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TUCoPS :: Phreaking General Information :: branches.txt

Branches of Signaling

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Branches Of Signalling
    By: dialect 

                     1. Introduction
                     2. What is Signalling?
                     3. Steps in Placing a Call
               Branches of signalling
                     1. Common Channel Interoffice Signalling
                     2. Dtmf Signalling
                     3. MF signalling
                     4. SF signalling              
                     5. Per-trunk Signalling
                     6. Ground Start Signalling
                     7. Brief of Loop Start Signnalling.
                     8. In-band - Out Band Signalling
                     9. Robbed Bit and Clear Channel signalling

  This text is to simply give you an overview of Signalling. To give you a sight into how mostly 
all telephony equipment is or depends on signalling. Included are some explanations of basic 
signalling factors and thier difference to each other. Of course more than i have listed but i 
dont know that much and i'm not that smart but i will try to explain the branches and give 
examples to further understand these subjects. Any questions email me :)


What is Signalling?
A telephone network with all these digital switches and gadgets would be pretty useless if there 
wasnt a way to "communicate" between themselves to get the right data and also send out the right 
data. You could say that signalling is maybe the Basis of the network that interacts or 
communicates with the rest of the telephone network. Basically, sigalling is the exchange of 
information between two or more points in a network that establishes, mantains (keeps control), 
and disconnects the connections of everyday phonecalls using one of more form of signal 
information for example the different tones used (which i will explain later.)


Steps in placing a call
This is to my knowledge (i could always be wrong &#^$#$) the steps taken by a telco service to 
letting you place your everday phonecalls. (yes even those evil outdials you overabuse. hehe)

Well anyway....
    1). Of course, we start with taking the phone off the hook which completes a electrical  
        circuit through your pair of wires.
    2). The current starts to flow and the CO (central office) notices or identifies the current.
    3). The Co then connects a register to the line which has the simple task of kinda like  
        storing the digits you are about to push.
    4). Then the CO provides a dialtone which signals to all of us meaning "start dialing"


                               The Branches or Factors of signalling
                                 Brief Views on the different Types

Common Channel Interoffice Signalling

  Today, most telephone carriers are using CCIS or Common Channel Interoffice signalling. Pretty 
much, the point of CCIS is why use expensive trunking to send signalling? (bell is cheap) Instead 
they want a totally different system for signalling. So since signalling information is basically 
just data kind of like the on-hook off-hook conditions, signalling systems are packet data 
networks. ss7 is a good example of CCIS. STP's are signalling Transfer points and are basically 
used in the network to properly route packets. STp's are made in pairs because if one point 
fails, then the other is there to get the data.

DTMF Signalling

DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency and it pretty much explains it all in the name. This 
type of Tone uses 2 tones at the same time each at a different hertz to generate one smooth 
sounding tone. You use dtmf signalling everyday when you push those little buttons of yours on 
the phone. DTMF tones reduce dialing delay, especially it you have already preset a number to 
dial. It basically uses equipment which reduces the amount of time and equipment needed at the 
switches because its continuelsy doing the work for it when you're the one who's punching in the 
digits. So all around. Dual tone multi frequencing allows an ordinary telephone to have the 
functions of a computer terminal becuase of the way you have control of what your dialing at your 
end of the line. Each Tone you produce is stored and then sent to the CO which properly routes 
your call to the party you wish. Also, DTMF was made becuase of the way even a human voice can 
produce a single tone which is called "false signalling". So, to prevent this "false signalling" 
DTMF was born :) I've created a table which properly shows you the 2 tones that make up each 
number on your phone.

