the telephone keypad. The other way is
of the phreaker is the owner of a modem. A simple program can be easily written
to continuously dial digit combinations randomly or sequentially.


                          VII. Specialized Common Carriers
     Ever since the break up of AT&T's monopoly on long-distance service, there
have been many other corporations that compete with AT&T in the long-distance
market, including Sprint, MCI, All-net, ITT, and Metrophone. These all boast
opportunities for large savings on long-distance calls. These companies are
called specialized common carriers (SCC's).
     SCC's cost less because they do not use the AT&T's cable-based systems, but
instead use microwave links. Some have also added fiber-optic lines to their
networks.
     Another way they can save consumers money is by using AT&T's lines. Instead
of connecting calls by the shortest route, the carrier will use a different
route, so the call goes through places where the long-distance traffic is heavy,
and the rate is lower. The companies that do this are known as "resellers."
     Most SCC's work nearly the same as PBX's. The 800 number is called, a tone
is hearl, the private identification number (PIN) is entered, and then the call
can be made. The length of the PIN number can range from four digit to fourteen
digits.
     Besides 800 toll free numbers, in some areas, a 950 can be used. A 950
works exactly the same as an 800 number, the only difference is that the
consumer must enter only seven digits before dialing his PIN number instead of
ten with a toll-free number. 950's are free of charge and can be used both at
home and at pay phones.
     The PIN numbers can be found the same way as PBX access codes. Since the
number of digits in a PIN is so great, using a computer is much more common
practice than manual dialing.
     The following pages are lists of SCC's and their dialups, formats, and
special points. Note that some have many different dialups.



=============================================================================
{                           SCC Extenders List                              }
{                      0-9 - Number of digits in code                       }
{                      { } - Dial that exact number                         }
{                      #   - Area code + Prefix + Suffix                    }
{                      :   - Dial tone                                      }
{                      +   - Continue dialing                               }
=============================================================================
\   Extender   \  Dialing Format  \        Company        \     Comments    \
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
\ 800-223-0548 \ 8+{1}+#          \ TDX                   \                 \
\ 800-241-1129 \ 8+{1}+#          \ TDX                   \                 \
\ 800-248-6248 \ 6+{1}+#          \ SumNet Systems        \ (800)824-3000   \
\ 800-288-8845 \ 7:{1}+#          \ TMC Watts             \ (800)999-3339   \
\ 800-325-0192 \ {1}+#+6          \ MCI                   \  950-1986       \
\ 800-325-1337 \ 7:{1}+#          \ TMC Watts             \                 \
\ 800-325-7222 \ 6+{1}+#          \ Max                   \ (800)982-4422   \
\ 800-325-7970 \ 6+{1}+#          \ Max                   \ (800)982-4422   \
\ 800-327-4532 \ 8+#              \ All-TelCo             \                 \
\ 800-327-9488 \ #:13             \ ITT                   \  950-0488       \
\ 800-334-0193 \ {9}+#            \ Piedmont              \                 \
\ 800-345-0008 \ {0}+#:14         \ US Sprint FON Cards   \950-1033 also 9+#\
\ 800-368-4222 \ 8+#              \ Congress Watts Lines  \                 \
\ 800-437-7010 \ 13               \ GCI                   \                 \
\ 800-448-8989 \ 14+{1}+#         \ Call US               \                 \
\ 800-521-8400 \ 8:#              \ TravelNet             \ 950-1088 (voice)\
\ 800-541-2255 \ 10               \ MicroTel              \                 \
\ 800-547-1784 \ 13               \ AmericaNet            \                 \
\ 800-621-5640 \ 6+{1}+#          \ ExpressTel            \                 \
\ 800-637-4663 \ 5+{1}+#          \ TeleSave              \                 \
\ 800-821-6511 \ 5+{1}+#          \ American Pioneer      \ (800)852-4154   \
\ 800-821-6629 \ 6+{1}+#          \ Max                   \ (800)982-4422   \
\ 800-821-7961 \ 6+{1}+#          \ Max                   \ (800)982-4422   \
\ 800-826-7397 \ 6:{1}+#          \ Call U.S.             \                 \
\ 800-858-4009 \ 6+{1}+#          \ NTS                   \ Voice           \
\ 800-862-2345 \ 7:{1}+#          \ TMC                   \                 \
\ 800-877-8000 \ {0}+#:14         \ US Sprint Calling Card\950-1033 also 9+#\
\ 800-882-2255 \ 6:{1}+#          \ AmeriCall             \ False Carrier   \
\ 800-950-1022 \ {0}+#:14         \ MCI Calling Card      \                 \
\ 800-992-1444 \ 9+#              \ AllNet                \ 950-1444        \
=============================================================================



