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TUCoPS :: Unix :: General :: begunix.txt

Unix for Beginners



















                                  UNIX for Beginning Users





















                            Developed by:

                                   User Liaison Section, D-7131
                                   Denver Office
           
                            [Name and Phone number deleted at authors
                             Request]

                            Revision Date:  September 16, 1991
I.  INTRODUCTION


A.  Audience


This course is for individuals who will be using the UNIX
operating system on a Reclamation computer platform.  It is
assumed that the student has a general understanding of data
processing concepts.



B.  Course Objectives


Upon successful completion of this course the student will be
able to:

       1.     Demonstrate a knowledge of basic UNIX ideas.

       2.     Recognize the different types of files and the file
              structure.

       3.     Log in and out of UNIX using an interactive terminal.

       4.     Change the password and be aware of other
              responsibilities of owning an account.

       5.     Demonstrate a knowledge of where to get help.

       6.     Use the appropriate UNIX commands to display/print  
              files, copy/move files, change file access permissions,
              create/delete directories, and change the current
              working directory.

       7.     Transfer a file to another computer platform using File
              Transfer Protocol (FTP).  Use FTP commands to do the
              following:  initialize FTP, establish connection, local
              computer commands, remote computer commands, close
              connection, exit FTP, help command, and special
              functions.

       8.     Use an editor to create files, input text,
              insert/replace text, copy/move text, and exit/save
              changes.

       9.     Use the mail utility to send/receive/delete messages

       10.    Use basic Annex commands to reestablish connection to a
              disconnected process.
C.  Course Handout Conventions


There are several conventions used in this handout for
consistency and easier interpretation:


       1.     Samples of actual terminal sessions are single-lined
              boxed.


       2.     User entries are shown in bold print and are
              underlined.

              QUIT


       3.     All keyboard functions in the text will be bold.  

              (Ret)                       Backspace
              Tab                         Ctrl-F6
              Print (Shift-F7)            Go to DOS (1)

              NOTE:         (Ret) indicates the Return or Enter key
                            located above the right Shift key.


       4.     Examples of user entries not showing the computer's
              response are in dotted-lined boxes.                     
              


       5.     Command formats are double-lined boxed.


       6.     Three dots either in vertical or horizontal alignment
              mean continuation or that data is missing from the
              diagram.

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        Multimax, Nanobus, and UMAX are trademarks of          
        Encore Computer Corporation                            
                                                               
                                                               
        Annex is a trademark of XYLOGICS, Inc                  
                                                               
                                                               
        UNIX and Teletype are registered trademarks of         
        AT&T Bell Laboratories                                 
                                                               
                                                               
        Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation           
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
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1.  BASIC UNIX IDEAS


The UNIX operating system is a set of programs that act as a link
between the computer and the user.  The programs that allocate
the system resources and coordinate all the details of the
computer's internals is called the operating system or kernel.

Users communicate with the kernel through a program known as the
shell.  The shell is a command line interpreter; it translates
commands entered by the user and converts them into a language
that is understood by the kernel.

Here is a basic block diagram of a UNIX system.


                    Spread Sheet  Compilers  
                    Calculators       
                                     
                         V            V      
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                           The Shell               Mail and
                    旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커    <- Message
    Inventory         UNIX system kernel         Facilities
    Control  --->      旼컴컴컴컴컴컴커       
    Systems                                 <- Interpreters 
                          Hardware          
    Formatters ->                           <- DBMS
                                            
    Calendar           읕컴컴컴컴컴컴켸          Word
    Systems ---->                             <- Processors
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    Editors ---->                               <- FTP
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The designers of UNIX used the following Maxims while writing the
new operating system.

       1.     Make each program do one thing well.  These simple
              programs would be called "tools."

       2.     Expect the output of every program to be the input to
              another program.

       3.     Don't stop building new "tools" to do a job.  The
              library of tools should keep increasing.
1.1  The UNIX System


The main concept that unites all versions of UNIX is the
following four basics:


Kernel 

The kernel is the heart of the operating system.  It schedules
tasks and manages data storage.  The user rarely interfaces with
the kernel directly.  This is the memory resident portion of the
operating system.


Shell

The shell is the utility that processes your requests.  When you
type in a command at your terminal, the shell interprets the
command and calls the program that you want.  The shell will
support multiple users, multiple tasks, and multiple interfaces
to itself.  The shell uses standard syntax for all commands. 
There are two popular shells currently available, the BourneShell
(standard System V UNIX) and the CShell (BSD UNIX).  Because
separate users can use different shells at the same time, the
system can appear different to different users.  There is another
shell known as the KornShell (named after its designer), which is
popular with programmers.  This ability to provide a customized
user interface is one of the most powerful features of UNIX.


Commands and Utilities

Separate utilities can be easily combined to customize function
and output.  They are flexible, adaptable, portable, and modular. 
They use pipes and filters.  There are over 200 standard commands
plus numerous others provided through 3rd party software.


Files and Directories

The directory system supports a multilevel hierarchy.  Files and
directories have access protection.  Files and directories are
accessed through pathnames.  Files support multiple name links. 
Removable filesystems are also supported.
1.2  File Structure


All data in UNIX is organized into files.  All files are
organized into directories.  These directories are organized into
a tree-like structure called the filesystem.  The following
diagram describes the top level organization of the UNIX
filesystem:

                              /
                            (root)                       
                                                     
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 bin      dev     etc     lib     tmp    usr   users      
                                                 

These directories, in turn, are also organized hierarchically.


For example:
                              /
                                               
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       dev                etc                     usr             
                                                 
    旼컴좔커           旼컴좔커        旼컴컴컴컫컴좔컴컴컴컴컴
                                                         
  dsk     rmt       init.d  rc0.d    mail      adm          spool
                                                             
                                            旼컴좔컴            
                                                            
                                          acct     sa


In this example, dev, etc, usr, and adm are directories. 
Directories contain other files or directories. Plain files
contain text or binary data and contain no information about
other files or directories.
Users can make use of this same structure to organize their
files.

For example:
                         / 
                         
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       bin             users          dev
                         
           旼컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴         
                                              
        bsmith                         sjones          
                                              
     旼컴컴좔컴커             旼컴컴컴컴컨컴컫컴컴컴컴컴 
                                                    
   memos      progs        physics          chem     history
                                                      
  旼컨컴    旼컨컴커      旼컨컴커       旼컨컴      憫컴
                                                  
 mfg   eng   c     f77   mods   calcs   forms  notes  loc anc


Every file has a name.  A filename is composed of one to fourteen
characters.  Although you can use almost any character in a
filename, you will avoid confusion if you choose characters from
the following list.

       1.     upper case letters [A-Z]
       2.     lower case letters [a-z]
       3.     numbers [0-9]
       4.     underscore [_]
       5.     period [.]
       6.     comma [,]      

The only exception is the root directory, which always uses the
symbol /.  No other directory or file can use this symbol.

Like children of one parent, no two files in the same directory
can have the same name.  Files in different directories, like
children of different parents, can have the same name.

The filenames you choose should mean something.  Too often, a
directory is filled with important files with names like foobar,
wombat, and junk.  A meaningless name won't help you recall the
contents of a file.  Use filenames that are descriptive of the
contents.
1.3 UNIX System Files

In order for you to have a basic understanding of the contents of
some of the system directories, here is a partial list of those
directories and what files they contain:

/bin                 This is where the executable files are located.
                     They are available to all user.

/dev                 These are device drivers.

/etc                 Supervisor directory commands, configuration
                     files, disk configuration files, reboot files,
                     valid user lists, groups, ethernet, hosts, where
                     to send critical messages.

/lib                 compiler libraries

/tmp                 scratch processes, editors, compilers, and
                     databases

/bsd                 Berkeley commands

/mnt                 empty, used for disks

/stand               boot information

/lost+found          orphans go here (look here after system crash)

/unix*               executable, bootable kernel

This is not an exhaustive list of directories that contain system
information but it is intended to remove some of the mystery
behind these directories and the types of files they contain.
1.4  Command Line Syntax


Users enter commands at the shell prompt.  The default
BourneShell prompt is the dollar sign ($).  In general, the shell
expects to see the following syntax:

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  Command Format:  command  options  arguments                 
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Command       -      This is the UNIX command.  Sometimes the command
                     is representative of the function.  For example,
                     the command to list the contents of a directory is
                     ls.  The first and third letters of the word
                     "list" are used.  Unfortunately, this is not
                     always the case.


Options       -      These are also known as flags.  The common form
                     is:
                                             -A

                     where A is the abbreviation of the optional
                     function of the command.  For example, the command
                     ls lists the contents of a directory, while the
                     command ls -l provides a long listing and ls -C
                     provides output in columns.  Several options can
                     be combined following one '-'; for example -CF, or
                     they can be entered separately as -C -F.


Arguments     -      These can be file names, user names, or qualifiers
                     to the command or one of its options.
Example:

.................................................................
. $ls -CF sjones                                                .
.................................................................


The UNIX command is ls list contents of directory the dash (-)
indicates the options.


     C  =     Multiple-column output with entries sorted down the
              columns

     F  =     Put a slash (/) after each filename if that file is a
              directory and put an asterisk (*) after each filename
              that is executable.

sjones  =     name of the directory to list (it can be a 
          relative or absolute pathname)


Example:

.................................................................
. $diff memo1 memo2                                             .
.................................................................


diff          - differential file comparator command

memo1         - filename argument

memo2         - filename argument


This command will tell what lines must be changed in two files to
bring them into agreement.
Here is another example that doesn't fit the general syntax for
UNIX commands.  

Example:

.................................................................
. $find . -atime +7 -print                                      .
.................................................................

                                                                 
find          -      find files

.             -      the current working directory

-atime        -      True if the file has been accessed in n days (n is
                     the +7)

-print        -      always true; causes the current path name to be
                     printed


So, this command will give a listing of all files in your current
working directory that have been accessed in the past seven days.

Some commands have several options and/or arguments; while
others, like passwd and mail, are interactive and will prompt the
user for additional input.
1.5  Correcting Mistakes


Because the shell and most other utilities do not interpret the
command line (or other text) until you press the (Ret) key, you
can correct typing mistakes before you press (Ret).  There are
two ways to correct typing mistakes.  You can erase one character
at a time, or you can back up to the beginning of the command
line in one step.   After you press (Ret), it is too late to make
a correction.



1.5.1  Erasing Characters


When entering characters from the keyboard, you can backspace up
to and over a mistake by pressing the erase key (#) one time for
each character you wish to delete.  The # will appear on the
screen, and the character preceding it will be discounted.


Example:

.................................................................
. $ls phajne#y                                                  .
.................................................................


In this example, the e will be ignored and ls phajny is sent to
the Multimax.  Multiple typos can be erased; simply press one #
for each character to be erased.  The erase key will back up as
many characters as you wish, but it will not back up past the
beginning of the line.



1.5.2  Deleting an Entire Line

You can delete an entire line you are entering any time before
you press (Ret) by pressing the kill key (@).  When you press the
@ (kill key), the cursor moves down to the next line and all the
way to the left.  The shell doesn't give you another prompt, but
it is as though the cursor is following a prompt.  The operating
system does not remove the line with the mistake but instead
ignores it.  Now enter the command (or text) again from the
start.
1.5.3  Aborting Program Execution


Sometimes you may want to terminate a running program.  UNIX
might be performing a listing that is too long to display on your
screen or for some other reason you want to terminate execution. 
To terminate program execution press the Delete key.  The
operating system sends a terminal interrupt signal to the shell. 
When the shell receives this signal, it displays a prompt and
waits for another command.



1.5.4  Controlling Output to the Screen


There are several ways to control the flow of characters to the
screen as a result of executing a command.  Such as:


Ctrl-S               -      This keyboard function command will suspend
                            the flow of characters to the screen as the
                            result of executing a command.  The screen
                            will not continue until the keyboard function
                            to resume output is given.


Ctrl-Q               -      This keyboard function command will resume
                            the output to the screen.


Hold Screen          -      If your terminal has this key (i.e. VT200),
                            you can press it once to stop output to the
                            screen.  To resume output to the screen,
                            press the key again.


Denver BOR MULTIMAX

Each BOR Multimax 310 has four 15 Megahertz National
Semiconductor 32-bit processors with 64 kilobytes of cache memory
rated at 2 million instructions per second (MIPS) for a total of
8 MIPS. The main memory consists of 32 megabytes (million bytes).
There can be a maximum of 14 disk drives. Each drive has a
capacity of 600 megabytes for a total capacity of 8.4 gigabytes
(a gigabyte is one thousand million bytes)

Connection to the Multimax is accomplished through one of several
methods. Access is made through TCP/IP based Annex terminal
servers. The two Annex II servers have 32 ports each and the
Annex I has 16 ports. The Annex II servers will allow up to 64
users access to the two Multimax computers. The Annex I is used
for access to the on-line printers. CDCnet and TELNET are other
ways to gain access to the Multimaxes.

Printouts are handled on a 600-line-per-minute line printer and a
10-page-per-minute laser printer. Each Multimax has a hardcopy
terminal and a CRT to serve as an operator console. There are two
tape drives capable of 1600 or 6250 bits per inch (bpi) on each
system. There is also a cassette tape drive.

Software available are FORTRAN, COBOL, C, and UNISOL (an
accounting package). The database management system is INGRES by
Relational Technology, Inc.  PROCOMM+ will be the communication
interface with IBM PC's and compatibles. The operating system for
the Multimax is UMAX V. UMAX V is the name for the Encore
implementation of UNIX System V.
1.6  Logging on the Annex


This sample session shows how the login process is displayed on
the terminal screen and is uniform for all users.  To bring the
standard menu onto the screen, press the Space Bar.  If you are
using a PC, first start PROCOMM+.  Then when you are in the
Terminal-Mode Screen, press the Space Bar; and the MICOM menu
will appear.


NOTE:         Login procedures from the regions are included in the
              back of this manual


Sample Session:

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 WELCOME TO THE B.O.R. NETWORK P/S:B                           
 SYSTEMS PRESENTLY AVAILABLE ARE:                              
                                                               
  **SYSTEM**         **NAME**                                  
                                                               
 VAX 8300'S            VAX                                     
 CYBER/CDCNET F.E.     CDC                                     
 ENCORE/UNIX           MAX                                     
 OUT DIAL              OD                                      
                                                               
 TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                          
 NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                              
 PROMPT.                                                       
                                                               
 CHANNEL 08/061. ENTER RESOURCE MAX                            
                                                               
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MAX is the resource name you must enter to be connected to the
Annex, which is the Multimax front end processor.  Some MICOM
menus might not have the MAX selection; in this case, enter MAX
to select the Annex.  This is the same as if the menu showed the
option.
After entering MAX you will see something similar to the
following:

Sample Session:

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 CONNECTED TO 06/011                                           
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This indicates that you are connected to the port selector.  Wait
two seconds, press (Ret) twice, and the annex prompt will appear
after a warning message.


Sample Session:

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 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.         
                                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers             
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***    
 annex:                                                                     
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1.7  Logging on the Multimax


To establish a connection between the Annex and the Multimax
enter the following command at the Annex prompt:

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  Command Format:  rlogin <host>                               
                                                               
     host - name of the Multimax                               
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The Denver Multimaxes have been assigned the names domax0 and
domax1.  The names stand for the Denver Office Multimax System 0
and 1.  The domax0 is used for production of Bureau-wide
applications.  The domax1 is used for training and application
development and it is the one to use for exercises associated
with this course.

 To enter domax1 type:

Sample Session:

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 annex:rlogin domax1                                           
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                              or
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 annex:r domax1                                                
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NOTE:         Abbreviations are allowed for the Annex commands, the
              only requirement is to type in enough characters to
              make it unique.


When the Annex has opened communications with the selected host,
the following prompt will appear:


Sample Session:

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 login:                                                        
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To connect with the host, enter your login name at the prompt.
Your login name is assigned to you by the system administrator
and typically will be your first initial and last name, all one
word with no spaces.  Only 8 characters are allowed for the
username so extra letters will be truncated.

Sample Session:

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 login:rharding                                                
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Once the login name has been accepted, the next prompt will be
for the password.  The following prompt will appear on the
screen.

Sample Session:

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 Password:                                                     
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Enter your password.  For security reasons, the host will not
display your password as you type it.

Sample Session:

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 Password: secret                                              
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Once you have entered the correct password.  The login procedure
will continue and the following will appear on the monitor
screen.

Sample Session:

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 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
 $                                                                              
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At this point you are successfully signed on to the Multimax. 
The dollar sign ($) is the default prompt for the BourneShell.



1.8  Logging Off the Multimax


At the shell prompt $, you can logout of the Multimax using one
of the following methods:  


       1.     Enter the keyboard function command Ctrl-D.

       2.     Type the UNIX command exit.


Once you have entered the command to logout the following will
appear on the screen:


Sample Session:

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 $exit                                                         
 CLI: Connection closed.                                       
 annex:                                                        
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Once you are back at the Annex prompt, you can establish another
connection or logout of the Annex.
1.9  Logging Off the Annex


When the Annex prompt (annex:) appears, you can enter the command
to logout of the Annex.  The command to logout of the Annex is as
follows:

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  Command Format:  hangup                                      
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There is a 60 minute inactivity timeout programmed into the
Annex; however, it is a waste of resources if you don't enter
hangup. When you are finished with your session, be sure to enter
hangup at the annex: prompt.

If you don't type anything for 60 minutes, the Annex will log you
out of the system and display the following message:


Sample Session:

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 *** Annex Port Reset Due to Inactivity Timeout ***            
                                                               
 Annex Command Line Interpreter                                
 DISCONNECTED                                                  
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When the hangup command has been entered, the following will
appear on the screen:


Sample Session:

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 annex: hangup                                                 
                                                               
 Resetting line and disconnecting.                             
                                                               
                                                               
 Annex Command Line Interpreter * Copyright 1988 Xylogics      
 annex:                                                        
 DISCONNECTED                                                  
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1.10  Changing the Password

The following command will change the password.
                                                                 
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    Command Format:     passwd                                 
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You will be prompted to enter the existing password (this
question is skipped if you don't have a password).  Next you will
be prompted to enter the new password.  You will then be asked to
enter the new password again.  This will verify that you have not
made a typographical error.  If the two entries are the same, the
password will be changed.  The new password must meet the
following criteria:

       NOTE: Some of these items are configurable by the system
       administrator and these reflect the settings for the Denver
       Multimax only.

       1.     Each password must have at least six characters.  Only
              the first eight characters are significant.

       2.     Each password must contain at least two alphabetic
              characters and at least one numeric or special
              character.  Alphabetic characters can be upper or lower
              case.

       3.     Each password must differ from the login name and
              any reverse or circular shift of that login name. 
              For comparison purposes, an upper case letter and
              its corresponding lower case letter are
              equivalent.

       4.     A new password must differ from the old by at
              least three characters.  For comparison purposes,
              an upper case letter and its corresponding lower
              case character are equivalent.
Passwords on the Multimax have a thirteen-week expiration period.
At the end of the thirteen weeks, you will be required to change
your password.  Once you have changed the password, you cannot
change it again for two weeks.  This prevents you from
immediately changing back to the old password and eliminates a
possible security violation.  If you try to change the password
before two weeks have passed since the last change, a warning
message will be displayed.


Sample Session:

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 $passwd                                                       
 Changing password for teacher                                 
 Old password: secret                                          
 Sorry: < 2 weeks since the last change                        
 $                                                             
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NOTE:         This is about as friendly as UMAX will ever get.

Try to choose a password that is not easy for someone else to
guess.  The increasing number of computer crimes involving thefts
all point to a need for protecting the system from unauthorized
access.  Do not use words like your birthdate, telephone number,
spouse's name, child's name, etc. for passwords.  Although you
may think passwords are an unnecessary nuisance, they are an
important way to strengthen the security of the computer system.


1.11  On-line Manual


The major source of on-line help is in the form of documentation
known as the on-line manual pages.  The pages are divided into
eight sections.  Section 1 contains entries for UMAX user
commands; the other sections describe administrative tools,
library functions, games, and internal system structure and
calls.

To gain access to the on-line manual pages enter the following
command:

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      Command Format:   man <command>                          
                                                               
      command - the UNIX command you want information about    
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NOTE:         The name 'man' stands for manual.


Example:

.................................................................
. $man ls                                                       .
.................................................................
                                                                 

This command will display the on-line manual pages for the ls
command.

The on-line manual pages entry begins with the command name and a
one line summary followed by a synopsis of the command line
syntax.  Optional flags and arguments are enclosed by square
brackets [].  A detailed description of the command and all of
its options and arguments follow the synopsis.  The description
can include helpful examples.  At the conclusion of the entry,
related files and commands are listed.

NOTE:         Most on-line manual pages will fill more than one
              screen.  Be sure to control the output to your screen.
1.12 who and finger Commands

Once you have logged onto the Multimax, you can find out who is
logged on the system with the following commands:
                                                                 
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  Command Format:  who [options]                               
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list                 
                                                               
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The default output (no options) of the who command lists the
user's login name, terminal line, and the time that the user
logged in.


Sample Session:

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 $who                                                          
 jwheeler          ttyp0     Aug 15 10:26                      
 mvlsdba           rt02190   Aug 15 09:25                      
 teacher           rt020b0   Aug 15 11:07                      
 eholderf          rt021c0   Aug 15 11:03                      
 dbowman           rt01150   Aug 15 08:58                      
 $                                                             
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Options will display other information about the users that are
currently logged onto the system.  Some items available are the
amount of time that has elapsed since activity occurred on that
line, the process identifier (PID) of the login process,
comments, and exit information.
A UNIX command that provides a little more information about
users that are logged in the system is the finger command.

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  Command Format:  finger [options] [user1]                    
                                                               
    options - see on line manual for complete list             
                                                               
     user1  - login name                                       
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The finger command with no options will list the login name, full
name, terminal name, write status (an asterisk (*) before the
terminal name indicates that write permission is denied), idle
time, login time, office location, and phone number (if known)
for each user that is currently logged in the system.


Sample Session:
                                                                 
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 $finger                                                       
 Login        Name           TTY       Idle   When     Office  
 Jwheeler     Jim Wheeler    ttyp0       16 Wed 10:26   MP     
 mvlsdba      Motor Veh Lic  rt02190     16 Wed 09:25   d7160  
 teacher      Teacher Acct  *rt020b0        Wed 11:07          
 eholderf     Eileen Holder  rt021c0      1 Wed 11:03          
 dbowman      Dale Bowman    rt01150        Wed 08:58          
 $                                                             
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Workshop 1


This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the ideas
presented in Chapter 1.  Each student is to complete the entire
workshop.

