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TUCoPS :: Windows :: networ~1.txt

Networking for Lazy Dipshits




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			     http://www.pheces.org
                  When the going gets weird, the Weird turn pro. 


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Title:      |||| Networking for Lazy Dipshits: Volume 1 - Win95/98 & Win95/98 CAT5 Ethernet ||||

Date:       July 18, 1999
Author:     rootwurm

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-------------
this is a four part series
----
Part one:   How to network two Windows 95/98 machines
Part two:   How to network Windows 95/98 with WinNT
Part three: How to network Windows and Linux
Part four:  How to network Linux and Linux
----
-------------

#############################################################################################

(()) Table of Contents: (())

  1.0  -  General Information
	1.1  -  Credits & Disclaimer
	1.2  -  What you'll need
	1.3  -  Overview of entire process

  2.0  -  Hardware Needed
	2.1  -  Network Cards
	2.2  -  Computers
	2.3  -  Cables
	2.4  -  Hubs
	2.5  -  Other stuff

  3.0  -  Hardware Configuration
	3.1  -  Attaching the ends
	3.2  -  Running the cable
	3.3  -  Installing the network cards

  4.0  -  Software Configuration
	4.1  -  Installing the network cards
	4.2  -  Network settings

  5.0  -  Troubleshooting
	5.1  -  Hardware troubleshooting
	5.2  -  Software troubleshooting
	5.3  -  When all else fails

  6.0  -  Closing
	6.1  -  Greets and acknowledgements
	6.2  -  Another word from your dear author

#############################################################################################


-------1.0  -  General Information-------

1.1 - Credits

	i wrote it.  i get to keep it.  credits belong to me, the flammable pheces, and
	whoever gave this to you.  nah, fuck that, spread the knowledge!

	Disclaimer:  This was written by thought alone.  I'm not responsible for any technical
	misinterpretations.  If you follow this text, and you shit fucks up, well...hate it
	for you.  You're doing this on your own free will.  You can't blame me.  You're
	taking the lazy route, if you want to do your network _right_ then go buy a huge 1000
	page book and read that.  Basically, don't blame me for anything (unless it works :-)

1.2 - What you'll need

	This text makes the assumption that you have the following equiptment.  Whenever i
	setup a network from scratch, this is the stuff i use.  if you use anything else,
	you're milage may vary.  If you can get this stuff, then DO!  You'll be happy you
	saved yourself the headaches:

		At least two Network cards
		At least two computers running windows 95 or 98
		Length depends on how far apart your computers are, you'll need Category 5 (CAT5)
			cable.  If you get the cable pre-made, you won't need ends.
		RJ-45 Connectors.  (see 2.3)
		Hub (see 2.4)
			If you're going straight-through (see 2.3), you won't need a hub

1.3 - Overview of Process

	If all goes well, here's what you're going to do:
		1. Physically install the network cards.
		2. Configure the network cards
		3. Install the networking software
		4. Plug up the hub
		5. Plug the netcards into the hub
		6. Enjoy your network


--------2.0  -  Hardware Needed--------

2.1 - Network Cards

	As you saw in 1.2, you're gonna need network cards.  The best network cards (by best, i
	mean most reliable and easiest to configure) are 3com.  Just about any 3com card will do.
	I usually use PCI Etherlinks, but anything 3com should take the cake.  Also, just random
	generic ISA cards are pretty good too.  If they are NE2000 compatible, you should be good
	to go, because usually running a card as NE2000, despite what the card really is, will make
	for good results.
		
2.2 - Computers

	Both computers need to have either windows 95 or 98.  Store-bought computers such as compaq
	and gateway are not recommended.  computers like that have a hard time dealing with
	'foriegn' parts (i.e., parts that didn't come from compaq or gateway.  Preferably, you will
	have built your own computer.  Comps like that make very versitale machines.

2.3 - Cables

	The cables are probably one of the most important parts of your network.  Obviously, without
	the cable, you wouldn't have a network to begin with.  The brand of cable isn't all that
	important, although i usually use Belkin cable or Lucent Tech cable.  But pretty much any
	kind of Category 5 cable will surfice.

	If you get premade cable (i.e., the kind with the ends already on it) make sure you bought
	the pieces long enough for the distance between the two machines.