                              VIII. PC Pursuit
     Many modem users know Telenet as a packet-switching network through which
they can connect to different telecommunication services throughout the country
for an hourly rate of $2. With PC Pursuit, Telenet uses the same method as
SCC's, but instead of using microwave links, the call is routed through
computers. Since it is routed through computers, the service can be used by only
owners of modems. Instead of paying the hourly rate, the consumer needs only to
pay a flat monthly rate of $25.
     Using PC Pursuit is a little more difficult than using SCC's, because now
instead of combinations of only ten different characters (0-9), the whole
alphabet can be used in the access code. The following is a chart showing the
steps to originate a typical PC Pursuit call.

                    How to Originate a PC Pursuit Call
     First, the users dials the local Telenet Access Center, which can be found
by dialing Telenet customer service at 1-800-336-0437.

Then:

Note: (cr) signifies the carriage return on a computY.Z+e       =I9

Network Shows     \ User Types                 \ Explanation
uuuuuuuuuuuuumuuE[]]]]]]][]]]]]][]]]]]]][]]]]q]][]]]]]]][]]]][]]]]]]][]]]]]k                  \ (cr) (cr)                  \
\\
TELENET           \                            \ Telenet network called and
XXX XXX           \                            \ your network address.
\\
TERMINAL=         \ "D1" (cr)                  \ Enter "D1" or press (cr)
\\
@                 \ For 300 bps:               \ CONNECT command.  To access
                  \ "C(sp)DIALXXX/3,XXXX(cr)"  \ a PC Pursuit city type a PC
                  \                            \ Pursuit access code and
                  \ For 1200 bps:              \ your user ID.
                  \ "C(sp)DIALXXX/12,XXXX(cr)" \
\\
PASSWORD=         \ "XXXXXX" (cr)              \ Type the password
\\
DIALXXX/X         \ "ATZ" (cr)                 \ You are now connected to the
CONNECTED         \                            \ PCP city.  Type ATZ (upper).
\\
OK                \ "ATDTXXXXXXX" (cr)         \ Dials a number in PCP city
\\
CONNECT           \                            \ Your are now connected to
                  \                            \ your destination computer.
\\

     If the number dialed is busy, the user will see BUSY. To call another
number in the same city, the user types "ATZ." The network will answer OK. The
user then types "ATDTXXXXXXX" (cr) to dial the next number.
     To connect to a different PC Pursuit City, when the user sees BUSY, he
types "@" (cr). When a @ appears, you are in business, and ask for the owner of the number. In some states, though, the operator will
ask for an ID number. In these cases, one must be guessed at.
     There is also a type of reverse CN/A bureau, which is usually called a NON
PUB DA or TOLL LIB. With these numbers, somebody can find unpublished numbers if
the caller gives the operator the name and locality. These are considerably
harder to use, since the operator will then request the caller's name,
supervisors name, etc.
     The following is a list of current CN/A's.



