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TUCoPS :: Networks :: nwhack2.htm

Novell Part 2 -- Other Security Items



Hacking Netware - Other Security Items

Section 02 - Other Security Items

02-1. What is Accounting?

02-2. How do I defeat Accounting?

02-3. What is Intruder Detection?

02-4. What are station/time restrictions?

02-5. How do I spoof my node or IP address?

02-6. How do I defeat console logging?

02-7. How does password encryption work?

02-8. Can I set the RCONSOLE password to work for just Supervisor?

02-9. Can access to .NCF files help me?


Section 02

Other Security Items

02-1. What is Accounting?

Accounting is Novell's pain in the butt way to control and manage access to the server in a way that is "accountable". The admin set up charge rates for blocks read and written, service requests, connect time, and disk storage. The account "pays" for the service by being given some number, and the accounting server deduces for these items. How the account actually pays for these items (departmental billing, cash, whatever) you may or may not want to know about, but the fact that it could be installed could leave a footprint that you've been there.

Any valid account, including non-supe accounts, can check to see if Accounting is turned on. Simply run SYSCON and try to access Accounting, if you get a message that Accounting is not installed, then guess what? Since it is a pain to administer, many sys admins will turn it on simply to time-stamp each login and logout, track intruders, and include the node address and account name of each of these items.

02-2. How do I defeat Accounting?

Turn it off. And spoof your node address. Here's the steps -

Servers, hitting the delete key, and answering yes when asked if you wish to delete accounting. The last entry in the NET$ACCT.DAT file will be your login time-stamped with the spoofed node address.

If you can't spoof the address (some LAN cards don't allow it or require extra drivers you may not have), just turn off Accounting and leave it off or delete the NET$ACCT.DAT file located in the SYS:SYSTEM directory.

It should be noted that to turn off and on Accounting you need supe equivalent, but you don't need supe equivalence to spoof the address.

02-3. What is Intruder Detection?

Intruder Detection is Novell's way of tracking invalid password attempts. While this feature is turned off by default, most sites practicing any type of security will at minimum turn this feature on. There are several parameters to Intruder Detection. First, there is a setting for how long the server will remember a bad password attempt. Typically this is set to 30 minutes, but can be as short as 10 minutes of as long as 7 days. Then there is a setting for how many attempts will lockout the account. This is usually 3 attempts, but can be as short as 1 or as many as 7. Finally is the length the account is locked out. The default is 30 minutes but it can range from 10 minutes to 7 days.

When an Intruder Detection occurs, the server beeps and a time-stamped message is displayed on the System Console with the account name that is now locked out and the node address from where to attempt came from. This is also written to the File Server Error Log. A Supervisor or equivalent can unlock the account before it frees itself up, and the File Server Error Log can also be erased by a Supervisor or equivalent.

In a large shop, it is not unusual to see Intruder Lockouts even on a daily basis, and forgetting a password is a typical regular-user thing to do. Intruder Lockouts on Supervisor or equivalent account is usually noticed.

02-4. What are station/time restrictions?

Time restrictions can be placed on an account to limit the times in which an account can be logged in. In the account is already logged in and the time changes to a restricted time, the account is logged out. The restriction can be per weekday down to the half hour. That means that if an admin wants to restrict an account from logging in except on Monday through Friday from 8-5, it can be done. Only Supervisor and equivalents can alter time restrictions. Altering the time at the workstation will not get you around time restrictions, only altering time at the server can change the ability to access.

Station restriction place a restriction on where an account can be used.

Restrictions can be to a specific token ring or ethernet segment, and can be specific down to the MAC layer address, or node address. The only way around a station restriction at the node address is to spoof the address from a workstation on the same segment or ring as the address you are spoofing. Like time restrictions, only Supervisor and equivalents can alter station restrictions.

02-5. How do I spoof my node or IP address?