	If you are only going to network 2 computers together, and don't have plans for ever adding
	more to your network, you can use a crossover cable (sometimes called a reverse cable).  You
	can by crossover cables usually at the same place you buy straight-through cables.  Or, you
	can make your own (see 3.1)

2.4 - Hubs

	The hub is the box that all cables will go to.  Using a hub is the 'professional' way to do
	it, because you can very easily add more computers to your network.  If you are looking to
	save money, then you can use reverse-cables (see 3.1)

	Basically, get you a little 4 or 6 port 10Base/T hub, and you'll be in good shape.  Once
	again, brandname doesn't matter much, but i usually use Linksys or Maxtech, simple because
	i've never had any major problems with them (matter of fact, i'm using a linksys 4-port
	in my room...works like a champ)

2.5 - Other stuff

	Depending on the route you go, you may need some extra tools and equipment.  The major stuff
	should be covered above, but if you didn't buy pre-made cables, you're probably going to need
	some wire-strippers, cat5 crimpers (to attach the ends), and some RJ-45 ends.  I'll explain
	a bit later how to attach the ends.  You might also need a Cable-Tester, but these are pretty
	expensive, so see if you can borrow one from someone if you can't buy one.

	if you bought you cable pre-made, you should be ready to go.  well, you're gonna need a
	screwdriver or two to put in the net cards, and maybe some scissors to open the packages,
	but if you can't figure that out on your own, there's no way you're gonna be able to get
	this network up and running.


--------3.0  -  Hardware Configuration--------

3.1 - Attaching The Ends

	Didn't buy pre-made cable?  Good for you!!  But now you've got all the cable and a box of
	rj-45 connectors and no clue on what to do, right?  Have no fear, rootwurm is here!  hmmm,
	nevermind...be afraid, be very afraid.

	okay, cut a length of wire that will effecintly span from one computer to the next, with
	a couple of feet left over, then strip off about 1 inch of the shielding from both ends
	of the cable.  Inside you should see 8 wires, that are color coded.  Depending on what
	brand of cable you bought, there should be four pairs of twisted wire.  This is called
	UTP (Unshielded-Twisted-Pair) cable.  Think about the name for a second, and it should be
	obvious why it's called that.

	Untwist the pairs, so you have 8 separate wires.  They should be color-coded as follows:

		Orange
		Orange-White
		Blue
		Blue-White
		Green
		Green-White
		Brown
		Brown-White

	the color-white means that the wire is pretty much white, but with a colored stripe running
	down the lenght of it.  Once again, depending on what cable you bought, it may be easy
	or it may be tough to see the stripe.

	Straighten the cables out as best you can, making a fan-like shape out of them, so they are
	evenly separated, and for all practical purposes straight.

	the color ordering varies, but as long as you match the color coding on both ends of the
	cable, you're in good shape.  I use the following color order:

		Orange-White, Orange, Blue-White, Green, GreenWhite, Blue, BrownWhite, Brown

	so move the wires in the 'fan' to match this color coding, then bring them all together to
	form a flat set of wires.  Push this flat set of wires into the RJ-45 connector, making
	sure the connector is upside down (the little clipper thing that holds it into the jack is
	facing the ground)		

	If you are going hubless, then you can use reverse cables.  Reverse cables are still just
	CAT5 cables, but the order in which the wires are lined up is different.  By using reverse
	cables, you can eliminate the need for a hub, but you can't have more than 2 computers
	hooked up.  I use the following color code for my reverse cables:

	On one end:  Blue, Green-White, Orange, Green, Blue-White, Orange-White, Brown, Brown-White
	On the other:  Orange, Orange-White, Blue, Blue-White, Green, Green-White, Brown, Brown-White

	When the wires are lined up right inside of the connector (it may take a few tries, but
	you'll get it) then crimp the wire.  Repeat this process for the other end of the cable,
	and if you bought, borrowed, or stole a cable tester, then test your newly-made cable to
	make sure the lights all match up.

3.2 - Running the Cable

	When running your network cable, you can do pretty much anything.  It all depends on how
	pretty you want it to be.  You could buy wire molding and run it along the walls, or you
	can just sling it accross the floor.  Some things to aviod when running your cable:

		Florescent lights - Try your best to avoid putting the cable on or nearby these
			lights, cause ti will cause interference with your UTP wire, and can be
			a big headache when trying to setup your network.

		Doors - If you run the wire out a doorway, make sure it doesn't get crimped when
			the door is shut.  (duh)

		Length - CAT5 has a physical limitation of about 150 yards (i think) so if you're
			running the cable long distances, you may need a hub to sit between
			the distance, boosting the signal.  I'm assuming you're doing this for
			your home, so your cable won't be that long.