DESK EXERCISES


1.     What two organizations first developed UNIX?





2.     In what high level programming language is UNIX written?





3.     What are some characteristics of UNIX?





4.     What is Encore Computer Corporations implementation of UNIX
       called?





5.     What part of UNIX controls the details of the computer's
       internal operations?





6.     What part of UNIX allows the user to communicate with the
       computer? 







                                  Continue on the next page
7.     What is the name of the tree-like structure under which all
       data is stored?


       

8.     What is the name of the highest level directory?





9.     What symbol represents the highest level directory?





10.    What is the general syntax of a UNIX command?





11.    What is the most common form for listing options on a
       command line? 





12.    What character would you use to erase a character on the
       command line?




13.    What character terminates the execution of a command?





14.    What is the default BourneShell prompt?




                                              
15.    How can you control the flow of output to your monitor
       screen?


1.     What annex command is entered to make a connection to the
       Multimax?





2.     What is the UNIX command to change the password?






3.     How long is your password valid?






4.     How long do you have to wait before changing your password
       again?  Why?





5.     What UNIX command is used to logout of the Multimax?






6.     What is the command to logout of the annex?





COMPUTER EXERCISES

7.     Login to the Multimax  


       a.     What did you notice when you entered the password?




       b.     Can you see the password as you enter it?




       c.     What happens if you make a mistake while entering the
              password?





8.     What do you see once you have logged in?  Write it here.








9.     Enter the command which displays the man pages for the man
       command.  (Don't forget to control output to the screen.) 


       The first section is titled "NAME," what are the titles of
       the other sections?








10.    What are the options for the man command?






11.    Enter the command to find out who (hint) is logged into the
       system.





12.    What command will give you more information about the
       current users?  Try it.



13.    Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.

2.  FILES


In UNIX, all data is organized in files.  An ordinary file is a
memo, source code program or shell script.  A shell script or
program source code can be viewed or edited from your terminal. 
Other files contain binary data, like programs for the kernel;
these files cannot be viewed or edited on the terminal.

Peripheral devices such as disks, tape drives, printers, and
terminals are also assigned file names.  Device files are
considered to be special files.  They have 'special'
characteristics.  Although input and output can be redirected to
and from a special file, do not attempt to display the contents
of a special file on your terminal.
3.1  File Access Modes


File access modes are the protections that can be assigned to
files.  This protection can protect your files from unauthorized
reading or writing.  You can even protect your files from
yourself (you can prevent accidental deletion).

There are three access modes for files:

       r (read) read, examine, copy data in a file

       w (write) modify, delete a file

       x (execute) use the file as a command


Users with access to a file fall into one of three groups:

       u (user) the file's owner 

       g (group) users in the same group

       o (other) everybody else


The first output field of the ls -l command is a ten character
field.  Characters two through ten describe the file access
modes.  A typical access mode listing looks like:

                            rwxr-xr-x

Of the nine columns, the first three describe modes for the
file's owner, the next three for his group, and the last three
for everyone else.  Within each group of three, the first column
describes read access mode, the second write, and the third
execute.  A letter in a column indicates access granted, a dash
(-) indicates access denied.

Using the previous example, the user has r (read), w (write), and
x (execute) permissions.  Members of the user's logical group can
read (r) or execute (x).  Everyone else has read (r) and execute
(x)  permissions, too.  The effect of these permissions is that
the file's owner is the only one who can modify the file; but
everyone can examine, copy, or execute the file.
To change access modes on a file or directory, use the chmod
command.

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  Command Format:  chmod <access> <file1[filen]>               
                                                               
        access    - access permissions                         
     file1[filen] - one or more files to change permissions    
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Access can be expressed in either of two forms:

       -      with letters: [ugo] [+-=] [rwx]

       -      with numbers: [0-7] [0-7] [0-7]

Let's look at the method of changing the file permissions with
letters.  The letters u, g, and o represent user, group, and
others, respectively.  The + (plus) sign means to add the
permission and the - (minus) sign means to remove the permission.
The = (equal) sign means to set the permissions as shown.  Of
course, r,w, and x are read, write, and execute.

If, for illustration purposes, we created a file named file1 that
had the following permissions:

                     rw-rwxrwx

and you want to give yourself (user) execute permission and take
away others' (others' here means group and everyone else) write
permissions.


Sample Session:

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 $chmod u+x,g-w,o-w file1                                      
 $                                                             
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Now if we use the ls -la command, and look at the file
permissions for file1, they will look like this:

                     rwxr-xr-x
If you want to set several protections at once use the equal
sign.  The following example will set the permissions for the
user to read and execute.

Sample session:

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  $chmod u=rx file1                                            
  $                                                            
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The second method of changing the permissions is to use the octal
digits (0-7).  The octal digits 0 through 7 are represented in
binary in the following manner.


              Octal                Binary    Corresponds to permissions

               0                   000                  ---
               1                   001                  --x
               2                   010                  -w-
               3                   011                  -wx
               4                   100                  r--
               5                   101                  r-x
               6                   110                  rw-
               7                   111                  rwx


Notice that every time a one digit (1) occurs in the binary
number the corresponding permissions are also set.  Every time a
zero (0) occurs, the corresponding permission is denied.  So to
change the file permissions in the previous example, this is the
command to enter:


Sample Session:

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 $chmod 755 file1                                              
 $                                                             
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The first octal digit assigns user permissions of read, write and
execute.  The second digit assigns the group permission to read
and execute.  The last digit sets the others permission to read
and execute too.
3.2  Listing Contents of Directories


The ls command is used to display file names and their
characteristics.  Since file names are stored in directories, ls
actually reads directory files.  Executing ls with no flags or
arguments simply lists the names of the files that exist in your
current working directory.  The initialization files will not be
listed.


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   Command Format:  ls [options] [dir1[dirn]]                 
                                                              
    options - see man pages for a complete list               
                                                              
    dir1[dirn] - one or more directory names                  
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The -a flag will cause the hidden (initialization) and all other
filenames to be displayed. 


The -C flag causes the output to be changed from single-column to
multi-column display. 


The -F flag adds a character to the end of each displayed
filename:

       /      indicates a directory
       *      indicates the file is executable.
   blank      indicates a plain or ordinary file


The -l flag causes detailed information to be printed for files
in the directory.  This information includes:

       file type (directory, block special, character special,
                fifo special, symbolic link, or ordinary file)
       access modes
       number of links
       ownership  
     group affiliation
       size in bytes
       date and time of last modification
       filename
Without a filename argument, ls displays information about the
current working directory.  The output is automatically sorted
alphabetically by default. 


Example:

.................................................................
. $ls                                                           .
.................................................................

The following example provides a long listing of the current
working directory.

Example:

.................................................................
. $ls -l                                                        .
.................................................................


This example shows the ls command with no arguments so it uses
the default, the current working directory.  The argument could
be a relative or absolute directory name.

Sample session:

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 $ls -la                                                       
 total 975                                                     
 drwxrwxr-x  4 teacher   class   2048  Jul 16 17.56 .          
 drwxr-xr-x 60 root              1536  Jul 13 14:18 ..         
 -rwx------  1 teacher   class   4210  May  1 08:27 .profile   
 -rwxr-xr-x  1 teacher   class   1948  May 12 13:42 memo       
 $                                                             
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3.3 File Classifications


The file command will classify files according to their contents.

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  Command Format:  file [options] <file1[filen]>               
                                                               
    file1[filen] - one or more filenames to analyze            
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 A few of the classifications that the file command displays are
shown below.  The results of using the file command are not
always correct.

       English text
       ascii text
       c program text
       cannot stat
       commands text
       data
       directory
       empty
       executable

Sample Session:

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 $file speople                                                 
 speople:                  commands text                       
 $file test                                                    
 test:                     directory                           
 $file mail                                                    
 mail:                     data                                
 $                                                             
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By convention, files beginning with a dot (.) are called
initialization files or 'hidden files'.  These files describe
your environment to the shell. They are sometimes called 'dot
files'. 

By convention, files that end with:
              
                .c   are C source code programs
                .f   are Fortran source code programs
                .o   are object programs
                .a   are archive files
3.4  Displaying Files


The cat command displays the contents of a file.  The command cat
is an abbreviation for catenate. This command will read each file
in sequence and write it to the monitor screen. 

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  Command Format:  cat [options] [file1[filen]]                
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list                
                                                               
    file1[filen] - one or more file names                       
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If no filename is given, or the argument - is encountered, cat
reads from standard input.

Sample session:

.................................................................
.   $cat                                                        .
.................................................................

This is the simpliest example but not very exciting.  The cat
command will get its input from the keyboard.  Everything that is
typed will be displayed on the monitor.

If an argument is given to the cat command that file will be
displayed on the monitor.

Sample session: 

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   $cat main.c                                                 
   main ()                                                     
   {                                                           
         printf ("hello from main!\n\n");                        
         printf ("calling function1!\n\n");                      
       funct1();                                               
       printf ("back from function1!\n\n");                    
         printf ("calling function2!\n\n");                      
         funct2();                                               
         printf ("that's it!\n\n");                              
   }                                                           
   $                                                            
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Several files can be displayed on the monitor one after the other
by separating the filenames with a space.

Sample session:
 
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    $cat main.c main.f                                         
    main ()                                                    
    {                                                          
           printf ("hello from main!\n\n");                      
           printf ("calling function1!\n\n");                    
           funct1();                                             
           printf ("back from function1!\n\n");                  
           printf ("calling function2!\n\n");                    
           funct2();                                             
           printf ("that's it!\n\n");                            
     }                                                          
             program calling                                    
         write(6,100)                                          
     100     format('Hello from main!',/)                          
           write(6,110)                                          
     110     format(' Calling subroutine1!',/)                     
             call sub1                                             
           write(6,120)                                          
     120     format(t15' Back from subroutine1!',/)                
           write(6,130)                                          
     130     format(' Calling subroutine2!',/)                     
           call sub2                                             
           write(6,140)                                          
     140     format(t15' Back from subroutine2!',/)                
           write(6,150)                                          
     150     format(' Thats all, folks!')                          
           end                                                   
     $                                                         
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If the file contains more lines than can be displayed on the
screen the display will continue to scroll until the last line
has been displayed then the prompt will be redisplayed.  This can
be a problem if you intend to read the text.  Be prepared to stop
the screen so it can be read.
The pg command displays the contents of a file one screen at a
time.  It allows the user to perform string searches and to
scroll backwards.

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  Command Format:  pg [options] [file1[filen]]                 
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list                
                                                               
    file1[filen] - one or more files to paginate               
                                                               
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Sample session:
                                                                              
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   $pg memo                                                                 
   What's Happening                                                         
   by Pam Hajny                                                             
   Denver Office                                                            
                                                                            
   With IRM Training:                                                       
                                                                            
.   A Reclamation-wide workshop was held in early October to                 .
.                                                                            .
.                                                                            .
                                                                             
   three groups; CYBER, VAX, and other (PC/LAN, scientific,                 
   :                                                                        
                                                                            
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Twenty three lines of the file will appear and the : (colon)
prompt will appear on the last line.  To have the next twenty
three line of the file appear, simply press (Ret).  If you don't
want to see anymore of the file, enter a q (for quit) and the
shell prompt will be redisplayed.
The following UNIX command is useful for viewing the end of a
file without having to display the entire file.
                    
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  Command Format:  tail [options] [file1]                      
                                                               
      options - see man pages for a complete list                
                                                               
    file1 - the file to display, if none is given use          
            standard input                                     
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The tail command displays the last 10 lines of file  by default. 
The tail command accepts a -N flag to display the last N lines.


Sample Session:

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 $tail memo                                                                 
 data communication between the ASC IBM and other Reclamation computers.    
 Asynchronous communication can be accomplished with the same terminals     
 we use for other computer tasks, over the same lines and through the MICOM 
 port selectors.  Currently, host-to-host communications is accomplished    
 over a line between the IBM and the CYBERs.  The software that supports    
 this communication is called NJEF.  Although the capability has been there 
 for some time, we have recently been working with ASC personnel to         
 improve its reliability and accessibility.  For CYBER users, there is      
 an NJEF Users' Guide available which can be requested through the Hotline  
 (303) 236-4567.                                                            
 $                                                                          
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3.5  Removing Files


The rm command will remove the entries for one or more files from
a directory.  If an entry was the last link to the file, the file
will be destroyed.  Removal of a file requires write permission
to the directory itself, but neither read nor write permission to
the file itself.  The format for the rm command is:
          
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    Command Format:  rm [options] <file1[filen]>               
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list               
                                                              
    file1[filen] - one or more files to remove                 
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Sample session:

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 $ls                                                           
 memo                                                          
 tdata                                                         
 subdir                                                        
 $rm memo                                                      
 $ls                                                           
 tdata                                                         
 subdir                                                        
 $                                                             
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The file memo has been deleted from the current working
directory. 
Multiple files can be deleted by separating the filenames with a 
space.

Sample session:

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 $ls                                                           
 memo                                                          
 tdata                                                         
 subdir                                                        
 $rm memo tdata                                                
 $ls                                                           
 subdir                                                        
 $                                                             
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3.6  Printing Files


The lp command routes a file to a printer.

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  Command Format:  lp [-d<dest>] [-n<number>] [file1[filen]]   
                                                               
     des - destination (default set by administrator)      
                                                               
     number  - number of copies (default is 1)                 
                                                               
     file1[filen] - one or more files to be printed            
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If no file name is mentioned the standard input is assumed.  The
filename dash (-) stands for standard input and may be supplied
in conjunction with named files.  The order in which the
filenames appear is the order in which they will be printed.
       
The printers in Denver have the following destination names:

       Mannesman 910 laser printer - mtlzr

       Mannesman 600 line printer  - mt_600  (Denver default)

If no specific printer is given the default printer will be
selected. The following example will print one copy (default) of
the file called test_285 to the line printer (default).

Sample session:

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   $lp test_285                                                
   request id is mt_600-1271 (1 file)                          
   $                                                           
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It is possible to specify the printer as shown in the following
example. In this case, we specified the default printer.

Sample Session:

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 $lp -dmt_600 test_286                                         
 request id is mt_600-1272 (1 file)                            
 $                                                             
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To print two copies of a file called test_287 on the laser
printer in Building 53 in Denver, enter the following command:

Sample Session:

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 $lp -dmtlzr -n2 test_287                                      
 request id is mtlzr-1273 (1 file)                             
 $                                                             
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3.7  Print Status


The lpstat command will print information about the current
status of the printer system.

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  Command Format:  lpstat [options]                            
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list                
                                                               
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If no options are given, the lpstat command will print the status
of all requests made to lp by the user.


Sample Session:

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 $lpstat                                                       
 mtlzr-1274    teacher     22560    Jul 16 09:05 on mtlzr      
 $                                                             
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The first field is the remote id of the print job.  The username
is next and the size (in bytes) of the print file.  The date and
time are next and finally the name of the printer.

One of the options available is -t.  This option will print all
of the printer status information.


Sample Session:

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 $lpstat -t                                                    
 scheduler is running                                          
 system default destination: mt_600                            
 device for mt_600: /dev/rlp000                                
 device for mtlzr: /dev/rt0002                                 
 mt_600 accepting requests since Sep 19 16:09                  
 mtlzr accepting requests since Sep 19 16:43                   
 printer mt_600 is idle. enabled since Jul 3 16:52             
 printer mtlzr is idle. enabled since Jul 3 16:51              
 $                                                             
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This is an example of the kinds of information available from the
lpstat command.
3.8  Canceling Print Jobs


The cancel command will cancel printer requests made by the lp
command.  The command line arguments can be either request id's
(these are returned by the lp command) or the printer name.  If
you specify the request id, the cancel command will stop the job
even if it is currently printing.  If you specify the printer
name, the job currently being printed will be canceled.  In
either case, the cancellation of a request that is currently
printing will free the printer to print the next request.


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     Command Format:     cancel <[ids] [printer]>              
                                                               
      ids - request ids (returned by lp command)               
                                                               
      printer - printer name                                   
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Sample Session:

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 $lp -dmt_600 contest                                          
 request id is mt_600-1280 (1 file)                            
 $cancel mt_600-1280                                           
 request "mt_600-1280" canceled                                
 $                                                             
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3.9  Copying Files


A user may make a copy of a file if he has read access to that
file.  The cp command can be used to copy the contents of one
file to another.

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  Command Format:  cp <file1[filen]> <target>                  
                                                               
    file1[filen] - one or more source files                    
                                                               
    target       - file or dirname                             
                                                               
                  file1 and target cannot be the same and      
                  if the target is a file its' contents are    
                  destroyed.                                   
                                                               
                  If target is a directory, then the contents  
                  of the source file(s) is copied to that       
                  directory.                                    
                                                               
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Sample Session:

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 $cp contest memo                                              
 $                                                             
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This will cause a copy of the file contest to be made into a file
named memo.  If memo doesn't exist, it will be created.  If it
already exists, it will be written over.  The cp command is
nondestructive; that means that the source file will remain
intact.

The cp command can also be used to copy several files into
another directory.


Sample Session:

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 $cp file1 file2 /user0/teacher                                
 $                                                             
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A copy of file1 and file2 has been sent to the directory (in this
case, the target directory) /user0/teacher.  The user of cp will
own the newly copied files.
3.10  Moving Files


A user may move a file only if he has write access to that file. 
The mv (move) command can be used to rename one file.


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  Command Format:  mv <file1[filen]> <target>                  
                                                               
    file1[filen] - one or more source files                    
                                                               
    target       - file or dirname                             
                                                               
                  file1 and target cannot be the same and      
                  if the target is a file its' contents are    
                  destroyed.                                   
                                                               
                  If target is a directory, then the contents  
                  of the source file(s) are moved to that       
                  directory.                                    
                                                               
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Sample Session:

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 $mv contest memo                                              
 $                                                             
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This will have the effect of changing the name of the file
contest into memo.  The permissions on the file will remain the
same.  The move command is destructive.  That means the source
file no longer exists.

The mv command can also be use to move files from one directory
to another.

Sample Session:

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 $mv file1 file2 /user0/teacher                                
 $                                                             
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The files, file1 and file2, have been sent to the directory
/user0/teacher.  They have been "moved" and no longer reside in
the current directory.  The owner remains the same when a file is
moved.
Workshop 3

This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the topics
presented in this chapter.  Login to the Multimax using the
username and password given to you by the instructor.  Each
student should complete the entire workshop.  You might need to
work in a team on the computer exercises.

DESK EXERCISES


1.     List four types of files.






2.     What does the file command do?






3.     The ls command will display the contents of the current
       working directory.  What does the -F option do?





4.     What command is used to display the contents of an ordinary
       file?





5.     What command would you use to append one file to the end of
       another?





6.     What is the lp command?




                                  Continue on the next page
7.     How can you find out the status of your print job?





8.     What command would you enter to cancel a print job called
       mt_600-1131?





9.     What command will copy the contents of one file to another?





10.    What does mv do?





11.    What do the following file protections indicate?

              rwx------



              rwxr-xr-x



              ---------


              rwxr--r--












                                  Continue on the next page
COMPUTER EXERCISES


12.    Log into the Multimax.





13.    Execute the file command on the files listed below.  Record
       the output in the space provided.


       a.     .profile



       b.     /bin/vax



       c.     /dev/console




14.    Which of the above files is readable?






15.    Enter the command to display the contents of the current
       working directory.  Hint: ls


       a.     How many files are listed?



       b.     Type ls -a



       c.     How many entries are listed?





                                  Continue on the next page
       d.     Which entries were not listed in your original output
              of ls?







16.    How does the output of ls -a and ls -Ac differ? 
       Try it.






17.    How many fields are displayed for each entry when you
       execute ls -l? What are the fields?





18.    What are the current permissions on .profile?





19.    Change permissions on .profile so that no one (including
       you) has any access to the file.  
       (Hint: Use the chmod command)





20.    Without changing the permissions, list the contents of the
       file named .profile to the screen.
       What happened?  Why?










                                  Continue on the next page
21.    Change the permissions on .profile to 

              u - read, write, execute
              g - read
              o - read             




22.    Type cat .profile.  What happened?  Do you know why?






23.    Enter pg memo.  What does this command do?
 






24.    Send one copy of the file called memo to the laser printer.
     





25.    Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.
                                            NOTES
複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複
4.  DIRECTORIES


A directory is a file whose sole job is to store file names and
related information.  All files, whether ordinary, special, or
directory, are contained in directories.

The directory in which you find yourself when you first login is
called your home directory.  You will be doing much of your work
in your home directory and subdirectories that you'll be creating
to organize your files.



4.1  Absolute/Relative Pathnames


As we saw earlier, directories are arranged in a hierarchy with
root (/) at the top.  The position of any file within the
hierarchy is described by its pathname.  Elements of a pathname
are separated by a /.  A pathname is absolute if it is described
in relation to root, so absolute pathnames always begin with a /.
These are some example of absolute filenames.

              /etc/passwd
              /users/sjones/chem/notes
              /dev/rdsk/Os3

A pathname can also be relative to your current working
directory.  Relative pathnames never begin with /.  Relative to
user sjones' home directory, some pathnames might look like this:
                                                                 
              chem/notes
              personal/res

To determine where you are within the filesystem hierarchy at any
time, enter the command to print the current working directory.

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  Command Format:  pwd                                         
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Sample Session:

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 $pwd                                                          
 /user0/teacher                                                
 $                                                             
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Notice that this is an absolute pathname.  This is the pathname
of the current working directory.
4.2  Creating Directories


Directories are created by the following command:

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  Command Format:  mkdir [options] <dirname>                   
                                                               
      options - see man pages for a complete list              
                                                               
      dirname -  name of the new directory (absolute or        
                    relative pathname).                         
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If the option to change permission mode is not given, the
directory will have default permissions set to read,write,execute
for the user and read and execute for group and others.  The
files . (dot) and .. (dot dot) are created automatically.  In
order to create a sub-directory, you must have write permission
on the parent directory.  The owner id and the group id are set
to the real users id and group id, respectively.

4.3  Removing Directories


Directories can be deleted using the rmdir command.