                  1988 CN/A List  (subject to change)


Area: CN/A            Area: CN/A               Area: CN/A
 201: 201-676-7070     202: 304-343-7016        203: 203-789-6815
 204: 204-949-0900     205: 205-988-7000        206: 206-345-4082
 207: 617-787-5300     208: 303-293-8777        209: 415-781-5271
 212: 518-471-8111     213: 415-781-5271        214: 214-464-7400
 215: 412-633-5600     216: 614-464-0519        217: 217-789-8290
 218: 402-221-7199     219: 317-265-4834        301: 304-343-1401
 302: 412-633-5600     303: 303-293-8777        304: 304-344-8041
 305: 912-752-2000     307: 303-293-8777        308: 402-221-7199
 309: 217-525-7000     312: 312-796-9600        313: 313-424-0900
 314: 816-275-8460     315: 518-471-8111        316: 913-276-6708
 317: 317-265-4834     318: 504-245-5330        319: 402-221-7199
 401: 617-787-5300     402: 402-221-7199        403: 403-425-2652
 404: 912-752-2000     405: 405-236-6121        406: 303-293-8777
 408: 415-546-1341     412: 412-633-5600        413: 617-787-5300
 414: 608-252-6932     415: 415-781-5271        416: 416-443-0542
 417: 816-275-8460     418: 614-464-0123        419: 614-464-0519
 501: 405-236-6121     502: 502-583-2861        503: 206-345-4082
 504: 504-245-5330     505: 303-293-8777        506: 506-657-3855
 507: 402-380-2255     509: 206-345-4082        512: 512-828-2501
 513: 614-464-0519     514: 514-394-7440        515: 402-221-7199
 516: 518-471-8111     517: 313-424-0900        518: 518-471-8111
 519: 416-443-0542     601: 601-961-8139        602: 303-293-8777
 603: 617-787-5300     604: 604-432-2996        605: 402-221-7199
 606: 502-583-2861     607: 518-471-8111        608: 608-252-6932
 609: 201-676-7070     612: 402-221-7199        613: 416-443-0542
 614: 614-464-0519     615: 615-373-5791        616: 313-424-0900
 617: 617-787-5300     618: 217-525-7000        619: 415-781-5271
 701: 402-221-7199     702: 415-543-2861        703: 304-344-7935
 704: 912-752-2000     705: 416-443-0542        707: 415-781-5271
 712: 402-221-7199     713: 713-961-2397        714: 213-995-0221
 715: 608-252-6932     716: 518-471-8111        717: 412-633-5600
 718: 518-471-8111     801: 303-293-8777        802: 617-787-5300
 803: 912-784-9111     804: 304-344-7935        805: 415-781-5271
 806: 512-828-2501     808: 212-226-5487        809: 404-751-8871
 812: 317-265-4834     813: 813-228-7871        814: 412-633-5600
 815: 217-789-8290     816: 816-275-8460        817: 214-464-7400
 819: 514-861-6391     901: 615-373-5791        902: 902-421-4110
 904: 912-752-2000     906: 313-424-0900        912: 912-752-2000
                       914: 518-471-8111        916: 415-781-5271
                       918: 405-236-6121        912: 912-752-2000




                                XI. Loops
       The {kis an alternative communication medium that has many potential
uses. Loops are phone lines that are connected when they are called
simultaneously. One use is when somebody wants another person to call them back
but is reluctant to give out their home phone number (eg., if they were on a
party line).
        Loops are found in pairs that are usually close to each other (eg.,
718-492-9996 and 718-492-9997). On a loop, one line is the high end, and the
other is the low end. The high end is always silent.  The tone disappears on the
low end when somebody calls the high end.
     It is truly only safe to use a loop during non-business hours. During
business, loops are used to test equipment by various telephone companies and
local CO's.


                      XII. Alliance Teleconferencing
     Alliance Teleconferencing is an independent company which allows the
general public to access and use its conferencing equipment.

                     Billing an Alliance Conference
     Alliance Teleconferencing is accessed by dialing 0-700-456-1000 in most
states. In some states, the first and last digits of the suffix vary. There are
four main ways to use Alliance illegally. The first is through a PBX. Some allow
use of the 700 exchange, but many do not.
     The second way is with a Blue Box. After seizing the line,
KP-0-700-456-1000-ST is dialed. The equipment now thinks that Alliance has been
dialed from a switchboard and bills the conference to it.
     The third way is to a loop. After being connected to Alliance, the caller
contacts the operator by pressing 0. The caller then can ask for the conference
to billed to another number, giving the operator the number of the high-end of a
loop. The operator will then call the loop. A friend of the phreaker must be
prepared to answer the call by ca+kthe low-end. When the friend answers and
accepts the billing, the conference will be billed to the loop.
     The fourth way is from a divertor. Since the divertor is a normal,
home-type line, the phreaker should not have any problems starting a conference.


