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TUCoPS :: Unix :: General :: unixco~1.txt

Unix commands you can't live without TUT:




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Title:      |||| unix commands you can't live without ||||

Date:       July 22, 1999
Author:     wri0t

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Here's some commonly used commands for most unix systems, and I'll try to explain them.


grep - find things inside files/folders. for instance, you have 100 files and you need to
see if one has the text '6/19/99' all you do is 'grep 6/19/99 *(or name of a file or folder).


| - 'pipes' the output of one command to another.  like 'ps aux | grep eggdrop' will do a
    process list, but since you added the '| grep eggdrop' it will grep the process list
    and display any process list that has 'eggdrop' in it. another example...to do a 'who'
    list and display any line that contains 'root' so you can make sure noones tryin to fuck
    with your box, just 'w | grep root'. this is an easy yet powerful command that can
    help you out alot.


; - 'link' many commands in one line. the commands dont interact with each other, the
    commands will be executed -after- the one before it gets done) say your fixing to leave
    the house, but you want to configure, compile, and install a big program while your away,
    just type 'configure ; make ; make install' it will run 'configure', then 'make', then
    'make install'.


ls - hmm...surely you know what this is...heres a couple of things though... 'ls -al' will
     display -all- files in a list format. 'ls --color' will display a color listing. (ls is
     the same command as 'dir')


w - a 'who' listing...i like it better then just a regular 'who'


> - is kinda like an 'arrow' pointing to the right. < is the opposite. tells where you want
    'send' or 'get' something from. look at 'echo' for an example.

>> - using this can 'append' things to the end of files, etc. for instance...
       'cat blah >> textfile' will add the contents of 'blah' to the file 'textfile'.


& - adding this to the end of a 'command' will start the program and run it in the
     background.


echo - just as the name says, it can echo stuff to other stuff (or just the screen). for
       instance 'echo "atz" > /dev/modem' will send 'atz' to your modem. heres another
       example...say your friend is on the console 'tty3' and you wanted to freak him
       out...all you do is 'echo "THE SYSTEM IS GOING DOWN FOR REBOOT *NOW*" > /dev/tty3'.
       or, 'echo "blah" > textfile ; /usr/lib/sendmail email@mail.com < textfile' would make
       a file called 'textfile' with the contents of 'blah' and email it to email@email.com.


find - find a certain file. example...say you wanted to find a file called 'soup', just 
         'find -name / soup' or 'find /home/me -name soup'


alias - creates an alias for a command. example...say you have redhat and in order to get a
        colored direcotory list, you have to 'ls --color' everytime. just type:
	alias ls='ls --color'.


cat - displays a file on the screen or will 'write' it to somewhere/thing (all sorts of shit really). 
        example... 'cat shit' will display the contents of the file 'shit' on the screen. but, what if 
        shit is to big to fit on the screen? just use your elite unix command knowledge and do
        'cat shit | more' (you could really just 'more shit', but i just did that for another example) 
        and you'll be able to look at it a 'page' at a time.  it can also be used to whip up a quick
        text file...just 'cat > filename' and type in whatever, and when your done, just ctl+c. 
        another example to try is 'cat /vmlinuz > /dev/audio' :P


tail - displays the last 'page' of a file. example...'tail blah' or 'tail -n 20 blah' the -n 20 tells it to
        only output the last 20 lines of the prog. very useful for reading log files.

last - displays the last/current connections to the sys.  example...'last -10' will display the last
         10 connections.


Hope this txt file helped you out. Go impress your friends.

wri0t (wri0t@pheces.org) 

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