	Other than that, just kinda be gentle with your cable, but it's normally pretty rugged.

3.3 - Installing the Network Cards

	Open up your comp (you might void your warrenty if it's got a little sticker on the back)
	and look for an empty slot.  If you bought PCI network cards, then the slots will usually
	be white, and the contacts (the little copper pins) will be much smaller.   If you bought
	ISA cards, then the slots will generally be black, and the contacts will be larger than
	PCI slots.  You should be able to easily see which slot to put your card in.

	Remove the gate (the little metal 'shield' that keeps dust and other shit out) and gently,
	but firmly, seat the netcard inside the comp.  After it snaps in place, screw it in, and
	put the cover on your comp.  Actually, you may want to leave it off while you're testing
	everything, but that's up to you.

3.4 - Setting up the Hub

	Uhm, sit it somewhere, usually between the two comps, so that the wire won't be excessivly
	long on either side.  Now plug the cables from the network cards into the hub.  It doesn't
	matter which ports you use, as long as you don't use the Uplink port (usually the one on the
	end.)

	If you are using reverse cables, then just plug one network card into the other.  No need
	for a hub.  All of the other configuration will be the same.


--------4.0  -  Software Configuration--------

4.1 - Installing the Network Cards.

	This is will either be the easiest or the hardest part of installing your network.  Depending
	on what you already have in your comp, setting up the netcards will be a breeze or a nightmare.

	When you turn on your computer, win9x should automatically see your card and install it.  if it
	doesn't, then goto Control Panel > Add New Hardware > and search for it.  When it's found, it
	might as you to setup your network.  If it does, skip to 4.2 to see how to set that up.

	If it doesn't immediatly prompt you to setup your network, then after you've rebooted, check the
	IRQ and I/O settings.  As a general rule of thumb, i use IRQ 10 for all my network cards, but
	this could vary from machine to machine.

	First, right click on My Computer and click Properties.  Then goto the Device Manager tab and
	look for any conflict icons.  If none appear, then click on Computer and then click on Properties.

	Scroll till you see your network card, and make sure that nothing else is using that IRQ.  If it's
	a PCI card, IRQ For PCI Steering may be using the same IRQ, and this is fine.  If something such
	as your sound card or your video card is using the same IRQ, you may need to switch around the IRQ's
	in either device to separate them.

4.2 - Network Settings

	Once you've verified that your network card has it's own IRQ and is ready to go, you can now setup
	your network.

	Nine times out of ten, you'll have a Network Neighborhood icon on your desktop.  If you do, then
	right click it and click Properties (if you don't, then open up Control Panel and double click
	the Network icon).

	The only things you should have in there are:

		Client for Microsoft Networks
		Dial-Up Adapter (if you've got a modem that uses Dial-Up Networking)
		NE2000 Compatible (or whatever your network card is)
		TCP/IP -> Dial-Up Adapter
		TCP/IP -> NE2000 Compatible
		File And Printer Sharing

	Also, you may have some diagnostic clients for your netcard.  This is fine, leave that alone.

	If you don't have:
		Client for Microsoft Networks: Click on Add > Double-click Client > Click Microsoft >
					       and click Client for Microsoft Networks.  It should add that,
					       along with NetBEUI.
		TCP/IP:  Click on Add > Protocol > Microsoft > TCP/IP.  This should add TCP/IP for both
			 your Dial-Up Adapter (if it's in there) and your network card.

		File and Printer Sharing:  Click on the File and Print Sharing button, and check both boxes.

	Now that you've done that, you can remove any other protocols you have (IPX/SPX, NetBeui, etc) since
	we're doing a purely tcp/ip network.

	Once you've got just the things i mentioned above in your network properties, click OK and you'll
	have to reboot.  After rebooting, go back to Network Properties, and double click your TCP/IP -> NetCard
	settings.