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  Command Format:  rmdir  [options]  <dirname>                 
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list                
                                                               
    dirname - the directory to remove, it must be empty.       
                                                               
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Sample Session:

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 $pwd                                                          
 /user0/teacher                                                
 $ls -la                                                       
 total 5                                                       
 drwxr-xr-x 2 teacher  class   512  Jul 18 08:12 .             
 drwxrwxr-x 5 root     root    2048 Jul  1 13:14 ..            
 $rmdir teacher                                                
 rmdir:teacher:Directory does not exist                        
 $                                                             
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Normally, directories are deleted using the rmdir command. 
Before the directory can be removed, it must be empty; that is,
it must not contain any files.  Notice that in the above example
two files are present, . (dot) and .. (dot).  Remember, these
refer to the current working directory and its parent.  They
cannot be removed.
Sample Session:

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 $rmdir .                                                      
 rmdir: .: Can't remove current directory or ..                
 $                                                             
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For the purposes of deleting a directory, the directory is empty
if it contains only two files, namely . (dot) and .. (dot dot).
4.4  Changing Directories


To "move around" in the filesystem, use the cd (change directory)
command.

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  Command Format:  cd [dirname]                                
                                                               
  dirname  -    If not specified, the value of the $HOME       
                shell variable will be used as the new         
                current working directory.                     
                                                               
                If the directory given is an absolute pathname 
                that directory is the new current working      
                directory.  A relative pathname can also be    
                given.                                         
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Sample Session:
 
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 $cd /user0/teacher                                            
 $pwd                                                          
 /user0/teacher                                                
 $                                                             
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The current working directory is now /user0/teacher.


Sample Session:

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 $cd memos                                                     
 $pwd                                                          
 /user0/teacher/memos                                          
 $                                                             
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This command will look for a subdirectory called memos under the
current working directory.  If it is found, it will become the
new working directory; otherwise, an error will occur.

Error messages beginning with "cannot access file..." often
indicate that the pathname is incorrect or misspelled.
4.5  Renaming Directories


The mv (move) command can also be used to rename a directory.

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  Command Format:  mv <dirname> <target>                       
                                                               
    dirname   - name of the source directory                   
    target    - target directory name                          
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Sample Session:

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 $mv users newusers                                            
 $                                                             
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This will have the effect of changing the name of the directory
users into newusers.  The permissions on the directory will
remain the same.


NOTE:         All files and subdirectories in the directory newusers
              now have new absolute pathnames. 
4.6  The directories . (dot) and .. (dot dot)  


The filename . (dot) represents the current working directory;
and the filename .. (dot dot) represent the directory one level
above the current working directory, often referred to as the
parent directory.  If we enter the command to show a listing of
the current working directories files and use the -a option to
list all the files and the -l option provides the long listing,
this is the result.

               
Sample Session:

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 $ls -la                                                       
 total 975                                                     
 drwxrwxr-x  4 teacher   class   2048  Jul 16 17.56 .          
 drwxr-xr-x 60 root              1536  Jul 13 14:18 ..         
 ----------  1 teacher   class   4210  May  1 08:27 .profile   
 -rwxr-xr-x  1 teacher   class   1948  May 12 13:42 memo       
 $                                                             
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The ls -la command displays access modes, number of links, the
owner, the group, size, etc. of files in a directory; but also
displays the characteristics of the current working directory and
its parent.  The first entry is the entry for the current
directory.  The owner is teacher and the group is class.  The
second entry is the parent directory.  It is one level up from
the current working directory.  It is owned by the root
directory.

Instead of asking for information on all of the files in a
directory, you can request just the information on the current
working directory.


Sample Session:

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 $ls -ld                                                       
 drwxrwxr-x  4  teacher   class  2048 Jul 16 17:56 .           
 $                                                             
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The response from the command simply shows the long information
for the current working directory . (dot).
Information can also be obtained for the parent of the current
working directory by using its name as an argument.


Sample Session:

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 $ls -ld ..                                                    
 drwxr-xr-x  60  root  root  1536  Jul 13 14:18 ..             
 $                                                             
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Here's the long list of the current working directories parent.
(.. is the shorthand representation of the current working
directories parent) 
                                                                 
Both of the directory names . (dot) and .. (dot dot) can be used
as arguments to commands.  To change the parent of the current
working directory into the current working directory, the command
is:                                                              


Sample Session:

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 $pwd                                                          
 /user0/teacher                                                
 $cd ..                                                        
 $pwd                                                          
 /user0                                                        
 $                                                             
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The current working directory is the former parent.

This is all very interesting but what good is it?  You can
specify the current working directory or its parent without
typing the entire absolute pathname.  It can also be handy when
giving arguments to UNIX commands.  

Why are the pathnames sjones/chem and ./sjones/chem equivalent?
4.7  Directory Access Modes


Directory access modes are listed and organized in the same
manner as any other file.  There are a few differences that need
to be mentioned.



4.7.1  Read


Access to a directory means that the user can read the contents.
The user can look at the filenames inside the directory.



4.7.2  Write


Access means that the user can add or delete files to the
contents of the directory.



4.7.3  Execute


Executing a directory doesn't really make a lot of sense so think
of this as a traverse permission.  This access allows the user to
reference the directory name in a command.  The reference is not
necessarily explicit, since the shell deduces the absolute
pathname of a command from the user's environment.  For example,
the shell knows that the full pathname of the ls command is
/bin/ls.  A user must have execute access to the bin directory in
order to execute ls.

If traverse permissions are denied, others cannot change to it or
through it.  Another user can't do a cd to the protected
directory or any subdirectory beneath it.
                                                                   IN CLASS QUIZ
                                                                    旼컴컴컴커
                                                                     /        
                                                                    읕컴컫컴켸                                                                       
                                                                          
                            旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                                              
                       旼컴컨컴컴커   旼컴컨컴컴    旼컴컨컴컴                旼컴컨컴컴    旼컴컨컴컴    旼컴컨컴컴  
                          bin          tmp          etc                      mnt          lib          dev     
                       읕컴컴컴컴켸   읕컴컴컴컴    읕컴컴컴컴                읕컴컫컴컴    읕컴컴컴컴    읕컴컴컴컴  
                                                                                               
                   旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                                                             
             旼컴컴좔컴컴                           旼컴컨컴컴                        旼컴컨컴컴                        旼컴컨컴컴
                Uni1                                 Uni2                             Uni3                             Uni4   
             읕컴컴쩡컴컴                           읕컴컫컴컴                        읕컴컫컴컴                        읕컴컫컴컴  
 {1} 旼컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴커                 旼컴컴컴좔컴컴컴커             旼컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴               旼컴컴컨컴컴커
旼컴컨컴컴커 旼컴컴좔컴컴 旼컴컨컴컴      旼컴컴좔컴컴    旼컴컴좔컴컴  旼컴컨컴컴 旼컴컨컴컴 旼컴컨컴컴     旼컴컨컴컴  旼컴컨컴컴
  filea      fileb       Dira            filea          Filea       file1     File2     file3  {5}     Dir1       Dir2  
읕컴컴컴컴켸 읕컴컴컴컴컴 읕컴컫컴컴      읕컴컴컴컴컴    읕컴컴쩡컴컴  읕컴컴컴컴 읕컴컫컴컴 읕컴컴컴컴     읕컴컴쩡컴  읕컴컫컴컴
                                                                                                                                   
     旼컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴캑                                                                          旼컴컴컴컴컴캑           
旼컴컨컴컴커 旼컴컴좔컴컴 旼컴컨컴컴                       旼컴컴좔컴컴              旼컴컨컴컴     旼컴컨컴컴  旼컴컨컴컴 旼컴컨컴컴
  filea        Dirb      fileb   {2}               {3}    filea                   Filea    {6} File1a     file1b    Dir2a   
읕컴컴컴컴켸 읕컴컴컴컴컴 읕컴컴컴컴                       읕컴컴컴컴컴              읕컴컫컴컴     읕컴컴컴컴  읕컴컴컴컴 읕컴컫컴컴
                                                                                                                                     
Write the complete pathname for the     5.  ________________________________            旼컴컨컴컴                            旼컴컴컨컴컴컴 {7} 
files numbered above.                                                               {4}   filea                         旼컴컨컴컴   旼컴컨컴컴
                                        6.  ________________________________            읕컴컴컴컴                        File2aa     file2ab 
1.  _______________________________                                               8.  You are in /mnt/Uni1 and want #1.   읕컴컴컴컴   읕컴컴컴컴
                                        7.  ________________________________          
2.  _______________________________                                                   ______________________________________          
                                                                                      
3.  _______________________________     Write the minimum pathname needed for     9.  You are in /mnt/Uni3/File2 and want #4
                                        each of the following:                        
4.  _______________________________                                                   ______________________________________ 
4.7.4  Typical Root Directory


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 $ ls -FC /                                                                               
                                                                                          
                                                                                          
 Student/           bin/             lib/           stand/            u2/         user2/  
                                                                                          
 Students/          bad/             lisp/          tmp/              unix*       usr/    
                                                                                          
 Support/           dev/             lost+found/    tmp.sh            unix.bak*   usr2/   
                                                                                          
 etc/               mnt/             tmp1/          unix.test*        usr3/       a.out*  
                                                                                          
 foo                rel_notes        tmp2/          user0/            install/    shlib/  
                                                                                          
 u1/                user1/                                                                
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                                            NOTES
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Workshop 4


This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the topics
presented in this chapter.  Login to the Multimax using the
username and password from the previous workshop.  All students
should complete the entire workshop.  You may need to work in a
team on the computer exercises.

DESK EXERCISES


1.     What is a directory?




2.     What is an absolute path name?





3.     What is a relative path name?





4.     What command will create a directory?




5.     What command will remove a directory?




6.     What command is used to change from one directory to
       another?




7.     How would you change the name of a directory?





                                  Continue on the next page
8.     What do the files . (dot) and .. (dot dot) represent?






9.     What does execute permission on a directory mean?






COMPUTER EXERCISES


10.    Login to the Multimax.





11.    What is the absolute pathname of your current working
       directory? Hint: pwd





12.    Type cd etc

       What message do you get? Can you explain why?




13.    Type cd /etc

       What is your current working directory?  Why did this
       happen?





14.    Enter the command that will return you to your home
       directory.



                                  Continue on the next page

15.    Enter the command that will change to your current working
       directories parent.






16.    List the contents of your current working directory





17.    List the permissions, ownership, size, etc. of your current
       directories parent.





18.    Enter the command to change to your home directory.  Create
       a new subdirectory with a name of your choice.





19.    Change the current working directory to the subdirectory you
       just created.





20.    Rename the subdirectory to Student.  Is this the same
       subdirectory as everyone else in the class?  Why?





21.    Change to your home directory and delete the subdirectory
       Student.





22.    Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.
                                            NOTES
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5.  COMMUNICATION UTILITIES


This chapter will deal with the utilities that allow one user to
communicate with another.  Some of these utilities require the
other user to be logged in and others do not. 

The mail utility can be used to send messages to one or more
users.  It is not necessary for the user that is receiving the
message to be logged in.  The mail utility delivers the message
to a file belonging to the recipient.  The user will be notified
that a mail message exists. Messages can be saved or deleted and
a reply sent.

The talk utility is an interactive session that allows each user
to send message simultaneously to each other.  Both users must be
currently logged in for this utility to work.

The write utility is a one-way communication.  It allows you to
send a message to another user. The user must be logged in and no
reply is possible. 

5.1  Sending Electronic Mail


The basic command line format for sending mail is:
                             
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  Command Format: mailx [options] [user1[usern]]               
                                                               
    options - see man pages for a complete list                
                                                               
    user1[usern] - one or more users to get the mail           
                   message                                     
                                                               
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The username is the name assigned by the system administrator to
a user on the UNIX system (for example, rharding).  The username
can also include a system name if the recipient is on another
UNIX system that can communicate with the sender's (for example,
sys2!rharding).  Let's assume that the recipient is on the local
UNIX system.


Sample Session:

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 $mailx rharding(Ret)                                          
 Subject:                                                      
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Now enter the subject of your message followed by a (Ret).  The
cursor will appear on the next line.  Simply start typing the
message.  There is no limit to the length of a message.  When you
have finished, send it by typing Ctrl-D on a new line.


Sample Session:

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 $mailx rharding(Ret)                                          
 Subject: Work schedule(Ret)                                   
 Please check the bulletin board(Ret)                          
 for the new work schedule.(Ret)                               
 Ctrl-D                                                        
 $                                                             
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The shell prompt on the last line indicates that the message has
been queued (placed in a waiting line) and will be sent.
5.2  Reading Mail


To read your mail enter:


Example:

.................................................................
. $mailx                                                        .
.................................................................

Executing this command places you in the command mode of mailx. 
If there are no mail messages waiting to be read, you will see
the following message on the screen:


Sample Session:

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 $mailx                                                        
 No mail for teacher                                           
 $                                                             
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Of course, your username will appear instead of 'teacher'.

When a mail message appears in the recipient's mailbox, the
following message will appear on the screen. 


Example:

.................................................................
. you have mail                                                 .
.................................................................

This notice will appear when you login to the system or upon
return to the shell from another procedure.
When you have been notified of mail waiting to be read, enter the
command to enter mail.  The screen will look something like this:


Sample Session:

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 $mailx                                                        
                                                               
 mailx version 3.1  Type ? for help.                           
 "/usr/mail/teacher": 3 messages 3 new                         
 >N  1 bhood         Fri Jul 13 13:01   21/324   Review session
  N  2 class2        Fri Jul 13 14:53   15/211   Meeting notice
  N  3 phajny        Fri Jul 13 16:53   11/272   Reorganization
 ?                                                             
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This first line indicates the version of mailx that is being
used.  In this case, version 3.1.  There is a reminder that help
is available by typing the ?.  The second line shows the path
name of the file used as input (usually the same as the username)
and a count of the total number of messages and their status. 
The messages are numbered in sequence with the latest one
received on the bottom of the list.  To the left of the sequence
numbers, there may be a status indicator; N for new, U for
unread.  The > symbol points to the current message.  The other
fields in the header line show the login of the sender, day,
date, and time it was delivered.  The next field has the number
of lines and characters in the message.  The last field is the
subject of the message; it might be blank.

To read the mail messages you can do any of the following steps:

 
(Ret)                       -      This will cause the current message to
                                   be displayed.  The current message is
                                   the once indicated by the > sign.

p (Ret)                     -      This is equivalent to pressing the (Ret)
                                   key with no argument.  The current
                                   message will be displayed.

p 2 (Ret)                   -      You can press p (for print) or t (for
                                   type) followed by the message number(s).

p teacher (Ret)             -      This will print all messages from user
                                   teacher.
5.3  Saving Mail


All messages that are not specifically deleted are saved when
quitting mailx.  Messages that have been saved are placed in a
file in the home directory called mbox.  The mbox file is the
default.  It is possible to save them in a file of the users
choice.  Messages that have not been read are held in the
mailbox.  The command to save messages comes in two forms.  
 
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  Command Format:  S [msglist]                                 
                                                               
     msglist =                                                 
                                                               
     n          message number n the current message           
                                                               
     ^          the first undeleted message                    
                                                               
     $          the last message                               
                                                               
     *          all messages                                   
                                                               
     n-m        an inclusive range of message numbers          
                                                               
     user       all messages from user                         
                                                               
     /string    All messages with string in the subject line   
                (case is ignored)                              
                                                               
     :c         all messages of type c where c is:             
                                                               
                    d - deleted messages                       
                    n - new messages                           
                    o - old messages                           
                    r - read messages                          
                    u - unread messages                        
                                                               
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Messages specified by the msglist argument are saved in a file in
the current directory named for the author of the first message
in the list.  If the username 'teacher' sent the message and you
entered:


Sample Session:

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 ? S *                                                         
 "teacher" [New file] 11/268                                   
 ?                                                             
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The mail message has been saved into a file in your current
directory called 'teacher'.  If you want to save the file in
another filename, you can do that with the second method of
saving mail.  Basically, it works the same as S; but it allows
you to save the mail to a file you specify.

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  Command Format:  s  [msglist]  [file1]                       
                                                               
     msglist - same arguments as before                        
                                                               
     file1 - filename which will receive the saved mail        
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5.4  Deleting Mail


To delete a message, enter a d at the command mode prompt
followed by a msglist argument.  An msglist argument can be any
one the following:



       n             message number n the current message

       ^             the first undeleted message

       $             the last message

       *             all messages

       n-m           an inclusive range of message numbers

       user          all messages from user

       /string       All messages with string in the subject line (case
                     is ignored)
 
       :c            all messages of type c where c is:

                            d - deleted messages
                            n - new messages
                            o - old messages
                            r - read messages
                            u - unread messages

For example, suppose you wanted to delete all of your mail
messages.  Enter the following command at the command mode
prompt.  The command mode prompt for mailx is the question mark
(?).


Sample Session:
                                                                
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 $mailx                                                                    
                                                                           
  mailx version 3.1  Type ? for help.                                      
  "/usr/mail/teacher": 3 messages 3 new                                    
  >N  1 bhood              Fri Jul 13 13:01   21/324   Review  session     
   N  2 class2             Fri Jul 13 14:53   15/211   Meeting notice      
   N  3 phajny             Fri Jul 13 16:53   11/272   Reorganization      
 ? d *                                                                     
 ? q                                                                       
 $                                                                         
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All of the messages have now been deleted.  The messages are not
actually deleted until the mailbox is exited.  Until that happens
the u (for undelete) command is available.  Once the quit command
(q) is entered, however, the deleted messages are gone.
5.5  Undeliverable Mail


If there has been an error in the recipient's username, the mail
command will not be able to deliver the message.  For example,
let's say you misspelled the username.  It will return the mail
in a message that includes the system name and username of the
sender and recipient.  It also includes a message stating the
reason for the failure.

The sender of the message would get a message from mailx
indicating that an error had occurred.


Sample Session:

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 $mailx                                                                     
                                                                            
 mailx version 3.1  Type ? for help.                                        
 "/usr/mail/teacher": 1 message 1 new                                       
 >N  1 teacher            Fri Jul 13 13:45   25/655 Returned mail:User unkno
 ?                                                                          
 Message  1:                                                                
 From teacher Fri Jul 13 13:45:57 1990                                      
 Received: by domax1.UUCP (5.51/)                                           
      id AA01997; Fri, 13 Jul 90 13:45:54 mdt                               
 Date: Fri, 13 Jul 90 13:45:54 mdt                                          
 From: Mail Delivery Subsystem <MAILER-DAEMON>                              
 Subject: Returned mail: User unknown                                       
 Message-Id: <9007131945.AA01997@domax1.UUCP>                               
 To: teacher                                                                
 Status: R                                                                  
                                                                            
    ----- Transcript of session follows -----                               
 550 snoopy... User unknown: No such file or directory                      
                                                                            
    ----- Unsent message follows -----                                      
 Received: by domax1.UUCP (5.51/)                                           
      id AA01995; Fri, 13 Jul 90 13:45:54 mdt                               
 Date: Fri, 13 Jul 90 13:45:54 mdt                                          
 From: Teacher Account D-7130 <teacher>                                     
 Message-Id: <9007131945.AA01995@domax1.UUCP>                               
 To: snoopy                                                                 
 Subject: Meeting notice                                                    
                                                                            
 Meeting will be held at Charlie Brown's house.                             
 July 13, 1990                                                              
 7:30 p.m.                                                                  
                                                                            
 ?                                                                           
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The ? is the mailx command mode prompt.  Mailx is asking for
input.  

A list of commands available can be shown by entering a ?.


Sample Session:

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 ? ?                                                                        
                         mailx commands                                     
 type [msglist]          print messages                                     
 next                    goto and type next message                         
 edit [msglist]          edit messages                                      
 from [msglist]          give header lines of messages                      
 delete [msglist]        delete messages                                    
 undelete [msglist]      restore deleted messages                           
 save [msglist] file     append messages to file                            
 reply [message]         reply to message, including all recipients         
 Reply [msglist]         reply to the authors of the messages               
 preserve [msglist]      preserve messages in mailbox                       
 mail user               mail to specific user                              
 quit                    quit, preserving unread messages                   
 xit                     quit, preserving all messages                      
 header                  print page of active message headers               
 !                       shell escape                                       
 cd [directory]          chdir to directory or home if none given           
 list                    list all commands (no explanations)                
 top [msglist]           print top 5 lines of messages                      
 z [-]                   display next [last] page of 10 headers             
                                                                            
 [msglist] is optional and specifies messages by number, author,            
 or type.                                                                   
 The default is the current message.                                        
 ?                                                                          
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This is a partial list of mailx commands available to you.  We
will not discuss all of them.  If you are interested in the other
features, you can use the on-line manual pages to find out how to
use them.
5.6  Talk Utility


Talk is a visual communication program which copies lines from
one terminal to that of another user.  This is similar to the
phone utility on VMS.  Once communication is established between
two users, they can both type simultaneously with their output
appearing in separate windows.

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  Command Format:  talk <user1> [ttyname]                                   
                                                                            
     user1 -     If you are talking to someone on the same machine,         
                 then this is just the person's username.  If               
                 you want to talk to a user on another host, then           
                 user1 is of the form:                                      
                                                                            
                 host!user     or                                           
                 host.user     or                                           
                 host:user     or                                           
                 user@host                                                  
                                                                            
                 user@host being preferred                                  
                                                                            
     ttyname   - If the person you want to talk to is logged on             
                 more than once, you can use the ttyname argument           
                 to indicate the terminal name.                             
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For illustration, let's assume we want to talk with the user
student on the same machine.  The command is:


Example originator:

.................................................................
. $talk student                                                 .
.................................................................


Example recipient:

.................................................................
. Message from Talk_Daemon@domax1 at 17:36 ...                  .
. talk: connection requested by teacher@domax1.                 .
. talk: respond with:  talk teacher@domax1                      .
.................................................................
When the recipient has typed in talk teacher@domax1, the
following message will appear on the originators screen:


Sample Session originator:

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  Connection established.                                      
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The screen will be divided in half by a row of dash characters. 
The originator will type a message on the top half, and the same
message will appear on the lower half of the screen on the
recipient's screen.

Likewise, everything the recipient types on the top of his screen
the same message will appear on the bottom of the originators
screen.  Once this communication is established, the parties may
type simultaneously with their output appearing in different
windows.  While in talk, Ctrl-L will cause the screen to be
reprinted, and the erase and kill characters work as you would
expect.