This will depend greatly on what kind of network interface card (NIC) the workstation has, as to whether you can perform this function. Typically you can do it in the Link Driver section of the NET.CFG file by adding the following line - NODE ADDRESS xxxxxxxxxxxx where xxxxxxxxxxxx is the 12 digit MAC layer address. This assumes you are using Netware's ODI drivers, if you are using NDIS drivers you will have to add the line to a PROTOCOL.INI or IBMENII.NIF file, which usually has the lines already in it.

For an IP address, you may have to run a TCPIP config program to make it work (it depends on whose IP stack you are running). Some implementations will have the mask, the default router and the IP address in the NET.CFG, some in the TCPIP.CFG. It is a good idea to look around in all network-related subdirectories to see if there are any .CFG, .INI, or .NIF files that may contain addresses.

Getting the target node address should be pretty easy. Login with any account and do a USERLIST /A. This will list all accounts currently logged in with their network and node address. If your workstation is on the same network as the target, you can spoof the address no problem. Actually you can spoof the address regardless but to defeat station restrictions you must be on the same network.

02-6. How do I defeat console logging?

Here you need console and Supervisor access. The site is running 3.11 or higher and running the CONLOG.NLM. Any site running this is trapping all console messages to a file. If you run SETPWD at the console, the response by SETPWD is written to a log file. Here's the steps for determining if it is running and what to do to defeat it:

02-7. How does password encryption work?

- From itsme -
the password encryption works as follows:
  1. the workstation requests a session key from the server (NCP-17-17)
  2. the server sends a unique 8 byte key to the workstation
  3. the workstation encrypts the password with the userid, - this 16 byte value is what is stored in the bindery on the server
  4. the WS then encrypts this 16 byte value with the 8 byte session key resulting in 8 bytes, which it sends to the server (NCP-17-18 = login), (NCP-17-4a = verify pw) (NCP-17-4b = change pw)
  5. the server performs the same encryption, and compares its own result with that sent by the WS
the information contained in the net$*.old files which can be found in the system directory after bindfix was run, is enough to login to the server as any object. just skip step 3

02-8. Can I set the RCONSOLE password to work for just Supervisor?

Yes and no. In version 3.x, the Supe password always works.

A common mistake regarding 3.x RCONSOLE passwords is to use a switch to use only the Supervisor password. It works like this:

LOAD REMOTE /P= , instead of
LOAD REMOTE RCONPASSWORD

The admin believes /P= turns off everything except the Supe password for RCONSOLE. In fact the password is just set to /P= which will get you in! The second most common mistake is using -S.

Version 4.1 is a bit different. Here's how it works:

You can call LDREMOTE from your AUTOEXEC.NCF, or you can change the LOAD REMOTE line in the AUTOEXEC.NCF as follows:

LOAD REMOTE SECRET ; becomes
LOAD REMOTE -E 870B7E366363

02-9. Can access to .NCF files help me?

Access to any .NCF file can bypass security, as these files are traditionally run from the console and assume the security access of the console. The addition of a few lines to any .NCF file can get you access to that system.

The most vulnerable file would be the AUTOEXEC.NCF file. Adding a couple of lines to run BURGLAR.NLM or SETPWD.NLM would certainly get you access. But remember there are other .NCF files that can be used and exploited. For example, ASTART.NCF and ASTOP.NCF are used to start and stop Arcserve, the most popular backup system for Netware. The LDREMOTE.NCF as mentioned in section 02-8 is another potential target.

The lines you might add to such a file might be as follows:

UNLOAD CONLOG
LOAD SETPWD SUPERVISOR SECRET
CLS
LOAD CONLOG

This assumes you had read/write access to the location of the .NCF file and can copy SETPWD.NLM to the server. Note that by unloading CONLOG you are only partially covering your tracks, in the CONSOLE.LOG file it will be obvious that CONLOG was unloaded and reloaded. The CLS is to keep your activities off of the server's screen.

The best .NCF for this is obviously one that is either used during the server's boot process or during some automated process. This way a short .NCF and its activities may escape the eyes of an admin during execution.


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