	Specify the following settings:

		IP Address:
			Click Specify an IP Address
			IP Address: 10.0.0.1 (for the first computer, and 10.0.0.2, for the second, and so on)
			Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
		Wins Configuration:
			Disable WINS Resolution
		Gateway:
			Leave blank, unless you have a router...don't worry bout it for now.
		DNS Configuration:
			Leave blank
		NetBIOS:
			Everything should be greyed out, but if it isnt', then check that little box
		Advanced:
			check Set this protocol to be the default protocol
		Bindings:
			Don't change anything

	Now, after you've (once again) rebooted, then you can share some files.  Double-click My Computer,
	right click your hard drive and click Sharing.  Click "Shared As".  Here's a brief description of
	what the stuff in this window means:

		Not Shared - Not shared (duh)
		Shared As - Open it for sharing
		Share Name - What it shows up as under Network Neighborhood
		Comment - If you view files with 'details' enabled, it'll show you the comment.
		Read-Only - Allow only people to read from that drive
		Full - Allows people to read, write, delete from that drive
		Depends On Password - read-only or full, depending on the password
		Passwords:
			if you clicked on Read-Only (ro), then you can specify a ro password.
			if you clicked on Full, then specify the full password.
			if you clicked on Depends, then specify both a ro and a full password.

	after you click OK, you'll probably have to retype the passwords again.

		NOTE:  you don't have to only share a drive, you can instead share single folders,
			or printers, following (basically) the same steps for sharing a drive.


If you've already plugged up your up, and plugged the computers into the hub, you should be
ready to go.  To see the other computer, double click on Network Neighborhood (which should now
definatly be on your desktop).


--------5.0  -  Troubleshooting--------

5.1 - Hardware Troubleshooting

If for some reason you're not seeing the other computer, check a few things first.

	Is there a link light?
		on the back of most network cards, there will be a little green light.
		this is called a link light, and it lets you know that the cable has
		made it to the hub.  If you don't have a link light, first check the
		cable.  Try switching cables with another computer, or use your cable
		to tester to make sure that it's good.

		if the cable is fine, check to make sure the network card is seated
		firmly into the slot.  also, you could try switching the slot its in.
		occasionally slots will go bad.

		if you switched slots, and it's in firmly, you might have a software
		conflict, or the card could just be a lemon.  try a different net card

	Are the ends on correctly?
		If you put the ends on your cable, double-check to make sure the ends are
		on correctly.  Make sure the color coding is the same on both ends of the
		cable, and make sure that there is plenty of wire underneath the metal
		contacts.  Using a cable tester will come in very handy.

	Same type of network?
		Did you get all 10 Base-T networking stuff?  is the hub 10bt?  are the
		cards?  is the cable actually CAT5 cable?

	Did you fuck up?
		Go back over this text and make sure you did everything.  Maybe you just
		screwed up.

	Did i fuck up?
		Maybe i screwed up.  If you've followed this thing word for word, and
		you know the network cards aren't bad, go invest some money in a good
		networking book and do it The Right Way.

5.2 - Software Troubleshooting

Software seems to be a big problem with networks.  Here are some things to check first.

	Is there a conflict?
		I'm sure i stressed it enough, but did you make sure there are no
		conflicts with your network card?  Go back and make sure.

	Is everything setup in the Network Properties?
		Make _sure_ you've setup everything correctly in your Network Properties
		go back and double check.

	Can you ping the other computer?
		try clicking on Start > Run... > and type 'ping 10.0.0.2' (or another
		ip of one of the comps on your network)  if you get a response, then
		read on.  if you don't, then see if the hub is showing activity when
		you ping, if it's not, then your problem lies elsewhere

	Can you ping, but not see the other comp in Network Neighborhood?
		If you're able to ping, but the computers aren't showing up in
		network neighborhood, make sure you enabled file and print sharing
		and that at least one of the computers is sharing files.  if it's not
		sharing anything, it won't show up in network neighborhood.

5.3 - When all else fails

	If you've done everything i've suggested, then you're gonna have to seek
	advice elsewhere.  After all, this is just a simple text describing a quick
	rundown on getting a network up.

	check out some books, or ask a friend who's a network person for some advice.


--------6.0  -  Closing--------

6.1  -  Greets and acknowledgements

thanks goes out to steve housman for helping me out with some odd networking stuff.
jim elder for showing me how to put ends on cables, as well as showing me how to
do some other stuff.  nidgid for continually pressing me to write this thing.  to
ron ruggles and the mccracken county board of education for letting me mess around
with and learn what its like to run a large network.  matt dunn for reminding me
that most people will want to go the cheap route and use crossover cables.  and i
guess wri0t for making fun of me when i forget shit, da fuck.


6.2  -  Another word from your dear author

werd.

rootwurm (rootwurm@pheces.org)

(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((#yep)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))


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