Sample Session originator:

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  Hi Snoopy,                                                   
  Charlie Brown suggests we meet at noon today.                
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
-------------------------------------------------------------- 
  OK, but the billiard championship is in my house at 1 P.M.   
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
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Sample session recipient:

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  OK, but the billiard championship is in my house at 1 P.M.   
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
-------------------------------------------------------------- 
  Hi Snoopy,                                                   
  Charlie Brown suggests we meet at noon today.                
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
                                                               
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When the communication is finished, the interrupt character will
cause the talk utility to exit.


Example:

.................................................................
.     [Connection closing. Exiting]                             .
.................................................................
5.7  Talk Permission Denied

     
If you don't wish to have your work interrupted by a request to
establish a talk connection, you can deny messages.

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  Command Format:  mesg  [-[n][y]]                              
                                                               
    n -  no, forbids messages via write by revoking non-user   
         write permission on the user's terminal.              
                                                               
    y -  yes, reinstates permission                            
                                                               
                                                               
     mesg with no arguments will report the current state      
     without changing it.                                      
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Sample Session:

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 $mesg                                                         
 is y                                                          
 $mesg -n                                                      
 $mesg                                                         
 is n                                                          
 $mesg -y                                                      
 $mesg                                                         
 is y                                                          
 $                                                             
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The default permission is enabled.  Some UNIX commands, however,
disallow messages in order to prevent messy output.
5.8  Write Utility


This command will write a message to the screen of another user. 

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  Command Format:  write <user1> [ttyname]                     
                                                               
   user1  - username of the user                               
                                                               
   ttyname - which terminal to send (i.e. tty00)               
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Sample Session originator:

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 $write lucy                                                   
 Hello Lucy,                                                   
 What's the latest from the Psychology Department?             
 (interrupt character)                                         
 $                                                             
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Sample Session recipient:
                                                                              
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 $                                                                          
                                                                            
 Message from teacher on domax1 (rt021d0) [ Thu Jul 19 13:43:12 ] ..        
 Hello Lucy,                                                                
 What's the latest from the Psychology Department?                          
 <EOT>                                                                      
                                                                            
 $                                                                          
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Here's a suggestion for using write to communicate a little
easier.

When the user first 'writes' to another user, wait for the
recipient to 'write' back before starting to send.  Both users
should agree on a signal to indicate to the other person that
they can reply.  How about 'o' for over.  The signal 'oo' could
be used for "over and out," which would mean that the
communication is finished.
                                            NOTES
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Workshop 5


This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the topics
covered in this chapter.  Login to the Multimax with the username
and password given to you by the instructor.  Each student is to
complete the entire workshop.  Computer exercises might need to
be worked as a team.

DESK EXERCISES


1.     What is the command to send an electronic mail message to
       another user on the Multimax?




2.     Once you have entered the mail utility what command can you
       enter to get help?




3.     What does the command d 5-9 accomplish?





4.     What is the command to exit the mail utility and return to
       the UNIX system prompt?





5.     What is the mailx command mode prompt?




6.     How would you create a "talk" session to user Student2 on
       the host domax0?




7.     What time does the billiard championship start?


                                  Continue on the next page

8.     What UNIX command will prevent interruption of your work by
       someone wishing to "talk"?




9.     Regarding "write", does the recipient need to be logged in?





       Regarding "talk", does the recipient need to be logged in?






































                                  Continue on the next page
COMPUTER EXERCISES


10.    Login to the Multimax.




11.    Send a mail message to another student in the class.  




       How can you find out who is logged in?  (who?)




       Does the recipient need to be logged in?






12.    Send a mail message to username lucy. (lucy does not exist) 

       What happened?  Why?






13.    Read your mail and save one message to the current working
       directory. 


       Delete all other mail messages.












                                  Continue on the next page
14.    Establish a talk connection with another student.  





15.    What UNIX command do you enter to deny permission for a talk
       connection?  Try it!




16.    Send a message to another student using the write command.

       How is this different from "talk?" 





17.    Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.


6.  SHELL BASICS


There have been several shells written for UNIX.  They have
different features and each is in use through out the world.  The
BourneShell is the accepted standard for System V UNIX.  Another
shell is called the Cshell, named for "C" which is the high-level
programming language.  Another shell is the KornShell; it is
named after the person who developed it, David Korn.  It has more
features than the BourneShell and is of special interest to
programmers.

The purpose of this chapter is to give you some idea as to the
functions available through the shells and their general
function.  Details of shell programming are discussed in another
class, "UNIX Bourne Shell Programming".

UMAX makes full use of the ASCII character set.  Unlike operating
system command languages like VMS or NOS, UNIX is case sensitive. 
In addition, several characters have special meanings to the
shell.  We have already seen that a slash (/) by itself indicates
the root directory and is used with directory, subdirectory, and
filenames to indicate an absolute or relative pathname.

Other special characters that have meaning to the shell include:

              `    '    $    {    }    ||    &&    ;

Input to a command is usually taken from your keyboard, and the
output of a command is normally displayed on your monitor screen. 
Keyboard input is referred to as "standard input" or "stdin," and
screen output as "standard output" or "stdout."
6.1  Input Redirection


It is possible to instruct UNIX to get data from a file rather
than from the keyboard.  This is called input redirection.  To
indicate that input to a command is to come from a file rather
than the keyboard, use the input redirection character (<).

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  Command Format:  command < input-file1                       
                                                               
    command   - a command                                      
                                                               
  input-file1 - input file that supplies input                 
                to the command                                 
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A Memory Trick:             The less-than symbol looks like a funnel.  If
                            you pour liquid into the wide end, it flows
                            to the narrow end.  The input-file "pours"
                            its contents into the command.


Sample Session:
                                                                 
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 $mailx phajny < report                                        
 $                                                             
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The file named report will be sent to the login name phajny. 
Mail normally expects the input to come from standard input, the
keyboard.  The input redirection symbol causes the input to mail
to come from the file called report.
6.2  Output Redirection

It is also possible to instruct UNIX to send data to a file
rather than sending it to the default monitor screen.  This is
called output redirection.  To indicate that the output from a
command is to go into a file rather than be displayed on the
monitor screen, use the output redirection character >.
                   
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  Command Format:  command > output-file1                       
                                                               
      command    - a command                                   
                                                               
    output-file1 - output file that will receive the output    
                   from the command                             
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The memory trick still works; only now the funnel points toward
the file that will receive the output.

Sample Session:

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 $ls -l > listing                                              
 $                                                             
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The output of the ls command will not be displayed on the screen,
instead it will be in the file named listing.  If the file does
not exist, the shell will create it.  If it already exists, it
will be overwritten.

WARNING:      The shell will NOT issue a warning about overwriting
              the original file.

It is possible to use the cat command to create a file and input
text into that file using output redirection.  The following
example shows how this can be done.

Sample session:

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    $cat > file1                                               
      This is a line of text.                                    
    This is another line of text.                              
    (Ctrl-D)                                                   
    $cat file1                                                 
    This is a line of text.                                    
    This is another line of text.                              
    $                                                          
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6.3  Output Redirection with Append 


The following shell command will also redirect the output to a
file but instead of overwriting the existing file, it will append
the output to the end of output-file.

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  Command Format:  command >> output-file1                     
                                                               
    command      - a command                                   
                                                               
    output-file1 - receives the output from command            
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Believe it or not, the memory trick still works; only in this
case, one funnel feeds onto another.  So the output is fed onto
the end of output-file.  Okay, it's a little far fetched; but it
can help you remember.  Try it.


Sample Session:

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 $ls -l subdir >> listing                                      
 $                                                             
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This will append the output of the ls command to the file listing
without destroying any existing data.  If the file does not
exist, the shell will create it.

Again, it's possible to append text to the end of an existing
file using the cat command.  Note the following example.


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    $cat >> file1                                              
      This is a third line of text.                              
    This is a fourth line of text.                             
    (Ctrl-D)                                                   
    $cat file1                                                 
    This is a line of text.                                    
    This is another line of text.                              
    This is a third line of text.                              
    This is a fourth line of text.                             
    $                                                          
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If the file does not exist it will be created and the text added.


6.4  Input and Output Redirection


Input and output redirection can occur on the same command line.

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  Command Format:  command  < input-file1 >  output-file1      
                                                               
    command       - A command                                  
    input-file1   - supplies input to command                   
    output-file1  - receives the output from command           
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Sample Session:

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 $cat command_file                                                             
 p                                                                             
 $mailx < command_file > result_file                                           
                                                                               
 $cat result_file                                                              
 mailx version 3.1  Type ? for help.                                           
 "/usr/mail/teacher": 1 message 1 new                                          
 >N  1 teacher            Mon Dec 31 10:16   57/3171                           
 Message  1:                                                                   
 From teacher Mon Dec 31 10:16:30 1990                                         
 Received: by domax1.UUCP (5.51/)                                              
         id AA18976; Mon, 31 Dec 90 10:16:28 mst                               
 Date: Mon, 31 Dec 90 10:16:28 mst                                             
 From: Teacher Account D-7130 <teacher>                                        
 Message-Id: <9012311716.AA18976@domax1.UUCP>                                  
 To: teacher                                                                   
 Status: R                                                                     
                                                                               
 What's Happening                                                              
 by Pam Hajny                                                                  
 Denver Office                                                                 
                                                                               
 With IRM Training:                                                            
                                                                               
 A Reclamation-wide workshop was held in early October to discuss information  
 resources management training.  Trainers from each region and the Denver Offic
 shared training techniques, ideas and course materials.  We met one afternoon 
 with the personnel training officers to discuss broad IRM training needs and  
.                                                                               .
.                                                                               .
.                                                                               .

6.5  Pipes


The output of a command can be used as the input to a second
command by using the "pipe" symbol (|) without using any
temporary files.  On some terminals the pipe symbol is a vertical
bar and on others it is a broken vertical bar.  Both will work
exactly the same.  The following command format shows how to use
the pipe symbol:

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  Command Format:  command1 | command2                         
                                                               
    command1  - a command                                      
                                                               
    command2  - a second command                               
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Example:
                                                                 
.................................................................
. $man acct | pg                                                .
.................................................................

The output from the command man are processed by the pg command
before appearing on your screen.  Normally the output from the
man command will appear on the monitor line after line until the
end is reached.  In this case, the output is "piped" to the pg
command; and the screen will stop scrolling after 23 lines so you
can read them.
6.6  Wildcards


Wildcards are special characters that cause the shell to search
over a range of possible values.
 
 ? represents any one character, while 

 * stands for any number of characters including none.

Example:
                                           jo?eph

This indicates that the third letter of the string "jo eph" could
be any single character. Any character could be substituted for
the ? character, including numeric and special characters.

To limit the range of possible values, enclose the possibilities
in brackets [ ].

Example:
                                         jo[a-z]eph

This example limits the range of characters to the set lowercase
a through lowercase z.  Uppercase characters, numeric, or special
characters would not make a match.  Notice that only one charater
will make a match.

Using a comma as a separator between choices we can further
restrict the range. 

Example:
                                        jo[s,m,5]eph

The only set of characters that will make a match are lowercase
s, lowercase m, and the number 5.  No other character will make a
match.


The string  jos*  causes the shell to look for every string that
begins with the letters "jos," regardless of their length while
[i-k]*h  finds every string that begins with "i", "j", or "k" and
ends with an "h".









Wildcards are extremely useful in wide variety of applications. 
For example, if you want to use the man pages, but do not know
the exact command names on the subject of system accounting, try

Sample Session:

.................................................................
.   $man acc*                                                   .
.................................................................

All of the commands that begin with the letters acc followed by
any string (including none) will be passed to the man command as
arguments.


If you wanted to get a listing of all the files in your current
working directory that ended in .c (these are the C source code
programs). You could enter the following command:

Sample Session:

.................................................................
.    $ls *.c                                                    .
.................................................................
In order for the shell to stop interpretation of a special
character (i.e., use it as a normal character), it must be
preceded by a backslash (\) or enclosed in single quotes.

Example:
                                           jo\?eph
                                             or
                                          'jo?eph'

Both of these examples represent the string jo?eph.  The shell
will not interpret the question mark character as a wildcard
metacharacter.


6.7  Reestablishing a Background Job


Processes in UNIX can run in the foreground or the background.
Foreground processes are interactive; the input is read from the
keyboard or standard in, and the out goes to the monitor screen
or standard out.  Background jobs run with no interaction with an
interactive terminal.  Your current interactive process can be
suspended by typing the break character at the shell prompt.


Sample Session:

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 $ <break>                                                     
 annex:                                                        
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The jobs command displays information on all current jobs
(sessions).  The most recent job is marked with a plus sign (+),
and the next previous is marked with a dash or minus sign (-).  A
job begins when you execute a command to connect to a host (or
another Annex).  A job ends when you logout from the host or
terminate the job at the Annex with the kill or hangup command.

The number of possible jobs allowed per user is determined by the
network administrator.  The number of jobs can range from 1 to 16
with a default of 3.
The Annex command to display the information about the current
job(s) is:

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  Command Format:  jobs                                        
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If there are no jobs, the annex: prompt will be displayed.  If
there are some 'suspended' jobs the following will appear:


Sample Session:

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 annex: jobs                                                   
 +1      rlogin domax1                                         
 -2      rlogin domax1                                         
 annex:                                                        
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This shows that there are two jobs in suspension.  Both of these
sessions did a remote login to domax1.  This is just for
illustration.
The fg (foreground) command returns to a suspended job.  The
command displays the job number and the Annex command that
created it.  When no arguments are provided, fg will return to
the most recent job.  With a numeric argument, fg returns the
specified job.

To connect with a suspended job (session) enter the following
Annex command:

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  Command Format:  fg [n]                                      
                                                               
     (none) -   most recent job (+) to foreground              
       n    -   job "n" to foreground                           
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Sample Session:

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 annex: jobs                                                   
 +1      rlogin domax1                                         
 -2      rlogin domax1                                         
 annex:fg 1                                                    
 1       rlogin domax1                                         
 (Ret)                                                         
 $                                                             
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                                            NOTES
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Workshop 6

This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the topics
covered in this chapter.  Login to the Multimax with the username
and password given to you by the instructor.  Each student is to
complete the entire workshop.  Computer exercises might need to
be worked as a team.

DESK EXERCISES


1.     What is the meaning of the term "case sensitive?"





2.     What is a wildcard?





3.     How does the shell interpret the following wildcards?

       a.     ?

       b.     [0-9]

       c.     *



4.     How does the shell interpret the following strings?

       a.     M[i,r]*


       b.     b?ll


       c.     me??[1,2]


       d.     '*special*'


       e.     anyone\?



                                  Continue on the next page
5.     What is "standard input?"






6.     What symbol causes a command to take its input from a file? 






7.     What is "standard output?"





8.     What symbol causes the output of a command to be redirected
       to a file?






9.     What symbol causes the output of a command to be redirected
       to the input of another command?






10.    What symbol is used to indicate input is to be from a file
       instead of the keyboard?






11.    How can the output from a command be saved in an ordinary
       file?





                                  Continue on the next page
12.    What is a pipe?  No, it's not something you smoke.





COMPUTER EXERCISES


13.    Login to the Multimax





14.    How many different on-line manual entries are displayed by
       executing the command man ca*?






15.    Execute  man ls | pg.  What is the purpose of the |
       character?




16.    Save the on-line manual pages on the cat command in a file
       called mp0. (hint: output redirection)





17.    Save the on-line manual pages on the assist command in a
       file called mp1. (no hint this time)





18.    Type cp mp0 man

       Does file mp0 still exist after this command is executed? 

       Why?

 

                                  Continue on the next page
19.    Type mv mp1 assist

       Does file mp1 still exist after this command is executed?

       Why?

 



20.    Type cp mp3 man

       What error message do you get?





21.    Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.
7.  UMAX FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)


File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a utility which can transfer
files to and from TCP/IP networked computers.  TCP/IP stands for
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and consists of a
suite of defacto standard protocols for networking computers. 
FTP is one protocol in that suite.  (Other significant protocols
within TCP/IP are TELNET, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP),
and Network File Systems (NFS).)  The Client portion of UNIX FTP
lets users on the Multimax access file systems on a remote
computer.  The Server portion of UNIX FTP lets users on remote
computers access Multimax files.  For Reclamation, these remote
computers would be VAXes, CYBERs, IBMs, and Sun workstations.

Using FTP, you can access directories and files on a remote
computer and perform common operations, such as list and change
working directories, transfer files, create directories, delete
working directories, delete files and directories, and rename
files and directories.  Once you have entered the FTP utility,
you make a connection to the desired remote computer and then
work with the remote computer's files using FTP commands.  The
connection to the remote computer's FTP remains in effect until
terminated by the user.  Multimax FTP supports both local help
for FTP commands and remote help, which displays FTP elements
available on the remote computer.

Throughout this chapter, the term "local computer" will refer to
the Multimax.  The term "remote computer" will refer to the CYBER
mainframe or the VAX minicomputer.  Please be aware that these
procedures will work for any computer connected to the Ethernet
that has an FTP server installed.  The messages that appear may
be different, but the process will be the same.
7.1  Initializing FTP on UMAX
 
 
FTP can be invoked on the Multimax using the following syntax:  

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      Command Format:      ftp [options] [host]                
                                                               
           options - see man pages for a complete list            
                                                               
          host   - the name of the remote computer             
                                                               
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NOTE:         UNIX is case sensitive.  The commands and options must
              be entered as shown.  
7.2  Establishing Connection with the Remote Computer


There are two ways to make a connection with the remote computer. 

7.2.1  Calling FTP with no hostname

The first way is to invoke FTP using no options, simply enter the
ftp command at the shell prompt.  UMAX will respond with the ftp
prompt: ftp>


Sample Session:

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 $ftp                                                          
 ftp>                                                          
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FTP commands can now be entered.  The utility has its own set of
commands, and we will discuss about 12 of them in this chapter. 
A complete list of the FTP commands can be obtained by entering
help at the FTP prompt.

The command to establish a connection with remote computer is:

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     Command Format: open <host> [port]                        
                                                               
     host - hostname, this host must have an FTP server.       
                                                               
     port - port number (optional)                             
                                                               
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This command will establish a connection to the remote computer's
FTP server.  The hostname for the VAX is ERC830. The following
FTP command will establish a connection with the VAX (ERC830):


VAX Sample Session:

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 ftp>open erc830                                               
 Connected to erc830.                                          
 220 erc830 Wollongong FTP Server (Version 5.0) at Mon Dec 4   
 Name (ERC830:rharding):                                       
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The cursor will stop after the colon.  FTP is waiting for you to
enter the login name to use when signing on to the remote
computer.  FTP tries to help you out by giving you a default
login name.  In the above example, the default login name is
rharding.  To select the default name, press (Ret).  You can
enter any login name you want and then press (Ret).  After you
have selected the login name, either by choosing the default or
entering a new name, you will be asked for the password.


VAX Sample Session:

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 331 Password required for rharding.                           
 Password:                                                     
 230 User logged in, default directory D_1131:[RHARDING]       
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Enter the password required for the login name that you
specified.  Echoing is disabled and the password you enter will
not be displayed on the screen.  If you entered the correct
password, message number 230 will show you are logged in and the
default directory on the remote system.  You are now logged into
the remote computer system and can proceed to transfer files. 


CYBER Sample Session:

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 $ftp                                                          
 ftp>open cy2                                                  
 Connected to cy2.                                             
 220 SERVICE READY FOR NEW USER.                               
 Name (cy2:rharding): class8                                   
 331 USER NAME OKAY, NEED PASSWORD.                            
 Password: secret                                              
 230 USER LOGGED IN, PROCEED.                                  
 ftp>                                                          
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This example for the CYBER is similar to the VAX example. Notice
that there a few differences. The login name was changed from
rharding and the username class8 was entered instead.
7.2.2 Calling FTP with a hostname


The second method of signing on to the remote computer is to
specify the name of the remote computer on the call to ftp.


VAX Sample Session:

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 $ftp erc830                                                   
 220 erc830 Wollongong FTP Server (Version 5.0) at Fri Dec     
 Name (ERC830:rharding):                                       
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You can now enter the username for the remote system, and you
will then be prompted for the password.  The effect of specifying
the hostname on the ftp command line is to do an "automatic" open
command.

NOTE:         The messages are slightly different from the VAX login.
              The login for the CYBER works in a similar manner.
7.3  Local Computer Commands

 
From the FTP prompt, you can issue commands to the local computer
to display files or show the contents of a directory.  The
commands you enter are FTP commands; and although they might
resemble UNIX commands, they are NOT UNIX commands.

The FTP command to transfer file(s) from the remote computer to
the local computer is as follows:
 
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  Command Format:  get <remote-file> [local-file]              
                                                               
     remote-file - the filename on the remote computer         
                                                               
     local-file  - the filename on the local computer          
                                                               
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This FTP command will retrieve the remote-file and store it on
the Multimax.  If the local-file name is not specified, the name
of the file on the Multimax will be the same as it was on the
remote computer.  The current settings for type, form, mode, and
structure will be used during the file transfer.


VAX Sample Session:

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 ftp>get overview.dat                                          
 200 PORT Command OK.                                          
 125 File transfer started correctly                           
 226 File transfer completed ok                                
 local: overview.dat remote: overview.dat                      
 884 bytes received in 0.04 seconds (22 Kbytes/s)              
 ftp>                                                          
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Messages 200, 125, and 226 let you know that the file transferred
properly.  The next line shows the local-filename, in this case
we didn't specify the local-filename, so the remote-filename and
the local-filename are the same.  The next line shows the number
of bytes transferred and the amount of time it took to transfer
the file.
CYBER Sample Session:

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 ftp>get prolog8                                               
 220 COMMAND OKAY.                                             
 150 FILE STATUS OKAY; ABOUT TO OPEN DATA CONNECTION.          
 226 CLOSING DATA CONNECTION.                                  
 local: prolog8 remote: prolog8                                
 41 bytes received in 0.8 seconds (0.05 Kbytes/s)              
 ftp>                                                          
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7.3.1  Changing the Local Directory


The directory on the local computer can be changed to any
directory you desire.  This is called the working directory. 
This is the directory where files that are transferred from the
remote computer will be stored.

The syntax of the command to change local working directory is as
follows:

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  Command Format:  lcd [dirname]                               
                                                               
     dirname - the name of the new local working directory     
                                                               
    if directory is omitted, the home directory is assumed     
                                                               
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Sample Session:

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 ftp>lcd /user0/student0                                       
 Local directory now /user0/student0                           
 ftp>                                                          
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Absolute or relative pathnames can be specified for directory.
7.3.2  Listing the Contents


Any UNIX command can be entered from the FTP utility.  You must
preface the command with the FTP command that invokes the
interactive shell.  