 So for example:        |                       |              Of course the 11,12,13,14 buttons
 1336hz + 697hz = 2     |  1     2     3     11 | 697 hz       you do not see on your phone. 
 etc... etc...          |                       |              They arent used much and i guess
                        |                       |              you could call them your silver
                        |  4     5     6     12 | 770 hz       box tones.
                        |                       |
                        |                       |
                        |  7     8     9     13 | 852 hz 
                        |                       |
                        |                       |
                        |  *     0     #     14 | 941 hz
                        |                       |
                         1209  1336   1447  1633

MF Signalling        

See, DTMF is used for subsriber lines while MF (multifrequency) signalling is used only between 
CO switches or for interoffice Trunking. (see my trunking txt for interoffice trunks.) MF came 
out before DTMF and is now being phazed out by ss7. In MF signalling, the human voice could 
possibly simulate one the control jobs that mf is used for. So thats why its used for between 
switch signalling. The frequencies are different for Multi Frequency Signalling.

900 + 700 = 1    1300 + 1100 = 6        All in Hertz
1100+ 700 = 2    1500 +  700 = 7        ------------ 
1100+ 900 = 3    1500 +  900 = 8
1300+ 700 = 4    1500 + 1100 = 9
1300+ 900 = 5    1500 + 1300 = 0

SF Signalling
Single Frequency signalling is used to exchange on and off conditions. With Single Freqeuncy, 
when a customers line is idle, a continuos tone is sent and when the tone goes off, the CO knows 
the the customer is seizing the line. So if the CO provides a tone , that is interpreted as a 
ringing condition. And if the tone is absent or not there, it is interpreted as an idle 
condition. All DTMF, MF and SF signalling are called "facility independant signalling formats" 
which simply means that these tones can be sent over pairs, coax, and microwave fibers.

Brief of Loop start Signalling
Loop start signalling is commonly used on residential or subscriber lines, and only requires one 
pair of wires. And you might know them as tip and ring. One lead of the pair is tip and the other 
is ring. I'll give an example: Lets say a phone is on hook. (not in use) This means the contact 
is open and allows no current to flow in any direction. Cuasing a loop to constantly keep 
checking for that voltage it needs.

Ground Start Signalling
Ground start signalling uses DC loop currents and one twisted pair as does loops start 
signalling. But ground start signalling is used primarily with PBX's. using loop start signalling 
with pbx's would bring up problems that ground start signalling could easily take care of. For an 
example i'll use the following : lines between a CO and a PBX. The ground start line between the 
a CO and PBX is reffered to as a trunk on the PBX side and aline on the Central OFfice end. 
Another example. Lets say a PBX which does not have the ability to detect dial tones sends an 
off-hook condition over a loops start line. Then that arouses a delay which can result in losing 
the stored digits, which means no call. Ground start wouldnt let that happen.

Per-Trunk Signalling
This is pretty simple to think of. Lets say there is a path for voice travel over a line. And if 
a call tries to go to the first open trunk for a call, what happens if the trunk is already 
seized and supporting a call. Well then it has to go through the path and pick up another trunk. 
And of course, that means more of a delay. That is why common channel signalling is used over 
per-trunk signalling which is pretty much an old way of handling calls now.

In Band and Out Band Signalling

In-band signalling is also said to be robber bit signalling becuase the bits used for signaling 
occupy the same (in band) bits that originally can be used for another purpose like Voice travel.
 So if the signalling bits dont use the voice bits for transmission , the signalling bits are 
said to be "out-of-band" from the voice bits. 

Robbed Bit and Clear Channel signalling

You could almost relate these signalling methods with the In-band- out-band. In-band being the 
robbed bit and out-band being the Clear Channel signalling. Pretty much the only difference is 
that the signalling bits if needed robbs the voice bits to gain connections. And Clear Channel 
signalling is the fact that no signalling appears in a voice channel. ISDN calls for channel 

That pretty much explains briefly some of the signalling
factors that occur and are used to send the right data
from CO to CO and subscriber line to subscriber line. Pretty
much new kinds of signalling exist now and are being used over
some of these. and i hope to get info on them soon. You should
read some old Telephone Digest mags or your local telephony mag
at Barnes & Nobles. They have some pretty nifty stuff there to
check out. Over and out.

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