                        Starting a Conference
     When Alliance answers, a two-tone combination is emitted. The caller then
types a two digit combination to tell the equipment how many people will be in
the conference, including the originator. Then either # is pressed to continue
or * is pressed to cancel the conference. To dial a each conferee, the phreaker
simply answers each prompt with the phone number of the corresponding person.
     To join the conference, the originator enters #, and to return to control
mode, he enters # again. To transfer control of the conference, #+6+1+ the phone
number of the person you wish to transfer the control to. To end the conference,
the phreaker presses the * button.


                 XIII. Telephone System Security Measures
     To stop telephone fraud, there are many measures which telephone companies
can apply to identify and convict the phone phreaker.

                          ESS Detection Devices
     Telephone companies have had twenty years to work on detection devices;
therefore, they are well refined.  Basically, the detection devices will look
for the presence of 2600 Hz where it does not belong, which is in the local CO.
It then records the calling number and all activity after the 2600 Hz.

     Automatic Number Identification and the Centralized Automatic Message
Accounting Tapes
     Automatic Number Identification (ANI) is an implement in ESS that can
instantly identify the lX+KkIQe9 For every call that is made, information
including the numbers of the calling and receiving parties, the time of
origination of the call, if the called party answered the call, and the time
when the caller has hung-up is recorded on a tape in the Centralized Automatic
Message Accounting (CAMA) office. This includes wrong numbers, toll-free
numbers, and local calls. This tape is then processed for billing purposes.
     Normally, all free calls are ignored, but the billing equipment has been
programmed to recognize many different types of unusual activity. One checks if
a certain 800 number is called excessively. If the number is an SCC, the
equipment can instantly check if the caller is a subscriber of the SCC. If it is
not, it will alert the company of the illegal activity. Another is if there is a
call where the calling party has stayed off-hook for a large amount of time, but
the called party never answers. The equipment recognizes this as possible use of
a Black Box.

                       Dialed Number Recorders
     Placing a Dialed Number Recorders (DNR) on a telephone line is standard
procedure when telephone fraud is suspected. The most common DNR's can do the
following: print all touch tone digits sent (in suspected illegal use of an
SCC), print out all MF and record the presence of 2600hz on the line (in
suspected use of a Blue Box), and activate a tape recorder for a specific amount
of time.

                             Trap Codes
     Trap codes are decoy PIN numbers. If a telephone company find that a
certain PIN number is being used illegally, it will call the real owner and
notify hZ{zthe change in his account number. The company will then contact
the FBI to bring their telephone trace equipment. There are very many different
types of tracing equipment that exist today, which are nearly impossible to
detect or evade. The only reason why tracing is not used often is that the FBI
charges a very high fee for use of its equipment.

                          The Lock In Trace
     One very old trace type is the "lock in" trace. A lock in trace is a device
used by the FBI to lock into the phone user's location. Since all phone
connections are held open by a certain voltage of electricity,
the lock in trace works by patching into the line and generate the same voltage
into the lines. If the caller tries to hang up, voltage is retained. The phone
will continue to ring as if someone was calling even after the call is
disconnected. The trunk then remains open and the call can be traced. The FBI
sets its equipment so that the next time the PIN number is illegally used, the
call goes through, but while the communication is proceeding, the FBI traces the
call.

                           Stopping a Lock In Trace
     Stopping a lock in trace is theoretically very simple. If the voltage in
the line could be lowered, the trace could not function, since lowering the
voltage would also probably short out the voltage generator. Therefore, any
appliance which uses many volt can be connected to the red and green wires in a
wall jack, and the trace should be removed.

                                    4Tel
     4Tel is an add on from GTE which can attach to GTD#5 electronic switching
systems. It's main function is to automatically find problems with the exchange
it is connected 24 hours a day. Most phone companies in Canada using it and most
of the local phone companies in New York and other largely populated states in
the US now use it, as it is extremely advanced (it was designed by Telecom
Canada.) Besides detecting dead grounds and leds and killing power surges, 4Tel
can also detect exchange scanning (war dialing), because it treats 4000 numbers
excuting out of a single phone trunk in a small period of time with the same
time interval between each number as an error, and will log the calling party's
number to the telco's computer.
This also applies to extender or PBX hacking.