The syntax to invoke the interactive shell is as follows:

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  Command Format:  ! [command [arguments]]                     
                                                               
     command - any valid UNIX command, if omitted the          
               interactive shell is invoked                    
                                                               
   arguments - if supplied are arguments to the UNIX command   
                                                               
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If arguments are provided, the first argument is considered to be
the UNIX command and the remaining arguments are considered to be
arguments to that command.


Example:

.................................................................
. ftp>!ls -la                                                   .
.................................................................
 

This command will display the contents of the local working
directory.  The l option specifies the 'long' listing, and the a
option requests all files including the initialization files.
7.4  Remote Computer Commands


From the FTP prompt, you can issue commands to the remote
computer to display files or show the contents of the remote
directory.  Recall that the commands you enter are FTP commands;
and although they look like UNIX commands, they are not.

Transferring file(s) from the Multimax to the remote computer is
accomplished with the following command: 

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  Command Format:  put <local-file> [remote-file]              
                                                               
      local-file   - the filename on the local computer        
                                                               
      remote-file  - the filename on the remote computer       
                                                               
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This FTP command will retrieve the local-file, transfer it to the
remote computer, and store it in the remote directory.  If the
remote-file is not specified, the name of the file on the remote
computer will be the same as it was on the Multimax.  The current
settings for type, form, mode, and structure will be used during
the file transfer.


VAX sample sessions:

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 ftp>put memo                                                  
 200 PORT Command OK.                                          
 125 File transfer started correctly                           
 226 File transfer completed ok                                
 local: memo remote: memo                                      
 2299 bytes sent in 0.08 seconds (28 Kbytes/s)                 
 ftp>                                                          
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Messages 200, 125, and 226 let you know that the file transferred
properly.  The next line shows the local-filename.  In this case,
we didn't specify the local-filename, so the local-filename and
the remote-filename are the same.  The next line shows the number
of bytes sent and the amount of time for the transfer.
CYBER Sample Session:

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 ftp>put memo                                                  
 200 COMMAND OKAY.                                             
 150 FILE STATUS OKAY; ABOUT TO OPEN DATA CONNECTION.          
 226 CLOSING DATA CONNECTION.                                  
 local:memo remote:memo                                        
 2299 bytes sent in 0.08 seconds (28 Kbytes/s)                 
 ftp>                                                          
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7.4.1  Changing the Remote Directory


The directory on the remote computer can be changed to any
directory you want.  This is called the remote working directory.
This is the directory where files that are sent from the Multimax
will be stored.

The syntax for the command to change remote working directory is
as follows:

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  Command Format:  cd <remote-dirname>                         
                                                               
      remote-dirname - the name of the new remote working      
                       directory                                
                                                               
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VAX Sample Session:
                                                         
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 ftp>cd d_1131:[gholdaway]                                     
 200 Working directory changed to D_1131:[GHOLDAWAY]           
 ftp>                                                          
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You must specify a valid directory on the remote computer.


CYBER Example:

.................................................................
. 502 COMMAND NOT IMPLEMENTED.                                  .
.................................................................

The reason this command is not implemented on the CYBER is
because NOS does not support the idea of directories.
7.4.2  Listing the Contents

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  Command Format:  ls [remote-dirname] [local-file]            
                                                               
      remote-dirname - working directory on remote computer    
                                                               
      local-file  - local file where the remote-directory      
                    contents will be written.  If omitted,     
                    the output is sent to the screen.          
                                                               
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VAX Sample Session:

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 ftp>ls                                                        
 200 PORT Command OK.                                          
 125 File transfer started correctly                           
 login.com;13                                                  
 jeff.;1                                                       
 test.com;1                                                    
 226 File transfer completed ok                                
 228 bytes received in 0.06 seconds (0.34 Kbytes/s)            
 ftp>                                                          
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Since no remote directory was specified, the contents of the
current working directory is transferred and no local file was
specified, so the output is displayed on the screen.


CYBER Sample Session:
 
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 ftp>ls                                                        
 200 COMMAND OKAY.                                             
 150 FILE STATUS OKAY; ABOUT TO OPEN DATA CONNECTION.          
 PROLOG8                                                       
 FSEP1A                                                        
 FSEP1                                                         
 FSEP2                                                         
 226 CLOSING DATA CONNECTION.                                  
 52 bytes received in 1 seconds (0.05 Kbytes/s)                
 ftp>                                                          
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7.5  Closing the Connection


The current FTP session with the remote server can be terminated
without leaving FTP.  When the current session is terminated a
session to another remote FTP server can be initiated.

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  Command Format:  close                                       
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This command will terminate the current FTP session with the
remote server and return to the FTP command interpreter.


VAX Sample Session:
 
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 ftp>close                                                     
 221 Goodbye.                                                  
 ftp>                                                          
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CYBER Sample Session:

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 ftp>close                                                     
 221 SERVICE CLOSING CONTROL CONNECTION. LOGGED OUT.           
 ftp>                                                          
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7.6  Exiting FTP


When you have finished using FTP, the following command will
terminate FTP and return control to the shell.

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  Command Format:  quit                                        
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This command will terminate the current FTP session and exit FTP.


VAX Sample Session:
                                                         
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 ftp>quit                                                      
 221 Goodbye.                                                  
 $                                                             
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CYBER Sample Session:

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 ftp>quit                                                      
 221 SERVICE CLOSING CONTROL CONNECTION. LOGGED OUT.           
 $                                                             
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7.7  Special FTP Commands


This section will discuss some FTP commands that are useful in
using FTP.  They include an on-line help, status, and the !
character.

The help command will display all of the FTP commands on the
screen.

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  Command Format:  help [command]                              
                                                               
      command  - an FTP command                                
                                                               
     if omitted, prints a list of all known commands           
                                                               
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Sample Session:

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 ftp>help get                                                  
 get         receive file                                      
 ftp>                                                          
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There is a synonym for the help command.  It works in the same
way as the help command.

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  Command Format:  ? [command]                                 
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Sample Session:

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 ftp>? put                                                     
 put          send one file                                    
 ftp>                                                          
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FTP status can be displayed on the screen by entering the
following command:

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  Command Format:  status                                      
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Sample Session:

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 ftp>status                                                    
 Connected to ERC830.                                          
 No proxy connection.                                          
 Mode: stream; Type: ascii; Form: non-print; Structure: file   
 Verbose: on; Bell: off; Prompting: on; Globbing: on           
 Store unique: off; Receive unique: off                        
 Case: off; CR stripping: on                                   
 Ntrans: off                                                   
 Nmap: off                                                     
 Hash mark printing: off; Use of PORT cmds: on                 
 ftp>                                                          
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These are the default settings.  The meaning of these settings
and how to change them are found in the supplemental material at
the end of this manual.

There are a few "bugs" in FTP.

Correct execution of many FTP commands depends upon the remote
server.  The VAX server is supplied by The Wollongong Group, Inc.
If you encounter problems transferring files to/from the
Multimax, please bring them to the attention of the User Support
Branch or call the Hotline (FTS 776-4688 or 6-HOTT).
7.8  Introducing UMAX TELNET


TELNET protocol will allow communication with another host.  The
TELNET protocol can be invoked from either the Annex prompt or
from the shell prompt while you are logged into the Multimax.  If
you invoke TELNET while logged into the Multimax, that session
will continue to be charged at the appropriate rate.  The new
session to another host will also charge the account.  This means
you are paying connect charges on both systems.

The syntax to invoke TELNET is as follows:

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  Command Format:  telnet [host [port]]                        
                                                               
      host  - the host name                                    
                                                               
      port  - the port number, if not given, use default       
                                                               
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Sample Session:

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 $telnet                                                       
 telnet>                                                       
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The telnet> prompt indicates that telnet commands can now be
entered.  If no parameters are given, telnet enters the command
mode.

In order to create a connection to another host from command
mode, use the open command.

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  Command format:  open <host> [port]                          
                                                               
     host - host name                                          
                                                               
     port - port number, optional                              
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Sample session:

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 telnet>open erc830                                            
 Trying...                                                     
 Connected to erc830.                                          
 Escape character is '^]'.                                     
                                                               
 (Warning message from VAX)                                    
                                                               
 Username:                                                     
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If you enter the host name on the same command line as telnet,
the open command will be done for you.


Sample Session:

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 $telnet erc830                                                
 Trying...                                                     
 Connected to erc830.                                          
 Escape character is '^]'.                                     
                                                               
 ( Warning message from VAX)                                   
                                                               
 Username:                                                     
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When you logout of the destination host, you will be
automatically brought back to the originating host. 


Sample Session:

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 $lo                                                           
 Connection closed by foreign host .L-1990 15:57:42.19         
 $                                                             
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The first $ prompt is the VMS prompt.  The lo command logs you
out of the VAX.  Notice that we get the connection closed
message, and the next $ prompt is back to the Multimax.
The connection that was created was closed.  There is a TELNET
command to close the connection as well.

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  Command Format:  close                                       
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This TELNET command will close the connection and return to the
TELNET command mode.

To exit TELNET, enter the following command at the telnet>
prompt.
     
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  Command Format:  quit                                        
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This command will close any open TELNET session and exit TELNET. 
An end-of-file (in command mode) will also close a session and
exit.

The current status of TELNET can be shown by entering the
following command:

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  Command Format:  status                                      
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Sample Session:

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 telnet>status                                                 
 Connected to erc830.                                          
 Operating in character-at-a-time mode.                        
 Escape character is '^]'.                                     
                                                               
 telnet>                                                       
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A listing of TELNET commands can be displayed by entering the
following command at the TELNET command mode prompt telnet>:

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  Command Format:  help                                        
                                                               
                   ?                                           
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Sample Session:

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 telnet>help                                                   
 Commands may be abbreviated. Commands are:                    
                                                               
 close     close current connection                            
 display   display operating parameters                        
 mode      try to enter line-by-line or char-at-a-time mode    
 open      connect to a site                                   
 quit      exit telnet                                         
 send      transmit special characters ('send ?' for more)     
 set       set operating parameters ('set ?' for more)         
 status    print status information                            
 toggle    toggle operating parameters ('toggle ?' for more)   
 z         suspend telnet                                      
 ?         print help information                              
 telnet>                                                       
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Workshop 7


This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the topics
covered in this chapter.  Login to the Multimax with the username
and password given to you by the instructor.  Each student is to
complete the entire workshop.  Computer exercises might need to
be worked as a team.


COMPUTER EXERCISES


1.     Log into the Multimax.

Questions 2 through 11 have to do with a connection between the
local computer (Multimax) and the remote computer (VAX).


2.     Initialize FTP on the Multimax and create a connection to
       the VAX.  (Hint: open)


       What is the remote computer default username? 
       How can you enter a different username? 




3.     What files are on the remote computer's directory?
       (Hint: If you can't remember the FTP command, how can you                           
       find out?)





4.     What is the default type?  (Hint: status)






                                  Continue on the next page
5.     Transfer the file "memo" from the Multimax to the VAX.
       Change the name of the file on the VAX to "memo.doc". 




6.     Transfer the file "DATA.MAY" from the VAX to the Multimax.
       Keep the same filename on both platforms.




7.     Without entering it, what FTP command would you enter to
       change the remote computer working directory to
       D_1131:[STUDENT]? 




8.     Enter the FTP command to list the contents of the local
       computer working directory. What files are present?




9.     Enter the FTP command to list the contents of the remote
       computer working directory. What files are present?




10.    Without entering the command, how would you change the
       remote working directory to D_1131:[STUDENT1]?




11.    What changes would you have to make in order to
       transfer a binary file from the Multimax to the VAX?



                                  Continue on the next page
                                         ** NOTE **

Questions 12 through 20 have to do with a connection between the
local computer (Multimax) and the remote computer (CYBER).


12.    Close the connection with the VAX and then open a connection
       to the CYBER.




13.    What files are on the remote computer's directory?





14.    What is the default type?  (Hint: status)





15.    Transfer the file "memo" from the Multimax to the CYBER.
       Change the name on the CYBER to a filename of your choice.




16.    Transfer the file "MAYDATA" from the CYBER to the Multimax.
       Keep the same filename on both platforms.




17.    Without entering it, what FTP command would you enter to
       change the remote computer working directory?




18.    Enter the FTP command to list the contents of the local
       computer working directory.







                                  Continue on the next page
19.    Enter the FTP command to list the contents of the remote
       computer working directory.




20.    Close the connection with the CYBER and exit FTP.












































                                  Continue on the next page
                                         ** NOTE **

The following questions have to do with your understanding of the
Telnet communications protocol.


21.    Enter the command to invoke the Telnet protocol.





22.    Open a connection to the VAX.





23.    Enter a valid username and password.





24.    Are you logged into the VAX or the Multimax?




25.    Enter the command to exit the VAX. (Hint: logoff)





26.    Are you logged into the VAX or the Multimax?





27.    Are you confused? Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.

                                            NOTES
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8. INTRODUCTION TO vi


The vi editor was developed at the University of California,
Berkeley.  It was originally included as part of BSD UNIX.  It
became an official part of AT&T UNIX with the release of System
V.  Before vi was invented, the standard UNIX editor was ed.  The
ed editor was line oriented and made it difficult to see the
context of the file being edited.

The next progression was an editor called ex.  The ex editor had
some distinct advantages over ed.  It allowed you to display an 
entire screen of text instead of just one line at a time.  While
in the ex editor, you could give the command vi (for visual
mode).  Users used the visual mode so much that developers of ex
made it possible to use the display editing feature without
having to enter ex and then vi.  They called the new facility
simply vi.

The vi editor does its work in a work buffer.  When you start vi,
it copies the disk file into the work buffer.  During the editing
session, changes are made to this copy.  The contents of the disk
file are not changed until you write the contents of the work
buffer to the disk file.

The command to enter the vi editor is:

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  Command Format:  vi <file1>                                  
                                                               
      file1 - the filename to edit                             
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Your screen is cleared, then the first lines of the file are
displayed, and the cursor is positioned at the top of the screen. 
The bottom line of your screen is reserved for certain command
mode activities and for error and status messages and does not
contain any of the file's text.  If the file already exists, the
bottom line lists the filename in quotes and the number of lines
and characters it contains.  If the file is new, "New file" is
displayed next to the filename.  If the file does not fill an
entire screen, a tilde (~) character appears in the leftmost
column of any blank lines.

By default, you are always in command mode at the start of a vi
session.  The most common command mode activities are:

       cursor positioning
       entering text mode
       moving, copying, and deleting text
       storing changes
       quitting
Whenever you wish to return to command mode, or are unsure of
what mode you are in, press the Esc key.

Esc can be entered any number of times without harm.  The Esc key
on the VT terminals is the Ctrl-3 combination.  On the PC, it is
the key marked Esc.
8.1  vi: Cursor Positioning


Below is a list of cursor positioning commands.  Characters are
not echoed on your screen when one of these commands is executed. 
The cursor simply moves to the desired location.  If a command is
not accepted, the cursor remains where it is.  The current line
is defined as the line on which the cursor currently resides. 
The letter N is a repeat factor.


N+            move down N lines from current line.  The cursor can be
              anyplace on the current line.  When complete, the
              cursor will be located at the first character on the
              line N lines down from the current line.


N-            move up N lines from current line.  The cursor can be
              anyplace on the current line.  When complete, the
              cursor will be located on the first character on the
              line located N lines up from the current line.

(Ret)         The cursor can be located anyplace on the current line. 
              The will be on the first character of the next line.

$             The cursor will move to the end of the current line

NG            This command will move the cursor to line N.  Default
              is to move to the last line.


Ctrl-D        move down 1/2 screen (11 lines)

Ctrl-U        move up 1/2 screen (11 lines)


NOTE:         Words are delimited by spaces (ie., a word
              begins and ends with a space).


Nw            The cursor will be on the first character of the word
              located N words from the current word.  The current
              word is the word where the cursor is located.  The
              default is to skip to the beginning of the next word.

Nb            The cursor will be on the first character of the word
              located N words back from the current word.  The
              default is to skip back to the beginning of the
              previous word.

e             The cursor will skip to the end of the current word.
The following keys are also defined for moving around the screen:

h             back one space       

j             down one line            

k             up one line           

l             forward one space               

The arrow keys will also work.

CAUTION NOTE:        If you hold the arrow key down to move quickly to
                     another area of the text, a line might be inserted
                     into your file.
8.2  vi: Text Mode


Several commands in command mode allow you to enter text.  Once
the command is entered, all other characters that you type are
inserted in your text until you press the Esc key. 


To add text, use:

I      enter text mode, additional text appears at the beginning of
       the current line.

i      enter text mode, additional text appears before the current
       cursor position.

A      enter text mode, additional text appears at the end of the                          
       current line.

a      enter text mode, additional text appears after the current
       position.

O      enter text mode, open a line above the current line.

o      enter text mode, open a line below the current line.


To replace text, use:

R      replace characters until Esc

r      replace one character at current cursor position, then
       return to command mode


To substitute text, use:

Ns     substitute character for the current N characters until
       Esc.  Default is to substitute for the current
       character until Esc.
8.3  vi: Deleting Text


vi commands for deleting text take effect relative to the
cursor's current position.  Text deletion commands are not echoed
on your screen.

Ndd    delete N lines starting at the current line.  The
       default is to delete the current line.

Ndw    delete N words starting with the current word.  The
       default is to delete the current word.

Nx     delete N characters starting at the current cursor
       position.  The default is to delete one character.

D      delete remainder of line
8.4  vi: Copying Text


Copying text is performed using one of the "yank and put" command
pairs.  The most straight forward command sequence for copying
is:

       1.     Yank a word, line, or number of lines.  A copy of the
              yanked text is stored invisibly.  The original text is 
              not disturbed.

       2.     Move the cursor to the desired location.

       3.     Put the yanked copy into place.

       4.     Move the cursor to the next block of text you want to                         
              copy, then go to step 1.


Here are some yank and put commands:


NY     yank N lines.  Default is to yank one line.

Nyw    yank N words.  Default is to yank one word.

P      put yanked lines above current cursor position
                                             or 
       put yanked words before current cursor position


p      put yanked lines below current cursor position
                                             or
       put yanked words after current cursor position
8.5  vi: Moving Text


Moving text from one area to another can be accomplished in
several different ways.  You can use whichever method is the
easiest for you to remember.

       1.     Yank, put, and delete:

              a.     Yank the desired text.

              b.     Move the cursor to the new location and then "put"
                     the "yanked" text into its new location.

              c.     Move the cursor back to the original text and      
                     delete it.


                                             or

       2.     Delete and put:

              a.     Delete the desired text 

              b.     Move the cursor to the new location

              c.     Use a put command to add the text.



NOTE:         The delete command stores an invisible copy
              of the deleted text in a buffer.  This is
              done so the undo command is capable of
              restoring the previous command.  That's why
              it is possible to move that deleted text to
              another area.
8.6  vi: Restoring the Last Change


The Undo command will reverse the last command you just entered. 
It will restore text that you have changed or deleted by mistake. 
The undo command will undo only the most recently changed text.

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  Command Format:  u                                           
                                                               
    u - undo the last change                                   
                                                               
      U - restore the current line to the way it was before you  
        started changing it, even if several changes were made 
                                                               
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If you delete a line and then change a word, undo will restore
the changed word but will not restore the line.
8.7  vi: Recovering Text After a Crash


You can often recover text that would have been lost because of a
system crash.  When the system has been brought back up enter the
following command to see if the system saved a copy of your work
buffer:


Example:

.................................................................
. $vi -r filename                                               .
.................................................................


If your work buffer was saved, you will be editing a recent copy
of the work buffer.  Use the w command to write the edited
version to the disk file.

The -r option will recover the version of filename that was in
the buffer when the crash occurred.  If no buffer was saved, the
editor will assume you are going to edit a new empty file called
filename.
8.8  vi: Saving Text and Quitting


Commands to save (write) text and to quit are entered from the
Last Line Mode.  The Last Line Mode is entered by entering a
colon (:) character from the command mode.
 
To save changes without exiting vi, enter:


Example:

.................................................................
. :w                                                            .
.................................................................

This command is displayed on the status line as it is typed in. 
The commands are executed by pressing the Enter key.  The file's
name and number of lines and characters are displayed on the
status line.  With no option, the work buffer will be written
back to the original disk file.  If, for some reason, you don't
have write permission to the working directory, you can copy the
work buffer to another file by specifying the complete pathname
of a temporary file.


Example:

.................................................................
. :w /user0/rharding/temp                                       .
.................................................................

Now you can exit vi and not lose any of your work.  The editing
session is saved in the file /user/rharding/temp.

To exit vi without saving any of the changes since the last :w
(or to discard all changes if no :w), enter:


Example:

.................................................................
. :q!                                                           .
.................................................................

The exclamation mark (!) (in slang, it's a bang) indicates to 
quit the current editing session, regardless.  If you just enter
q alone, the editor will warn you that existing changes were not
saved.  It is difficult to get out of this mode.  Use the
exclamation mark to indicate do the exit no matter what and not
save the changes since the last w command.
To save and quit, enter:


Example:

.................................................................
. :wq                                                           .
.................................................................

The w command will write the work buffer to the disk file.  The q
command will exit the editor.  The shell prompt ($) will be
displayed after the file has been saved and the editor exited.
8.9  Other vi Commands


To save the file you are editing under a different name, use:


Example:

.................................................................
. :w newfile                                                    .
.................................................................

To copy in the contents of another file, position the cursor on
the last line you want to be above the new text, then execute:


Example:

.................................................................
. :r filename                                                   .
.................................................................

The contents of filename will appear on your screen below the
last cursor position.  The existing text will be moved down.

To include the output of a shell command (i.e., date) in the file
you are editing, position the cursor as described above, then
enter:


Example:

.................................................................
. :r !shell-cmd                                                 .
.................................................................

To execute a shell command without including its output in your
file, enter:


Example:

.................................................................
. :!shell-cmd                                                   .
.................................................................

This feature enables you to check man pages or the contents of
other files without exiting vi.
                                            NOTES
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Workshop 8


This workshop will reinforce your understanding of the topics
covered in this chapter.  Login to the Multimax with the username
and password given to you by the instructor.  Each student is to
complete the entire workshop.  Computer exercises might need to
be worked as a team.

1.     Login to the Multimax.




2.     Edit the file rocket.sh .
     (Hint: vi rocket.sh)



3.     Position the cursor at the beginning of line 10.




4.     Move the cursor up five lines.




5.     Move the cursor to the end of the current line.
       What vi command did you use?



6.     Move the cursor to the first line of the file.
       What vi command did you use?



7.     Move to the end of the file and insert a new line after it
       that contains the following text:

       fi


8.     Remove all the blank lines from this file.



                                              

                                  Continue on the next page
9.     Locate the word grop and change it to grep .





10.    Add the following text after the last line of the file.

       rm ./temp$$




11.    Now execute the script by typing rocket.sh

       (Hint: What are the permissions on this file?)

       If you did the editing correctly fireworks should appear. If 
       not, compare your script to /user0/teacher/rocket.sh

       To stop the fireworks enter the interrupt character (CTRL-C)



12.    Create a file with a name of your own choice. Insert the
       output from the UNIX command ls -la .                   Save your change and
       exit vi.





13.    Edit the file you just created. Go to the end of the file 
       and without leaving vi, display a listing of the directory 
       /user0/teacher. How do you return to the editing session?
       Did the listing get inserted into your editing session?








13.    What is the option to recover your changes after a system
       crash?





14.    Logout of the Multimax and the Annex.
9.  GETTING HELP


9.1  Assist


The assist command is a menu driven utility that can provide
information on the following topics:

       1.     Information on a variety of UNIX topics

       2.     Tutorials

       3.     The ability to construct and execute command lines

       4.     A "pop up" menu for advanced users


Assist is set up so you do not have to know the exact command
name in order to get information or use the command.  To execute
assist enter:

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  Command Format:  assist  [name]                              
                   assist  [-s]                                
                   assist  [-c name]                           
                                                               
      name  - invoke an assist-supported UNIX system or        
              walkthru for name.                               
                                                               
        -s    - reinvoke the assist setup module to check or     
                modify the terminal variable.                    
                                                               
   -c name  - invoke the version of name that is in the        
                current directory.                               
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Sample session:

.................................................................
. $assist                                                       .
.................................................................

The first time assist is executed, assist will automatically
check your terminal capabilities and then runs a brief tutorial.
You can run the tutorial again by entering:


Sample session:
 
.................................................................
. $assist -s                                                    .
.................................................................

This command will also allow you to recheck your terminal setup.

The following is a list of useful assist commands:

       Ctrl-A               -      assist help

       Ctrl-O               -      help with current menu

       Ctrl-Y               -      help with current menu item

       Ctrl-T               -      call top level menu

       Ctrl-F               -      call "pop up" menu

       Ctrl-R               -      go back to previous menu

       (Ret),Ctrl-N         -      move cursor to next menu item

       Ctrl-P               -      return cursor to previous item
       
       Ctrl-G               -      select (execute) current menu item

       Ctrl-V               -      clear help message or prompt
       
       Ctrl-D               -      exit


Assist contains information on many, but not all, of the UMAX
commands.  In addition, not all options and possibilities for
each command are covered.  For complete information about a UMAX
command, please use the on-line manual pages.
9.2  UNIX Primer Plus


This manual is intended to be the reference manual for UNIX.  It
has several handy features.  The inside of the front cover has a
listing of UNIX command and the page number on which a
description of the command and its options can be found.  In
addition, there are some quick reference sheets that can be
removed from the book and used at your terminal.  The book is
well written, humorous, and contains a lot of information about
UNIX.  There might be subtle differences between generic UNIX and
UMAX.

Another manual that is a good reference for UNIX is "A Practical
Guide to UNIX System V" by Mark G. Sobell. 


9.3  TAB (Technical Assistance Bulletin)


The TAB is published monthly and contains current articles and
helpful hints for the Multimax minicomputers and UNIX in general.
To be added to the mailing list to receive a FREE subscription,
contact Gloria Armstrong (FTS) 776-4433 or (303) 236-4433.



9.4  Local Support


If you have a local technical person that is available, try them.
Some regional offices have a hotline that you can call for
assistance. 



9.5  CCS Hotline


The is a technical Hotline service available in the Denver
office.  This service is available to the entire Bureau.  This is
the fastest way to get your questions answered.  The Hotline
number is (FTS) 776-HOTT (4688) or Commercial (303) 236-HOTT
(4688).
9.6  CBT (DOS based training for UNIX)


There is a Computer Based Training course available on a PC in
the Denver training room.  It runs under DOS and doesn't need to
be connected to a UNIX machine.  It is easy to use and has
lessons for the beginning and advanced UNIX user, as well as
courses in C programming and UNIX system administration.  It can
also give you instruction about a particular command or topic
that interests you.
Workshop 9


Lucky you! No workshop



Please complete the...

                                      Summary Workshop 

                                             and

                                      Course Evaluation
                                            NOTES
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APPENDIX A:  DENVER OFFICE LOGIN SEQUENCE


       PRESS Space Bar
                                                                 
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 WELCOME TO THE B.O.R. NETWORK P/S:B                           
 SYSTEMS PRESENTLY AVAILABLE ARE:                              
                                                               
  **SYSTEM**          **NAME**                                 
                                                               
 VAX 8300'S            VAX                                     
 CYBER/CDCNET F.E.     CDC                                     
 ENCORE/UNIX           MAX                                     
 OUT DIAL              OD                                      
                                                               
 TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                          
 NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                              
 PROMPT.                                                       
                                                               
 CHANNEL 04/010. ENTER RESOURCE MAX                            
 CONNECTED TO 04/052                                           
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       Wait 2 seconds then PRESS (Ret) TWICE

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 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
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                                            NOTES
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APPENDIX B:  GREAT PLAINS LOGIN SEQUENCE


       PRESS (Ret)

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 WARNING ****** WARNING ****** WARNING ****** WARNING ****** WARNING        
 PUBLIC LAW 99-474 PROHIBITS UNAUTHORIZED USE OF THIS U.S. GOVERNMENT       
 COMPUTER SYSTEM AND/OR SOFTWARE.  PUNISHMENT INCLUDES FINES AND UP TO      
 10 YEARS IN PRISON.  REPORT VIOLATIONS TO THE SYSTEM SECURITY OFFICER.     
 WARNING ****** WARNING ****** WARNING ****** WARNING ****** WARNING        
                                                                            
                                                                            
 ENTER RESOURCE  A - BIL640, B - BIL751, OA - BIL630, DEN - DENVER CYBERS   
 FOR STATUS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS CALL   (406) 657-6828 OR FTS 585-6828       
 FOR EMERGENCY AND AFTER HOURS CALL    (406) 255-6932                       
                                                                            
 CHANNEL 02/035.  ENTER RESOURCE DEN(Ret)                                   
 CONNECTED TO 02/079                                                        
                                                                            
 WELCOME TO THE B.O.R. NETWORK P/S:B                                        
 SYSTEMS PRESENTLY AVAILABLE ARE:                                           
                                                                            
  **SYSTEM**          **NAME**                                              
                                                                            
  VAX 8300'S           VAX                                                  
  CYBER/CDCNET F.E.    CDC                                                  
  CENTER               ASC                                                  
  ENCORE/UNIX          MAX                                                  
  TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                                      
  CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                                                   
  PROMPT.                                                                   
                                                                            
  CHANNEL 02/079. ENTER RESOURCE MAX(Ret)                                   
  CONNECTED TO 06/025                                                       
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       PRESS (RET) TWICE

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                
 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
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APPENDIX C:  LOWER COLORADO LOGIN SEQUENCE


The following operating procedures show how a user gets to Denver
using the Local Area Network (LAN) in Boulder City, starting with
the PC prompt:   M:\USERNAME>


       ENTER PCPLUS(Ret)

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                        |                                             
 COMMUNICATION SERVICES |     PROCOMM PLUS ADD SERVICES MENU          
     ON NETWORK         |                                             
                        |                                             
 GENERAL SPECIFIC SERVER| UP/DOWN ARROW ..Highlight Services          
________________________|                                             
 MICOM      *       *   | ENTER ....Connect Highlighted Services      
 VAX_19.2   *       *   |                                             
 MI24       *       *   | PgPd .....Scroll Up One Page                
 ADMICOM    *       *   |                                             
                        | PgPn .....Scroll Down One Page              
                        |                                             
                        | Home .....First Service                     
                        |                                             
                        | End ......Last Service                      
                        |                                        
                        | Alt-E ....Expand/Contract Services     
                        |                                        
                        | Alt-M ....Manual Connect               
                        |                                        
                        | Alt-X ....Exit PROCOMM PLUS            
                        |                                        
                        | Alt-Z ....Help                         
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       SELECT MICOM.  PRESS (Ret) SEVERAL TIMES 
 
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   THIS IS THE LOWER COLORADO REGIONAL OFFICE INSTANET 6600    
   RESOURCES AVAILABLE                                         
   BLD460                                                      
   BLD732                                                      
   BLDT50                                                      
   DEN   (1200BPS)                                             
   DEN2  (2400BPS)                                             
   OUTDIAL (1200 BPS)                                          
   TELEBIT (1400 BPS OUTDIAL)                                  
   VAX  (19.2 lines only)                                      
   CHANNEL 02/008. ENTER RESOURCE                              
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       ENTER DEN(Ret)

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 You are accessing the Denver MICOM through the Boulder City   
 MICOM.  Please remember to hit the break key three times      
 after logging off.  The first DISCONNECTED comes from.  The   
 second DISCONNECTED comes from Boulder City.  This will assure
 that other users can connect when you are finished.           
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       PRESS (Ret) SEVERAL TIMES 
                                                                 
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   **SYSTEM**                  **NAME**                        
                                                               
   VAX 8300'S                   VAX                            
   CYBER/CDCNET F.E.            CDC                            
   ASC/CORP. CENTER             ASC                            
   ENCORE/UNIX                  MAX                            
                                                               
   TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                        
   NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                            
   PROMPT.                                                     
                                                               
   CHANNEL 02/079. ENTER RESOURCE MAX(Ret)                     
   CONNECTED TO 06/025                                         
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       PRESS (Ret) TWICE

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                
 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

APPENDIX D:  MID-PACIFIC LOGIN SEQUENCE


NETWORK LOGIN PROCEDURE


       TYPE PCOMN(Ret)

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
         旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴           
 旼컴컴컴                 Sacramento Connect Menu         쳐컴컴컴컴 
        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴          
                                                             
                                                             
        1)  Connect to the Sacramento VAX 8300 (USR)         
                                                             
        2)  Connect to the Sacramento VAX 780 (CVOCO)        
                                                             
        3)  Connect to the Sacramento ENCORE                 
                                                             
        4)  Connect to the Sacramento (TCP/IP) NETWORK       
                                                             
        5)  Manual Setup/Connections                         
                                                             
        D)  Connect to the DENVER Computers                  
                                                             
        E)  EXIT to DOS                                      
 읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


       PRESS D(Ret)

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
         旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴           
 旼컴컴컴                    Denver Connect Menu          쳐컴컴컴컴 
        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴          
                                                             
                                                             
        1)  Connect to the Denver VAX 8300 (USR)             
                                                             
        2)  Connect to the Denver CYBER AA & EE              
                                                             
        3)  Connect to the Denver ENCORE                     
                                                             
        4)  Connect to the Denver IBM (FFS)                  
                                                             
        5)  Connect to Sacramento Computers                  
                                                             
        E)  EXIT to DOS                                      
 읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
       PRESS 3(Ret)

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
 hosts                                                                      
    Host Name                System Status  Load Factor    Inet Addr        
    ====================================================================    
    domax0                   up             0.46           137.77.1.2       
    domax1                   up             1.23           137.77.1.3       
    dosun0                   up             1.28           137.77.1.5       
    erc830                   up             0.36           137.77.1.4       
 annex: c domax0                                                            
 login: your username(Ret)                                                  
 Password: your password(Ret)                                               
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2j ns32332                                      
 domax0                                                                     
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                    
 All Rights Reserved                                                        
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government           
           computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
                                                                            
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

DEDICATED LINE LOGIN


       TYPE PCOM(Ret)


       PRESS (Ret)
 
旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   NAME OF RESOURCE:  DEN(Ret)                                 
                                                               
   **SYSTEM**                  **NAME**                        
                                                               
   VAX 8300'S                   VAX                            
   CYBER/CDCNET F.E.            CDC                            
   ASC/CORP. CENTER             ASC                            
   ENCORE/UNIX                  MAX                            
                                                               
   TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                        
   NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                            
   PROMPT.                                                     
                                                               
   CHANNEL 02/079. ENTER RESOURCE MAX(Ret)                     
   CONNECTED TO 06/025                                         
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


       PRESS (Ret) TWICE

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                
 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

                                            NOTES
複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複
APPENDIX E:  PACIFIC NORTHWEST LOGIN SEQUENCE


       PRESS (Ret) OR Space Bar

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
  *******************************  NOTICE  *******************************  
  USE OF GOVERNMENT  COMPUTER RESOURCES AND DATA IS RESTRICTED TO OFFICIAL  
  GOVERNMENT BUSINESS.  FAILURE TO COMPLY COULD RESULT IN DISCIPLINARY      
  ACTION OR PROSECUTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.  REPORT UNAUTHORIZED USE OR      
  ACCESS TO THE ADP SECURITY OFFICER AT (208)334-1746 OR (FTS)554-1746.     
                                                                            
  C  =  CYBER                                                               
  H  =  HYDROMET                                                            
  P  =  OUT DIAL                                                            
  V  =  VAX BOISE                                                           
  Y  =  YAKIMA VAX                                                          
                                                                            
  CHANNEL 02/014. ENTER RESOURCE:  C(Ret)                                   
  CONNECTED TO CHANNEL 03/094                                               
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 
       PRESS (Ret) TWO OR THREE TIMES 

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
    **SYSTEM**                  **NAME**                       
                                                               
    VAX 8300'S                   VAX                           
    CYBER/CDCNET F.E.            CDC                           
    ASC/CORP. CENTER             ASC                           
    ENCORE/UNIX                  MAX                           
                                                               
    TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                       
    NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                           
    PROMPT.                                                    
                                                               
    CHANNEL 02/079. ENTER RESOURCE MAX(Ret)                    
    CONNECTED TO 06/025                                        
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
       PRESS (Ret) TWICE

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                
 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

APPENDIX F:  UPPER COLORADO LOGIN SEQUENCE


       PRESS (Ret)

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
    Server>  C MICOM2400(Ret)                                  
    Server -010- Session 1 connected.                          
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


       PRESS (Ret)

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
    SLC PORT SELECTOR                                          
    CHANNEL 01/091.  ENTER HOST:   DEN(Ret)                    
    CONNECTED TO 01/014.                                       
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


       PRESS (Ret) TWO OR THREE TIMES
                                                                 
旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
    **SYSTEM**                  **NAME**                       
                                                               
    VAX 8300'S                   VAX                           
    CYBER/CDCNET F.E.            CDC                           
    ASC/CORP. CENTER             ASC                           
    ENCORE/UNIX                  MAX                           
                                                               
    TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                       
    NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                           
    PROMPT.                                                    
                                                               
    CHANNEL 02/079. ENTER RESOURCE MAX(Ret)                    
    CONNECTED TO 06/025                                        
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
       PRESS (Ret) TWICE

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                
 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

APPENDIX G:  WASHINGTON OFFICE LOGIN SEQUENCE


       PRESS Space Bar ONCE OR TWICE 

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
    CONNECTED TO 01/044                                        
    WELCOME TO THE B.O.R. NETWORK P/S:C                        
    SYSTEMS PRESENTLY AVAILABLE ARE:                           
                                                               
    **SYSTEM**           **NAME**                              
                                                               
    CYBER SYSTEMS                                              
     (AA OR EE)                                                
    VAX CLUSTER           DEN                                  
                                                               
    OUT-DIAL MODEM        OD                                   
                                                               
    TO SELECT A SYSTEM,ENTER THE SYSTEM                        
    NAME AND CARRIAGE-RETURN AT NEXT                           
    PROMPT.                                                    
                                                               
    CHANNEL 02/026. ENTER RESOURCE  DEN(Ret)                   
    CONNECTED TO 01/051                                        
                                                               
    **SYSTEM**                  **NAME**                       
                                                               
    VAX 8300'S                   VAX                           
    CYBER/CDCNET F.E.            CDC                           
    ASC/CORP. CENTER             ASC                           
    ENCORE/UNIX                  MAX                           
                                                               
    TO SELECT A SYSTEM, ENTER THE SYSTEM                       
    NAME AND CARRIAGE RETURN AT NEXT                           
    PROMPT.                                                    
                                                               
    CHANNEL 02/079. ENTER RESOURCE MAX(Ret)                    
    CONNECTED TO 06/025                                        
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
       PRESS (Ret) TWICE

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                                                                                
 Annex Command Line Interpreter   *   Copyright 1988 Xylogics, Inc.             
                                                                                
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to U.S. Government computers                 
                is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***        
 annex: c domax1                                                                
 login: your username(Ret)                                                      
 Password: your password(Ret)                                                   
 UNIX System V Release ax.2.2o ns32332                                          
 domax1                                                                         
 Copyright (c) 1984 AT&T                                                        
 All Rights Reserved                                                            
  ***WARNING***Unauthorized access to/use of this U.S. Government               
               computer is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. ***WARNING***
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

APPENDIX H:  UNIX COMMANDS QUICK REFERENCE



a > b                                     put the output of command a into
                                          file b

a >> b                                    append the output of command a onto
                                          file b

a < b                                     take the input of command a from
                                          file b

a | c                                     pipe the output of command a to the 
                                          input of command c

a &                                       run command a in the background

assist                                    call up the assist menu for
                                          information on UMAX commands

at time < script                          run script at time

at -l                                     list your at jobs waiting to be
                                          executed

at -r xx                                  remove at job xx

awk '/str1/,/str2/' file                  display all lines between those    
                                          containing str1 and str2

awk '{print $n,$m}' file                  display fields n and m of file

call host                                 connect to a Multimax from an Annex

cat file                                  display file on the screen

cat file1 >> file2                        append file1 onto file2

cd                                        return to your home directory

cd dir                                    work in directory dir

chmod perms file                          change permissions on file to perms

cp file1 file2                            copy file1 to file2

cp f1 f2 f3 dir                           copy files f1, f2, and f3 into
                                          directory dir

csh                                       the C shell


cu options host                           dial up a remote host

cut -fx file                              display field x of file

cut -da -fx file                          use a as a field separator

diff file 1 file 2                        display differences between file1
                                          and file2

echo string                               display string on the terminal

file file1                                describe file1's type (data, text,
                                          binary, etc)

finger user                               display information on user

ftp                                       interactive remote file transfer

grep string file                          search for string in file

grep -c string file                       display only the number of
                                          occurrences of string

grep -l string files                      list file names that contain string

kill %x                                   kill background job x

ksh                                       the KornShell

lp -ddest file                            Print file on the printer dest

ls                                        list the files in the current
                                          working directory

ls dir                                    list the files in directory dir

ls -a                                     include files that begin with a 
                                          . (period)

ls -l                                     long listing including permissions, 
                                          size and ownership

ls -C                                     list in columns

ls -ld                                    display detailed information on a
                                          directory, not its contents

mailx                                     read mail via interactive mail
                                          program

mailx user                                send mail to user


man command                               display the man pages for command

mkdir dir                                 create directory dir

mv file1 file2                            move file1 to file2

mv f1 f2 f3 dir                           move files f1, f2, and f3 into
                                          directory dir

nsh host commands                         execute commands on a remote host

passwd                                    change your password

pg file                                   display file on screen at a time

ps                                        display process status of your
                                          current session

ps -u user                                display process for user

pwd                                       print (current) working directory
                                                 
rcp host1:file host2:file                 copy files from one host to another

rlogin host                               login to a remote host

rm file                                   remove file

rm -rdir                                  remove directory dir and contents

rmdir dir                                 remove directory dir

ruptime                                   display status of hosts on the
                                          network

rwho                                      display information on network
                                          users

sed -e "action" file                      use stream editor on file

sh                                        Bourne shell

shl                                       the Shell Layer Manager

sort file                                 perform an alphabetic sort based on
                                          the first field of file

sort -n file                              perform a numeric sort based on the
                                          first field of file

sort +x file                              sort on field x+1


sort -ta file                             use a as a field separator

spell file                                check file for correct spelling

stty                                      display current stty settings

stty intr                                 set interrupt character to 

stty kill                                 set kill character to 

talk                                      talk with user on your terminal

talk file                                 display the last 10 lines of file

telenet host                              connect to a remote host

telenet annex                             connect to an Annex for use of an
                                          outbound port

tr a b file                               in file, change every a to b

vi file                                   edit file with a full screen editor

wc file                                   list the number of lines, words and
                                          characters in file

write user                                send a message to user's terminal

uucp file hostpath                        remote copy
APPENDIX I:  vi COMMANDS QUICK REFERENCE

Special Commands

Esc                  return to command mode
 u                   undo last command
 .                   repeat last insert, delete or put command

Saving Text and Quitting

:w                   write (save) text
:w newfile           save text to file newfile
:x,yw newfile        save lines x to y into newfile
:q!                  quit without saving changes
:wq                  save text and quit

Cursor Positioning

N                    move to line N
N+                   down N lines
N-                   up N lines
^D                   down one screen
^U                   up one screen
k                    up one line
j                    down one line
^                    beginning of line
$                    end of line
Nw                   N words ahead
Nb                   back N words
w                    word ahead
b                    back one word
e                    end of word
h                    backspace
l                    forward one space
arrow keys           space left or right, go up or down one line


Searches

/pattern             search forward for pattern
?pattern             search backward for pattern
 ? or /              repeat the last search

Deleting Text

Ndd                  delete N lines
dd                   delete current line
D                    delete remainder of line
Ndw                  delete N words
dw                   delete current word
Nx                   delete N characters
x                    delete one character

Copying Text

NY                   yank N lines
Y                    yank one line
Nyw                  yank N words
yw                   yank one word

P                    put yanked lines above current cursor position, or
                     put yanked words before current cursor position

p                    put yanked lines below current cursor position, or
                     put yanked words after current cursor position

Entering Text Mode

I                    enter text mode, additional text appears at the
                     beginning of the current line

i                    enter text mode, additional text appears before
                     the current cursor position

A                    enter text mode, additional text appears at the
                     end of the current line

a                    enter text mode, additional text appears after the
                     current cursor position.