                             Evading 4Tel
     To avoid detection By 4Tel, the following steps should be taken when
hacking codes for SCC's and PBX's.
1. Always fill a random block in a range of 9999
2. Modify programs to have a random interval set between each number dialed.
3. Limit hacking to 2000 calls per night.
4. Do not have  the modem send a carrier after each number, since 4Tel will
   treat it as a 1000 hz tone, and will think somebody is illegally using a
   loop.

                            Plus One Service
     A new way that large SCC's may stop code hacking is the installation of a
plus one service. With this service, the use of access codes is removed, and use
of the SCC's services no longer require a subscription. Plus one service works
by having the user access the network by a toll-free number. When the caller has
entered the network, his number is found via ANI. The name and address is then
found via CN/A, and the bill is sent to the user. Two companies, Sprint and MCI,
have already installed their plus-one services, and more will follow.
     *Note: In around February, 1988, many phreakers aquired many Sprint Plus
One access numbers and mistakenly thought that they were Sprint "Back-doors."
Their mistake was realized when afterward, they were sent bills for the call
that they made.

                 Common Channel Inter-office Signaling
     Besides detection devices, Bell has begun to gradually redesign the network
using out-of-band signaling. This is known as Common Channel Inter-office
Signaling (CCIS). Since this signaling method sends all the signaling
information over separate data lines, and does not use any form of DTMF, all
colored boxes do not work under it. Of course, until this multi-million dollar
project is totally complete, boxing will still be possible. It will become
progressively harder to find places to "box" off of, though.


             XIV. Laws Governing the Rights of Phreakers
     Since phreaking is one-hundred percent illegal, once discovered, there are
not many laws protecting the phreaker. There are, however some laws governing
steps government agents may take to convict him.
     The first law is the Section 605 of Title 47 of the United States Code.
This section forbids interception of communications, except by persons outlined
in Chapter 119, Title 18, which is a portion of the Omnibus Crime Control and
Safe Streets Act of 1968.
     In this chapter, Section 2511 (2) (a) (i) says "It shall not be unlawful
under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or
agent of any communications carrier, whose facilities are used in the
transmission of a wire communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that
communication in the normal course of his employment, while engaged in any
activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service of the
protection of the rights or property of the carrier of such communication." This
means that agents of telephone companies are allowed not only allowed to tap
lines without a warrant, but also allowed to disclose the recording of a
communication.
     In the case United States vs. Sugden, the following ruling was made: "For
an unreasonable search and seizure to result from the interception of the
defendant's communication, he must have exhibited a reasonable expectation of
privacy. Where, as here, one uses a communication facility illegally, no such
expectation is required." This simply means that when you make an illegal call,
you have waved your right to privacy.
     The only limit on tapping lines is that it must not be excessive. For
example, in the case Bubis vs. United States, the telephone company monitored
all of the defendant's phone calls for a period of four months. The court
acknowledged the phone company's right of the "protection of the rights and
property of the carrier of such communication," but ordered the evidence
suppressed because the extent of the monitoring was excessive.
     Lastly, the limit of the monitoring was set. In the case United States vs.
Bubis, the court ruled, "Thus, it would appear that the tape recordings of the
defendant's conversation had been limited by the phone company to establish that
the calls were in
violation of the subscription agreement (were illegal), and to the
identification of the person using the phone, Xfor those purposes only, then
the tapes would have been admissible against the defendant." This means that the
telephone company cannot monitor more than the first five minutes of the
communication.



                            XV. Conclusion
     With the advent of many new security features, in the near future, we may
see the end of phreaking. Incorporating CCIS has already begun to eliminate the
use of boxes. The use of longer codes may one day bring illegal use of SCC's and
PBX's to a minimum. Improvement in divertor and loop equipment will ultimately
bring an end to their abuse. Even though telephone fraud could very well become
a memory, in every teenage telecommunicator's mind, there will always be a
Captain Crunch, thinking of a way to "beat" the system. Such legends as the
Captain and Joe the Whistler (the blind phreaker with perfect pitch), will be
remembered forever.


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