O                    enter text mode, open a line above the current
                     line

o                    enter text mode, open a line below the current
                     line

Replacing and Substituting Text

r                    replace one character at current cursor position,
                     then return to command mode

R                    replace characters until Esc

s                    substitute characters for the current character
                     until Esc

Ns                   substitute characters for the current N characters
                     until Esc
Reading in Text

:r filename          append the contents of filename below the current
                     cursor position

:r !shell-cmd        append the output of shell-cmd below the current
                     cursor position

Global Operations

:x,ys/old/new/g
                     on lines x through y, change old to new

:x,yg/pattern/d
                     delete any line from x toy that has the string
                     pattern 
                                            NOTES
複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複
APPENDIX J:  vi COMMANDS REFERENCE


NAME
     vi - screen-oriented (visual) display editor based on ex

SYNOPSIS
     vi [ -t tag ] [ -r file ] [ -L ] [ -wn ] [ -R ] [ -x ] [ -C
     ] [ -ccommand ] file ...
     view [ -t tag ] [ -r file ] [ -L ] [ -wn ] [ -R ] [ -x ] [
     -C ] [ -ccommand ] file ...
     vedit [ -t tag ] [ -r file ] [ -L ] [ -wn ] [ -R ] [ -x ] [
     -C ] [ -ccommand ] file ...

DESCRIPTION
     vi (visual) is a display-oriented text editor based on an
     underlying line editor ex(1).  It is possible to use the
     command mode of ex from within vi and vice-versa. The visual
     commands are described on this manual page; how to set
     options (like automatically numbering lines and
     automatically starting a new output line after a carriage
     return) and all ex(1) line editor commands are described on
     the ex(1) manual page.

     When using vi, changes made to the file are reflected in
     what is displayed on the terminal screen.  The position of
     the cursor on the screen indicates the position within the
     file.

INVOCATION
     The following invocation options are interpreted by vi:

     -t tag  Edit the file containing the tag and position the
             cursor at its definition.  The file (tags)
             containing the tag is found in the current directory
             or in /usr/lib/tags.  Below is an example of a tags
             file:

                    line /tmp/vi.file   /line/
                    this /tmp/vi.file   /this/

             Using "vi -t line", the edited file will be
             "/tmp/vi.file". The file will be searched for the
             first occurrence of "line", and the cursor will be
             placed at "line".

     -r file Edit file after an editor or system crash.
             (Recovers the version of file that was in the buffer
             when the crash occurred.)

     -L      List the name of all files saved as the result of an
             editor or system crash.

     -wn     Set the default window size to n.  This is useful
             when using the editor over a slow speed line.

     -R      Readonly mode; the readonly flag is set, preventing
             accidental overwriting of the file.

     -x      Encryption option; when used, vi simulates the X
             command of ex(1) and prompts the user for a key.
             This key is used to encrypt and decrypt text using
             the algorithm of crypt(1).  The X command makes an
             educated guess to determine whether or not text read
             in is encrypted.  The temporary buffer file is
             encrypted also, using a transformed version of the
             key typed in for the -x option.  See crypt(1).
             Also, see the WARNING section at the end of this
             manual page.

     -C      Encryption option, same as the -x option, except
             that vi simulates the C command of ex(1).  The C
             command is like the X command of ex(1), except that
             all text read in is assumed to have been encrypted.

     -c      command Begin editing by executing the specified
             editor command (usually a search or positioning
             command).

     The file argument indicates one or more files to be edited.

     The view invocation is the same as vi except that the
     readonly flag is set.

     The vedit invocation is intended for beginners.  It is the
     same as vi except that the report flag is set to 1, the
     showmode and novice flags are set, and magic is turned off.
     These defaults make it easier to learn vi.

VI MODES
     Command  Normal and initial mode.  Other modes return to
     command mode upon completion.  ESC (escape) is used
     to cancel a partial command.

     Input    Entered by setting the following options: a i A I o
              O c s R.  Arbitrary text may then be entered.
              Input mode is normally terminated with ESC
              character, or abnormally with interrupt.

     Last line
              Reading input for : / ? or !; terminate with  CR to
              execute, interrupt to cancel.
COMMAND SUMMARY
     In the descriptions, CR stands for carriage return and ESC
     stands for the escape key.

   Sample Commands

     <- | | ->           arrow keys move the cursor
     h j k l             same as arrow keys
     itextESC            insert text
     cwnewESC            change word to new
     easESC              pluralize word (end of word; append s;
                         escape from input state)
     x                   delete a character
     dw                  delete a word
     dd                  delete a line
     3dd                 delete 3 lines
     u                   undo previous change
     ZZ                  exit vi, saving changes
     :q!CR               quit, discarding changes
     /textCR             search for text
     U D                 scroll up or down
     :ex cmdCR           any ex or ed command

   Counts Before vi Commands
     Numbers may be typed as a prefix to some commands.  They are
     interpreted in one of these ways:

     line/column number  z G |
     scroll amount       D U
     repeat effect       most of the rest

   Interrupting, Canceling
     ESC                 end insert or incomplete cmd
     DEL                 (delete or rubout) interrupts
     L                   reprint screen if DEL scrambles it
     R                   reprint screen if L is -> key

   File Manipulation
     ZZ                  if file is modified, write and exit;
                         otherwise, exit
     :wCR                write back changes
     :w!CR               forced write, if permission originally
                         not valid
     :qCR                quit
     :q!CR               quit, discard changes
     :e nameCR           edit file name
     :e!CR               reedit, discard changes
     :e + nameCR         edit, starting at end
     :e +n filename CR   edit starting at line n
     :e #CR              edit alternate file
     :e! #CR             edit alternate file, discard changes
     :w nameCR           write file name

     :w! nameCR          overwrite file name
     :shCR               run shell, then return
     :!cmdCR             run cmd, then return
     :nCR                edit next file in arglist
     :n argsCR           specify new arglist
     G                   show current file and line
     :ta tagCR           to tag file entry tag

     In general, any ex or ed command (such as substitute or
     global) may be typed, preceded by a colon and followed by a
     CR.

   Positioning Within File
     F                   forward screen
     B                   backward screen
     D                   scroll down half screen
     U                   scroll up half screen
     Ng                  go to the beginning of the specified
                         line (end default), where n is a line
                         number
     /pat                next line matching pat
     ?pat                prev line matching pat
     n                   repeat last / or ? command
     N                   reverse last / or ? command
     /pat/+n             nth line after pat
     ?pat?-n             nth line before pat
     ]]                  next section/function
     [[                  previous section/function
     (                   beginning of sentence
     )                   end of sentence
     {                   beginning of paragraph
     }                   end of paragraph
     %                   find matching ( ) { or }

   Adjusting The Screen
     L                   clear and redraw
     zCR                 clear and redraw window if ^L is -> key
     ZCR                 redraw screen with current line at top
                         of window
     z-CR                redraw screen with current line at
                         bottom of window
     z.CR                redraw screen with current line at
                         center of window
     /pat/z-CR           move pat line to bottom of window
     zn.CR               use n line window
     E                   scroll window down 1 line
     Y                   scroll window up 1 line
   Marking and Returning
     ``                  move cursor to previous context
     ''                  move cursor to first non-white space in
                         line
     mx                  mark current position with the ACSII
                         lower-case letter x
     `x                  move cursor to mark x
     'x                  move cursor to first non-white space in
                         line marked by x

   Line Positioning
     H                   top line on screen
     L                   last line on screen
     M                   middle line on screen
     +                   next line, at first non-white
     -                   previous line, at first non-white
     CR                  return, same as +
     | or j              next line, same column
     | or k              previous line, same column

   Character Positioning
     first non-white-space character
     0                   beginning of line
     $                   end of line
     l or ->             forward
     h or <-             backwards
     H                   same as <- (backspace)
     space               same as -> (space bar)
     fx                  find next x
     Fx                  find previous x
     tx                  move to character prior to next x
     Tx                  move to character following previous x
     ;                   repeat last f F
     ,                   repeat last t T
     n|                  to specified column
     %                   find matching () { or }

   Words, Sentences, Paragraphs
     w                   forward a word
     b                   back a word
     e                   end of word
     )                   to next sentence
     }                   to next paragraph
     (                   back a sentence
     {                   back a paragraph
     W                   forward a blank-delimited word
     B                   back a blank-delimited word
     E                   to end of a blank-delimited word
   Corrections During Insert
     H                   erase last character (backspace)
     W                   erase last word
     erase               erase, same as H
     kill                kill, erase this line of input
     \                   quotes H, erase and kill characters
     ESC                 ends insertion, back to command mode
     DEL                 interrupt, terminates insert mode
     D                   backtab one character; reset left margin
                         of autoindent
     |D                  caret () followed by control-d (D);
                         backtab to beginning of line; do not
                         reset left margin of autoindent
     0D                  backtab to beginning of line; reset left
                         margin of autoindent
     V                   quote non-printable character

   Insert and Replace
     a                   append after cursor
     A                   append at end of line
     i                   insert before cursor
     I                   insert before first non-blank
     o                   open line below
     O                   open above
     rx                  replace single char with x
     RtextESC            replace characters

   Operators
     Operators are followed by a cursor motion, and affect all
     text that would have been moved over.  For example, since w
     moves over a word, dw deletes the word.  Double the
     operator, e.g., dd to affect whole lines.

     d                   delete
     c                   change
     y                   yank lines to buffer
     <                   left shift
     >                   right shift
     !                   filter through command

   Miscellaneous Operations
     C                   change rest of line (c$)
     D                   delete rest of line (d$)
     s                   substitute chars (cl)
     S                   substitute lines (cc)
     J                   join lines
     x                   delete characters (dl)
     X                   ... before cursor (dh)
     Y                   yank lines (yy)
   Yank and Put
     Put inserts the text most recently deleted or yanked;
     however, if a buffer is named (using the ASCII lower-case
     letters a - z), the text in that buffer is put instead.

     3yy                 yank 3 lines
     3yl                 yank 3 characters
     p                   put back text after cursor
     P                   put back text before cursor
     "xp                 put from buffer x
     "xY ("xyy)          yank to buffer x
     "xD ("xdd)          delete into buffer x

   Undo, Redo, Retrieve
     u                   undo last change
     U                   restore current line
     .                   repeat last change
     "dp                 retrieve d'th last delete

AUTHOR
     vi and ex were developed by The University of California,
     Berkeley California, Computer Science Division, Department
     of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

FILES
     /tmp                     default directory where temporary
                              work files are placed; it can be
                              changed using the directory option
                              (see the ex(1) set command)
     /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*    compiled terminal description
                              database
     /usr/lib/.COREterm/?/*   subset of compiled terminal
                              description database, supplied on
                              hard disk

NOTES
     Two options, although they continue to be supported, have
     been replaced in the documentation by options that follow
     the Command Syntax Standard (see intro(1)).  A -r option
     that is not followed with an option-argument has been
     replaced by -L and +command has been replaced by -c command.

SEE ALSO
     ed(1), ex(1).
     "Screen Editor Tutorial (vi)" in the UMAX V User's Guide.

WARNING
     The encryption options are provided with the Security
     Administration Utilities package, which is available only in
     the United States.
     Tampering with entries in /usr/lib/.COREterm/?/* or
     /usr/lib/terminfo/?/* (for example, changing or removing an
     entry) can affect programs such as vi(1) that expect the
     entry to be present and correct.  In particular, removing
     the "dumb" terminal may cause unexpected problems.

BUGS
     Software tabs using T work only immediately after the
     autoindent.

     Left and right shifts on intelligent terminals do not make
     use of insert and delete character operations in the
     terminal.
APPENDIX K:  ftp COMMANDS REFERENCE


NAME
     ftp - Internet file transfer program 

SYNOPSIS
     ftp [ -v ] [ -d ] [ -i ] [ -n ] [ -g ] [ host ]
                                                    
DESCRIPTION                                         
     ftp is the user interface to the DARPA File Transfer
     Protocol. The program transfers files to and from a remote
     network site.                                             
                                                               
     The client host with which ftp is to communicate can be   
     specified on the command line. In this case, ftp immediately
     attempts to establish a connection to an FTP server on that 
     host; otherwise, ftp enters its command interpreter and     
     waits for instruction, displaying the prompt ftp>.          
                                                                 
     ftp recognizes the following commands:                      
                                                                 
     ! [ command [ args ] ]                                      
               Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine. 
               If there are arguments, the first is taken to be a
               command to execute directly, with the rest of the 
               arguments as its arguments.                       
                                                                 
     $ macro-name [ args ]                                       
               Execute the macro-name that was defined with      
               the macdef command.  Arguments are passed to the  
               macro unglobbed.                                  
                                                                 
     account [ passwd ]                                          
               Supply a supplemental password required by a      
               remote system for access to resources once a login
               has been successfully completed.  If no argument  
               is included, the user will be prompted for an     
               account password in a non-echoing input mode.     
                                                                 
     append local-file [ remote-file ]                           
               Append a local file to a file on the remote       
               machine. If remote-file is left unspecified, the  
               local file name is used to name the remote file   
               after being altered by any ntrans or nmap setting.
               File transfer uses the current settings for type, 
               format, mode, and structure.                      
                                                                 
     ascii     Set the file transfer type to network ASCII. This 
               is the default type.
     bell      Sound a bell after each file transfer command is  
               completed.                                        
                                                                 
     binary    Set the file transfer type to support binary image
               transfer.                                         
                                                                 
     bye       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server  
               and exit ftp.                                     
                                                                 
     case      Toggle remote computer file name case mapping     
               during mget commands.  When case is on (default is
               off), remote computer file names with all letters 
               in upper case are written in the local directory  
               with the letters mapped to lower case.            
                                                                 
     cd remote-directory                                         
               Change the working directory on the remote machine
               to remote-directory.                              
                                                                 
     cdup      Change the remote machine working directory to the
               parent of the current remote machine working      
               directory.                                        
                                                                 
     close     Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, 
               and return to the command interpreter.  Any       
               defined macros are erased.                        
                                                                 
     cr        Toggle carriage return stripping during ASCII type
               file retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage
               return/linefeed sequence during ASCII type file   
               transfer.  When cr is on (the default), carriage  
               returns are stripped from this sequence to conform
               with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.   
               Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain    
               single linefeeds; when an ASCII type transfer is  
               made, these linefeeds may be distinguished from a 
               record delimiter only when cr is off.             
                                                                 
     delete remote-file                                          
               Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
                                                                 
     debug [ debug-value ]                                       
               Toggle debugging mode. If an optional debug-value 
               is specified, it is used to set the debugging     
               level. When debugging is on, ftp prints each      
               command sent to the remote machine, preceded by   
               the string --> .                                  
     dir [ remote-directory ] [ local-file ]                     
               Print the contents of directory, remote-directory,
               and, optionally, place the output in local-file.  
               If no directory is specified, the current working 
               directory on the remote machine is used. If no    
               local file is specified, or local-file is -,      
               output comes to the terminal.                     
                                                                 
     disconnect                                                  
               A synonym for close.                              
                                                                 
     form format                                                 
               Set the file transfer form to format.  The default
               format is file.                                   
                                                                 
     get remote-file [ local-file ]                           
               Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local
               machine. If the local file name is not specified, 
               it is given the same name it has on the remote    
               machine, subject to alteration by the current     
               case, ntrans, and nmap settings. The current      
               settings for type, form, mode, and structure are  
               used while transferring the file.                 
                                                                 
     glob      Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and   
               mput.  If globbing is turned off with glob, the   
               file name arguments are taken literally and not   
               expanded.  Globbing for mput is done as in csh(1).
               For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is    
               expanded separately on the remote machine and the 
               lists are not merged.  Expansion of a directory   
               name is likely to be different from expansion of  
               the name of an ordinary file:  the exact result   
               depends on the foreign operating system and FTP   
               server, and can be previewed by doing             
               "mls remote-files -".  Note:  mget and mput are   
               not meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of
               files.  That can be done by transferring a tar(1) 
               archive of the subtree (in binary mode).          
                                                                 
     hash      Toggle number-sign (#) printing for each data     
               block transferred. The size of a data block is    
               1024 bytes.                                       
                                                                 
     help [ command ]                                            
               Print a description of command.  With no argument,
               ftp prints a list of the known commands.          
                                                                 
     lcd [ directory ]                                           
               Change the working directory on the local machine.
               If no directory is specified, changes to the      
               user's home directory.                            

     ls [ remote-directory ] [ local-file ]                      
               Print an abbreviated listing of the contents of a 
               directory on the remote machine. If remote-       
               directory is left unspecified, the current working
               directory is used. If no local file is specified, 
               the output is sent to the terminal.               
                                                                 
     macdef macro-name                                           
               Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as   
               the macro macro-name; a null line (consecutive    
               newline characters in a file or carriage returns  
               from the terminal) terminates macro input mode.   
               There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total      
               characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain  
               defined until a close command is executed.  The   
               macro processor interprets "$" and "\" as special 
               characters.  A "$" followed by a number (or       
               numbers) is replaced by the corresponding argument
               on the macro invocation command line.  A "$"      
               followed by an "i" signals that macro processor   
               that the executing macro is to be looped. On the  
               first pass "$i" is replaced by the first argument 
               on the macro invocation command line, on the      
               second pass it is replaced by the second argument,
               and so on.  A "\" followed by any character is    
               replaced by that character.  Use the "\" to       
               prevent special treatment of the "$".             
                                                                 
     mdelete [ remote-files ]                                    
               Delete the specified files on the remote machine. 
                                                                 
     mdir remote-files local-file                             
               Like dir, except multiple remote files may be     
               specified.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp   
               will prompt the user to verify that the last      
               argument is indeed the target local file for      
               receiving mdir output.                            
                                                                 
     mget remote-files                                           
               Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and 
               do a get for each file name thus produced.  See   
               glob for details on the filename expansion.       
               Resulting file names will then be processed       
               according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.     
               Files are transferred into the local working      
               directory, which can be changed with              
               "lcd directory"; new local directories can be     
               created with "! mkdir directory".                 
                                                                 
     mkdir directory-name                                        
               Make a directory on the remote machine.
     mls remote-files local-file                                 
               Like ls, except multiple remote files may be      
               specified.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp   
               will prompt the user to verify that the last      
               argument is indeed the target local file for      
               receiving mls output.                             
                                                                 
     mode [ mode-name ]                                          
               Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The     
               default mode is stream.                           
                                                                 
     mput local-files                                            
               Expand wild cards in the list of local files given
               as arguments and do a put for each file in the    
               resulting list.  See glob for details of filename 
               expansion.  Resulting file names will then be     
               processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.  
                                                                 
     nmap [ inpattern outpattern ]                               
               Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If  
               no arguments are specified, the filename mapping  
               mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified,  
               remote filenames are mapped during mput commands  
               and put commands issued without a specified remote
               target filename.  If arguments are specified,    
               local filenames are mapped during mget commands  
               and get commands issued without a specified local
               target filename.  This command is useful when    
               connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with    
               different file naming conventions or practices.  
               The mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern 
               and outpattern.  inpattern is a template for     
               incoming filenames (which may have already been  
               processed according to the ntrans and case       
               settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by
               including the sequences "$1", "$2", ..., "$9" in  
               inpattern.  Use "\" to prevent this special       
               treatment of the "$" character.  All other        
               characters are treated literally, and are used to 
               determine the nmap inpattern variable values.  For
               example, given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file
               name mydata.data, $1 would have the value mydata, 
               and $2 would have the value data.  The outpattern 
               determines the resulting mapped filename.  The    
               sequences "$1", "$2", ..., "$9" are replaced by   
               any value resulting from the inpattern template.  
               The sequence "$0" is replaced by the original     
               filename.  Additionally, the sequence             
               "[seq1,seq2]" is replaced by seq1 if seq1 is not a
               null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.    
               For example, the command "nmap $1.$2.$3
               [$1,$2].[$2,file]" would yield the output filename
               myfile.data for input filenames myfile.data and   
               myfile.data.old, myfile.file for the input        
               filename myfile, and myfile.myfile for the input  
               filename .myfile.  Spaces may be included in      
               outpattern, as in the example:                    
                                                                 
                    nmap $1 | sed "s/  *$//" > $1                
                                                                 
               Use the "\" character to prevent special treatment
               of the "$", "[", "]", and "," characters.         
                                                                 
     ntrans [ inchars [ outchars ] ]                             
               Set or unset the filename character translation   
               mechanism.  If no arguments are specified, the    
               filename character translation mechanism is unset.
               If arguments are specified, characters in remote  
               filenames are translated during mput commands and 
               put commands issued without a specified remote    
               target filename.  If arguments are specified,     
               characters in local filenames are translated      
               during mget commands and get commands issued      
               without a specified local target filename.  This  
               command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX   
               remote computer with different file naming        
               conventions or practices.  Characters in a        
               filename matching a character in inchars are      
               replaced with the corresponding character in      
               outchars.  If the character's position in inchars 
               is longer than the length of outchars, the        
               character is deleted from the file name.          
                                                                 
     open host [ port ]                                          
               Establish a connection to the specified host's FTP
               server. An optional port number can be supplied,  
               in which case, ftp attempts to contact an FTP     
               server at that port. If the auto-login option is  
               on (default), ftp also attempts to automatically  
               log the user in to the FTP server (see below).    
                                                                 
     prompt    Toggle interactive prompting. Interactive         
               prompting occurs during multiple file transfers to
               allow the user to selectively retrieve or store   
               files. If prompting is turned off (default), any  
               mget or mput transfers all files and mdelete will 
               delete all files.
     proxy ftp-command                                           
               Execute an ftp command on a secondary control     
               connection.  This command allows simultaneous     
               connection to two remote FTP servers for          
               transferring files between the two servers.  The 
               first proxy command should be an open, to        
               establish the secondary control connection.  Enter
               the command "proxy ?" to see other ftp commands   
               executable on the secondary connection.  The      
               following commands behave differently when        
               prefaced by proxy:  open will not define new      
               macros during the auto-login process, close will  
               not erase existing macro definitions, get and mget
               transfer files from the host on the primary       
               control connection to the host on the secondary   
               control connection, and put, mput, and append     
               transfer files from the host on the secondary     
               control connection to the host on the primary     
               control connection.  Third party file transfers   
               depend upon support of the FTP protocol PASV      
               command by the server on the secondary control    
               connection.                                       
                                                                 
     put local-file [ remote-file ]                              
               Store a local file on the remote machine. If      
               remote-file is left unspecified, the local file   
               name is used in naming the remote file, after     
               processing according to any ntrans or nmap        
               settings.  File transfer uses the current settings
               for type, format, mode, and structure.            
                                                                 
     pwd       Print the name of the current working directory on
               the remote machine.                               
                                                                 
     quit      A synonym for bye.                                
                                                                 
     quote arg1 arg2 ...                                         
               The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the
               remote FTP server.                                
                                                                 
     recv remote-file [ local-file ]                             
               A synonym for get.                                
                                                                 
     remotehelp [ command-name ]                                 
               Request help from the remote FTP server. If a     
               command-name is specified, it is supplied to the  
               server as well.                                   
                                                                 
     rename [ from ] [ to ]                                      
               Rename, on the remote machine, the file from to   
               the file to.
     reset     Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes  
               command/reply sequencing with the remote FTP      
               server.  Resynchronization may be necessary       
               following a violation of the FTP protocol by the  
               remote server.                                    
                                                                 
     rmdir directory-name                                        
               Delete a directory on the remote machine.         
                                                                 
     runique   Toggle storing of files on the local system with  
               unique filenames.  If a file already exists with a
               name equal to the target local filename for a get 
               or mget command, a ".1" is appended to the name.  
               If the resulting name matches another existing    
               file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
               this process continues up to ".99", an error      
               message is printed, and the transfer does not take
               place.  The generated unique filename will be     
               reported.  Note that runique will not affect local
               files generated from a shell command (see below). 
               The default value is off.                         
                                                                 
     send local-file [ remote-file ]                             
               A synonym for put.                                
                                                                 
     sendport  Toggle the use of PORT commands. By default, ftp  
               attempts to use a PORT command when establishing a
               connection for each data transfer. The use of PORT
               commands can prevent delays when performing       
               multiple file transfers.  If the PORT command     
               fails, ftp uses the default data port. When the   
               use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt is   
               made to use them for each data transfer. This is  
               useful for certain FTP implementations that do    
               ignore PORT commands but wrongly indicate they    
               have been accepted.                               
                                                                 
     status    Show the current status of ftp.                   

     struct [ struct-name ]                                      
               Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.   
               The default structure is stream.                  
                                                                 
     sunique   Toggle storing of files on remote machine under   
               unique file names.  Remote FTP server must support
                the FTP protocol STOU command for successful    
               completion.  The remote server will report a     
               unique name.  Default value is off.              
                                                                
     tenex     Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk
               to TENEX machines.
     trace     Toggle packet tracing.                           
                                                                
     type [ type-name ]                                         
               Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no  
               type-name is specified, the current type is      
               printed. The default type is network ascii.      
                                                                
     user user-name [ password ] [ account ]                    
               The user identifies him/herself to the remote FTP 
               server. If the password is not specified and the  
               server requires it, ftp prompts the user for it   
               (after disabling local echo).  If an account field
               is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, 
               the user is prompted for it. If an account field  
               is specified, an account command will be relayed  
               to the remote server after the login sequence is  
               completed if the remote server did not require it 
               for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked with       
               "auto-login" disabled, this process is done       
               automatically on initial connection to the FTP    
               server.                                           
                                                                 
     verbose   Toggle verbose mode. In verbose mode, all         
               responses from the FTP server are displayed to the
               user. In addition, if verbose is on, when a file  
               transfer completes, statistics regarding the      
               efficiency of the transfer are reported. By       
               default, verbose is on.                           
                                                                 
     ? [ command ]                                               
               A synonym for help.                               
                                                                 
     Command arguments that have embedded spaces can be quoted   
     with double quote (") marks.                                
                                                                 
ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER                                         
     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key    
     (usually <ctrl>C).  Sending transfers will be immediately   
     halted.  Receiving transfers will be halted by sending a FTP
     protocol ABOR command to the remote server, and discarding  
     any further data received.  The speed at which this is      
     accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for   
     ABOR processing.  If the remote server does not support the 
     ABOR command, an ftp> prompt will not appear until the      
     remote server has completed sending the requested file.     
                                                                 
     The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp
     has completed any local processing and is awaiting a reply  
     from the remote server.  A long delay in this mode may      
     result from the ABOR processing described above, or from    
     unexpected behavior by the remote server, including         
     violations of the FTP protocol.  If the delay results from  
     unexpected remote server behavior, the local ftp program    
     must be killed by hand.                                     
                                                                 
FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS                                          
     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed  
     according to the following rules.                           
                                                                 
     1.   If the file name is -, the standard input (for reading)
          or the standard output (for writing) is used.          
                                                                 
     2.   If the first character of the file name is a bar |, the
          remainder of the argument is interpreted as a shell    
          command.  ftp then forks a shell, using popen(3S) with 
          the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from the     
          stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, 
          the argument must be quoted; for example, "| ls -lt". A
          particularly useful example of this mechanism is       
          "dir | more".                                          
                                                                 
     3.   Failing the above checks, if globbing is enabled, local
          file names are expanded according to the rules used in 
          the csh(1); see the glob command.  If the ftp command  
          expects a single local file (e.g., put), only the first
          filename generated by the globbing operation is used.  
                                                                 
     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified    
          local file names, the local filename is the remote     
          filename, which may be altered by a case, ntrans, or   
          nmap setting.  The resulting filename may then be      
          altered if runique is on.                              
                                                                 
     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified    
          remote file names, the remote filename is the local    
          filename, which may be altered by a ntrans or nmap     
          setting.  The resulting filename may then be altered by
          the remote server if sunique is on.                    
                                                                 
FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS                                         
     The FTP specification identifies many parameters that can   
     affect a file transfer. The type can be one of ascii, image 
     (binary), ebcdic, and local byte size (for PDP-10's and     
     PDP-20's mostly).  ftp supports the ascii and image types of
     file transfer, plus local byte size 8 for tenex mode        
     transfers.                                                  
                                                                 
     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file 
     transfer parameters:  mode, form, and struct.               
                                                                 
OPTIONS                                                          
     Options can be specified at the command line, or to the     
     command interpreter.                                        

     The -v (verbose on) option forces ftp to show all responses 
     from the remote server, as well as report on data transfer  
     statistics.                                                 
                                                                 
     The -n option restrains ftp from attempting "auto-login"    
     upon initial connection.  If auto-login is enabled, ftp     
     checks the netrc file in the user's home directory for an   
     entry describing an account on the remote machine. If no    
     entry exists, ftp will prompt for the remote machine login  
     name (default is the user identity on the local machine),   
     and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an account with
     which to login.                                             
                                                                 
     The -i option turns off interactive prompting during        
     multiple file transfers.                                    
                                                                 
     The -d option enables debugging.                            
                                                                 
     The -g option disables file name globbing.                  
                                                                 
THE .netrc FILE                                                  
     The .netrc file contains login and initialization           
     information used by the "auto-login" process.  It resides in
     the user's home directory.  The following tokens are        
     recognized; they may be separated by spaces, tabs, or new-  
     lines:                                                      
                                                                 
     machine name                                                
          Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process
          searches the .netrc file for a machine token that      
          matches the remote machine specified on the ftp command
          line or as an open command argument.  Once a match is  
          made, the subsequent .netrc tokens are processed,      
          stopping when the end of file is reached or another    
          machine token is encountered.                          
                                                                 
     login name                                                  
          Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token  
          is present, the "auto-login" process will initiate a   
          login using the specified name.                        
                                                                 
     password string                                             
          Supply a password.  If this token is present, the      
          "auto-login" process will supply the specified string  
          if the remote server requires a password as part of the
          login process.  Note that if this token is present in  
          the .netrc file, ftp will abort the "auto-login"       
          process if the .netrc is readable by anyone besides the
          user.                                                  
    account string                                              
          Supply an additional account password.  If this token  
          is present, the "auto-login" process will supply the   
          specified string if the remote server requires an      
          additional account password, or the "auto-login"       
          process will initiate an ACCT command if it does not.  
                                                                 
     macdef name                                                
          Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp    
          macdef command functions.  A macro is defined with the
          specified name; its contents begin with the next .netrc
          line and continue until a null line (consecutive new- 
          line characters) is encountered.  If a macro named init
          is defined, it is automatically executed as the last   
          step in the "auto-login" process.                      
                                                                 
SEE ALSO                                                         
     csh(1).                                                    
     ftpd(1M) in the UMAX V Administrator's Reference Manual.   
                                                                
BUGS                                                            
     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper     
     behavior by the remote server.                             
                                                                
     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD
     UNIX ASCII-mode transfer code has been corrected.  This    
     correction may result in incorrect transfers of binary files
     to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii type.  Avoid this
     problem by using the binary image type.
APPENDIX L:  telnet COMMANDS REFERENCE


NAME
     telnet - user interface to the TELNET protocol

SYNOPSIS
     telnet [ host [ port ] ]

DESCRIPTION
     The telnet command communicates with another host using the
     TELNET protocol. If telnet is invoked without arguments, it
     enters command mode, indicated by its prompt (for example,
     telnet>).  In this mode, it accepts and executes the
     commands listed below. If it is invoked with arguments, it
     performs an open command (see below) with those arguments.
     Once a connection has been opened, telnet enters input mode.
     The input mode entered will be either character at a time or
     line by line depending on what the remote system supports.

     In character at a time mode, most text typed is immediately
     sent to the remote host for processing.
     In line by line mode, all text is echoed locally, and
     (normally) only completed lines are sent to the remote host.
     The local echo character (initially ^E) may be used to turn
     off and on the local echo (this would mostly be used to
     enter passwords without the password being echoed).

     In either mode, if the localchars toggle is TRUE (the
     default in line mode; see below), the user's quit, intr, and
     flush characters are trapped locally, and sent as TELNET
     protocol sequences to the remote side.  There are options
     (see toggle autoflush and toggle autosynch below) which
     cause this action to flush subsequent output to the terminal
     (until the remote host acknowledges the TELNET sequence) and
     flush previous terminal input (in the case of quit and
     intr).

     While connected to a remote host, telnet command mode may be
     entered by typing the telnet escape character (initially
     ^]).  When in command mode, the normal terminal editing
     conventions are available.

COMMANDS
     The following commands are available.  Only enough of each
     command to uniquely identify it need be typed (this is also
     true for arguments to the mode, set, toggle, and display
     commands).
     open host [ port ]
              Open a connection to the named host. If no port
              number is specified, telnet attempts to contact a
              TELNET server at the default port.  The host
              specification can be either a host name (see
              hosts(4)) or an Internet address specified in "dot
              notation" (see inet(3N)).

     close    Close a TELNET session and return to command mode.

     quit     Close any open TELNET session and exit telnet.  An
              end-of-file (in command mode) will also close a
              session and exit.

     <ctrl>Z  Suspend telnet.  This command only works when the
              user is using the csh(1) or the BSD application
              environment version of ksh(1).

     status   Show the current status of telnet.  This includes
              the peer one is connected to, as well as the
              current mode.

     display [ argument ... ]
              Displays all, or some, of the set and toggle values
              (see below).

     ? [ command ]
              Get help.  With no arguments, telnet prints a help
              summary.  If a command is specified, telnet will
              print the help information for just that command.

     send arguments
              Sends one or more special character sequences to
              the remote host.  The following are the arguments
              which may be specified (more than one argument may
              be specified at a time):

              escape
                   Sends the current telnet escape character
                   (initially ^]).

              synch
                   Sends the TELNET SYNCH sequence.  This
                   sequence causes the remote system to discard
                   all previously typed (but not yet read) input.
                   This sequence is sent as TCP urgent data (and
                   may not work if the remote system is a 4.2 BSD
                   system -- if it doesn't work, a lower case r
                   may be echoed on the terminal).
              brk
                   Sends the TELNET BRK (Break) sequence, which
                   may have significance to the remote system.

              ip
                   Sends the TELNET IP (Interrupt Process)
                   sequence, which should cause the remote system
                   to abort the currently running process.

              ao
                   Sends the TELNET AO (Abort Output) sequence,
                   which should cause the remote system to flush
                   all output from the remote system to the
                   user's terminal.

              ayt
                   Sends the TELNET AYT (Are You There) sequence,
                   to which the remote system may or may not
                   choose to respond.

              ec
                   Sends the TELNET EC (Erase Character)
                   sequence, which should cause the remote system
                   to erase the last character entered.

              el
                   Sends the TELNET EL (Erase Line) sequence,
                   which should cause the remote system to erase
                   the line currently being entered.

              ga
                   Sends the TELNET GA (Go Ahead) sequence, which
                   likely has no significance to the remote
                   system.

              nop
                   Sends the TELNET NOP (No operation) sequence.

              ?
                   Prints out help information for the send
                   command.

     set argument value
              Set any one of a number of telnet variables to a
              specific value.  The special value off turns off
              the function associated with the variable.  The
              values of variables may be interrogated with the
              display command.  The variables which may be
              specified are:
              echo
                   This is the value (initially ^E) which, when
                   in line by line mode, toggles between doing
                   local echoing of entered characters (for
                   normal processing), and suppressing echoing of
                   entered characters (for entering, say, a
                   password).
              escape
                   This is the telnet escape character (initially
                   ^[) which causes entry into telnet command
                   mode (when connected to a remote system).

              interrupt
                   If telnet is in localchars mode (see toggle
                   localchars below) and the interrupt character
                   is typed, a TELNET IP sequence (see send ip
                   above) is sent to the remote host.  The
                   initial value for the interrupt character is
                   taken to be the terminal's intr character.

              quit
                   If telnet is in localchars mode (see toggle
                   localchars below) and the quit character is
                   typed, a TELNET BRK sequence (see send brk
                   above) is sent to the remote host.  The
                   initial value for the quit character is taken
                   to be the terminal's quit character.

              flushoutput
                   If telnet is in localchars mode (see toggle
                   localchars below) and the flushoutput
                   character is typed, a TELNET AO sequence (see
                   send ao above) is sent to the remote host.
                   The initial value for the flush character is
                   taken to be the terminal's flush character.

              erase
                   If telnet is in localchars mode (see toggle
                   localchars below), and if telnet is operating
                   in character at a time mode, then when this
                   character is typed, a TELNET EC sequence (see
                   send ec above) is sent to the remote system.
                   The initial value for the erase character is
                   taken to be the terminal's erase character.
              kill
                   If telnet is in localchars mode (see toggle
                   localchars below), and if telnet is operating
                   in character at a time mode, then when this
                   character is typed, a TELNET EL sequence (see
                   send el above) is sent to the remote system.
                   The initial value for the kill character is
                   taken to be the terminal's kill character.

              eof
                   If telnet is operating in line by line mode,
                   entering this character as the first character
                   on a line will cause this character to be sent
                   to the remote system.  The initial value of
                   the eof character is taken to be the
                   terminal's eof character.

     toggle arguments ...
              Toggle (between TRUE and FALSE) various flags that
              control how telnet responds to events.  More than
              one argument may be specified.  The state of these
              flags may be interrogated with the display command.
              Valid arguments are:

              localchars
                   If this is TRUE, then the flush, interrupt,
                   quit, erase, and kill characters (see set
                   above) are recognized locally, and transformed
                   into (hopefully) appropriate TELNET control
                   sequences (respectively ao, ip, brk, ec, and
                   el; see send above).  The initial value for
                   this toggle is TRUE in line by line mode, and
                   FALSE in character at a time mode.

              autoflush
                   If autoflush and localchars are both TRUE,
                   then when the ao, intr, or quit characters are
                   recognized (and transformed into TELNET
                   sequences; see set above for details), telnet
                   refuses to display any data on the user's
                   terminal until the remote system acknowledges
                   (via a TELNET Timing Mark option) that it has
                   processed those TELNET sequences.  The initial
                   value for this toggle is TRUE if the terminal
                   user had not done an stty noflsh, otherwise
                   FALSE (see stty(1)).

              autosynch
                   If autosynch and localchars are both TRUE,
                   then when either the intr or quit characters
                   is typed (see set above for descriptions of
                   the intr and quit characters), the resulting
                   TELNET sequence sent is followed by the TELNET
                   SYNCH sequence.  This procedure should cause
                   the remote system to begin throwing away all
                   previously typed input until both of the
                   TELNET sequences have been read and acted
                   upon.  The initial value of this toggle is
                   FALSE.
              crmod
                   Toggle carriage return mode.  When this mode
                   is enabled, most carriage return characters
                   received from the remote host will be mapped
                   into a carriage return followed by a line
                   feed.  This mode does not affect those
                   characters typed by the user, only those
                   received from the remote host.  This mode is
                   not very useful unless the remote host only
                   sends carriage return, but never line feed.
                   The initial value for this toggle is FALSE.

              debug
                   Toggles socket level debugging (useful only to
                   the super-user).  The initial value for this
                   toggle is FALSE.

              options
                   Toggles the display of some internal telnet
                   protocol processing (having to do with TELNET
                   options).  The initial value for this toggle
                   is FALSE.

              netdata
                   Toggles the display of all network data (in
                   hexadecimal format).  The initial value for
                   this toggle is FALSE.

              ?
                   Displays the legal toggle commands.

SEE ALSO
     csh(1), ksh(1), rlogin(1N).
     inet(3N), services(4), hosts(4) in the UMAX V Programmer's
     Reference Manual.
     telenetd(1M) in the UMAX V Administrator's Reference Manual.

BUGS
   There is no adequate way for dealing with flow control.
   On some remote systems, echo has to be turned off manually
   when in line by line mode.

   There is enough settable state to justify a .telnetrc file.

   No capability for a .telnetrc file is provided.

   In line by line mode, the terminal's eof character is only
   recognized (and sent to the remote system) when it is the
   first character on a line.
APPENDIX M:  domax1 AND domax0 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION


                       旼컴컴컴컴
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                       읕컴컫컴컴            Disk      Disk   
                                             Drive     Drive 
                                                              
旼컴컴컴커            旼컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴커읕컴컴컴쬔  읕쩡컴컴켸 
  Tape  쳐컴컴컴컴컴캑                    쳐컴컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
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읕컴컴컴켸                 4 X 2 MIP      쳐컴컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컨컴
旼컴컴컴커                                                                 
  Tape                  Multimax 310    쳐컴컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컨컴
 Drive  쳐컴컴컴컴컴캑                                                     
읕컴컴컴켸                                쳐컴컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컨컴컴컨컴   旼컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                      읕컫컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴켸                                     Port     
                                             旼컴컴컴컴컴컴커                Selector     
                                     쳐컴컴컴캑   Console                                
                                旼컴컨컴컴컴    Hardcopy                읕쩡컫컴쩡컫컴쬔 
                                  Console                                         32 Lines
                                            읕컴컴컴컴컴컴켸             旼좔컨컴좔컨컴좆
                                    CRT                                                
                                읕컴컴컴컴컴                                 Annex 01   
                                                                                         
                                                                           읕컴컴컴쩡컴컴켸
Ethernet  컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                                                                旼컴컴좔컴컴  
                                                                 Annex 00    
                                                                             
                                                                읕컫컴컴컫컴  
                                                          旼컴컴컴컨커 旼좔컴컴컴커
                                                            mtlzr      mt_600  
                                                                               
                                                          읕컴컴컴컴켸 읕컴컴컴컴켸        

                                            NOTES
複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複
APPENDIX N:  BASIC UNIX REVIEW


Write the letter(s) of the UNIX component that best fit each
description.


K  =  Kernel         S  =  Shell          U  =  Utilities             D  =  Directory


_____         1.     Uses standard syntax for all commands.

_____         2.     Schedules tasks and manages data storage.

_____         3.     Memory resident code.

_____         4.     Main interface between UNIX and users.

_____         5.     Heart of the operating system.

_____         6.     Can be easily combined to perform the exact
                     function which the user desires.

_____         7.     Path name concept.

_____         8.     Written mostly in the "C" programming language.

_____         9.     Multi-level directory structure.

_____         10.    Uses pipes and filters.

_____         11.    Supports control structures.

_____         12.    Includes text processing, electronic mail, file
                     manipulation, and program generation.
                                            NOTES
複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複複
                                            INDEX


. (dot)..................................................................................63
.. (dot dot).............................................................................63
Access modes.............................................................................37
Annex Commands
       call..............................................................................16
       hangup............................................................................21
BourneShell prompt........................................................................6
BSD UNIX..................................................................................2
Current working directory................................................................63
Expiration period........................................................................19
FTP Commands............................................................................108
       !................................................................................116
       ?................................................................................123
       cd...............................................................................119
       close............................................................................121
       get remote-file..................................................................113
       help.............................................................................123
       lcd..............................................................................115
       ls...............................................................................120
       open host........................................................................109
       Password.........................................................................110
       put..............................................................................117
       quit.............................................................................122
       status...........................................................................124
Kernel...................................................................................33
KornShell.................................................................................2
Mailx Commands...........................................................................74
       ?.................................................................................82
       d.................................................................................80
       S.............................................................................77, 78
MICOM....................................................................................14
Number links.............................................................................37
On-line manual pages.....................................................................25
Ownership and group affiliation..........................................................37
Parent...................................................................................64
Password.................................................................................19
Pathname.................................................................................57
PROCOMM+.................................................................................14
Protections..............................................................................34
Redirection..........................................................................94, 95
Root directory............................................................................4
Scrolling................................................................................10
Shell.....................................................................................1
Standard input...........................................................................93
Standard output..........................................................................93
Subdirectory.............................................................................61
System V UNIX.............................................................................2
TAB.....................................................................................153
TCP/IP..................................................................................107
Terminal nodes............................................................................3
UMAX.....................................................................................19
UNIX Commands
       assist...........................................................................151
       cancel............................................................................48
       cat...............................................................................40
       cd................................................................................61
       chmod.............................................................................35
       cp............................................................................49, 50
       exit..............................................................................20
       file..............................................................................39
       lp................................................................................45
       lpstat............................................................................47
       ls................................................................................37
       mkdir.............................................................................58
       mv................................................................................62
       pg................................................................................42
       pwd...............................................................................57
       rmdir.............................................................................59
       tail..............................................................................43
UNIX filesystem...........................................................................3
UNIX Keyboard Function Commands
       #..................................................................................9
       @..................................................................................9
       Ctrl-D............................................................................20
       Ctrl-Q............................................................................10
       Ctrl-S............................................................................10
       Delete............................................................................10
       Hold Screen.......................................................................10
UNIX Primer Plus........................................................................153
vi Commands
       :!shell-cmd......................................................................147
       :q!..............................................................................145
       :r !shell-cmd....................................................................147
       :r filename......................................................................147
       :w...............................................................................145
       :w newfile.......................................................................147
       :wq..............................................................................146
Wildcards...............................................................................100

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