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NIC 60001, September 1991                                 DDN New User Guide












                             DDN NEW USER GUIDE




                               September 1991






                                   Editor:
                               Barbara Varallo


                       First Edition:  December 1985
                       Revised:  November 1987
                       Second Edition:  February 1991
                       Third Edition:  September 1991






Prepared by the DDN Network Information Center, Government Systems
Incorporated, 14200 Park Meadow Drive, Suite 200, Chantilly, VA 22021.  Copies
may also be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC),
Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314.

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NIC 60001, September 91                        DDN New User Guide


      [ NOTE:  This document is set up for printing in 12 cpi
      non-proportional font.  The top and bottom margins are set
      at .25 with three blank lines above the header and four below
      the footer.  Right and left margins are presumed to be one
      inch.  Hard page breaks (^L) have been inserted. ]









                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The DDN New User Guide was prepared by the DDN Network Information Center for
the Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems Organization
(DISA DNSO) under contract number DCA 200-90-R-0029.

The NIC wishes to acknowledge the valuable services that the Host
Administrators and Node Site Coordinators have provided to the network
community and to the development of this guide.


UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.  TOPS 20 is a
registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.  InfoMail is a
trademark of BBN Communications Division.  PostScript is a registered
trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.  Procomm is a trademark of Datastorm
Technologies, Inc.

DDN New User Guide.  Printed and bound in the United States of America. 
Published by the DDN Network Information Center, 14200 Park Meadow Drive,
Suite 200, Chantilly, VA 22021.






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NIC 60001, September 91                                     DDN New User Guide


                            TABLE OF CONTENTS


SECTION 1.  INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
   1.1  Welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
   1.2  Using This Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   1.3  Document Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   1.3.1  User Input Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   1.3.2  Machine Output Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   1.3.3  Comment Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   1.3.4  Typing Control Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

SECTION 2.  THE DEFENSE DATA NETWORK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   2.1  Network Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   2.2  Network Access Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   2.3  Organization of the DDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   2.4  Development of the DDN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   2.5  The Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems 
        Organization (DISA DNSO). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

SECTION 3.  NETWORK CONNECTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
   3.1  Host Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
   3.2  TAC Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
   3.3  Gateway Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
   3.4  A Word About Personal Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

SECTION 4.  DDN TAC ACCESS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
   4.1  TAC Card Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
   4.1.1  TAC User Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
   4.1.1.1  Users Behind Concentrators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
   4.1.2  TAC Card Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
   4.1.2.1  Common TAC Card Userid/Access-Code Input Errors . . . . . . . .17
   4.1.3  Obtaining the TAC Users' Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
   4.2  TAC Login Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
   4.2.1  Connecting to a TAC/Mini-TAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
   4.2.1.1  Dial-up TACs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
   4.2.1.2  Using a Terminal with an Acoustic Coupler . . . . . . . . . . .19
   4.2.1.3  Using a Dial-up Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
   4.2.1.4  Using a PC and Communications Software. . . . . . . . . . . . .19
   4.2.1.5  Hard-Wired TACs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

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   4.2.2  TAC Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
   4.2.3  Common TAC Login Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
   4.2.3.1  TAC Login Error Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
   4.2.3.2  Host Connection Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
   4.2.4  Changing the TAC Intercept Character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
   4.2.5  Using a TAC for File Transfer (FTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
   4.2.5.1  Changing the Intercept Character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
   4.2.5.2  Setting Flow Control on the TAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
   4.2.5.3  Putting the TAC in Binary Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
   4.2.6  A Brief Word About Mini-TACs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

SECTION 5.  NETWORK USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
   5.1  Electronic Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
   5.1.1  UNIX Mail Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
          Sending Mail Via UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
          Reading UNIX Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
          Getting Help for UNIX Mail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
   5.1.2  InfoMail Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
          Sending a Message Via InfoMail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
          Reading Mail with InfoMail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
          Getting Help for InfoMail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
   5.2  File Transfer Protocol (FTP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
   5.2.1  Transferring a File on a UNIX System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
   5.2.2  How to FTP a Directory Listing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
   5.3  Using TELNET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
   5.3.1  Invoking TELNET with the Hostname on the Command Line . . . . . .42
   5.3.2  TELNET Using Host Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

SECTION 6.  DDN NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER (NIC). . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
   6.1  Contacting the NIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
   6.1.1  NIC User Assistance Help Desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
   6.1.2  NIC Host. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
   6.1.3  NIC Online Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
   6.1.4  NIC U.S. Mail Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
   6.2  NIC Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
   6.2.1  Network and User Registration Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
   6.2.2  Usage-Sensitive Billing Service Desk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
   6.2.3  Security Coordination Center (SCC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
   6.3  NIC User Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
   6.3.1  WHOIS/NICNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

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   6.3.1.1  Accessing WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
            From a TAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
            From a DDN Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
            Via Electronic Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   6.3.1.2  Using WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   6.3.1.3  WHOIS Search Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
            WHOIS Search by Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
            WHOIS Search by Partial Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
            WHOIS Search by Handle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
            WHOIS Search by Hostname. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
            WHOIS Search by TAC Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
            WHOIS Search by PSN Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
            WHOIS Search by Network Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
            WHOIS Search by Domain Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
   6.3.2  NIC/QUERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   6.3.3  TACNEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
   6.3.4  NIC Kermit Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   6.3.5  NIC Automated Mail Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   6.4  Documents Published by the NIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
   6.5  Online Reference Files at the NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

SECTION 7.  SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS AND NETWORK CONDUCT . . . . . . . .. 73
   7.1  Requirements for Legitimate DDN Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
   7.2  Security Considerations and Guidelines for Network Conduct. . . . 73
   7.3  Network Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
   7.3.1  Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
   7.3.2  File Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
   7.3.3  Plagiarism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   7.3.4  Mail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
   7.4  Additional Security Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

SECTION 8.  NETWORK CONCEPTS OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
   8.1  Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
   8.2  Usage Sensitive Billing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
   8.3  Network Concentrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
   8.4  Network Addressing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
   8.4.1  Finding Network Address Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
   8.4.2  Obtaining Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
   8.4.3  Knowing Your Network Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
   8.5  The Domain Name System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
   8.6  Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) . . . . . 89

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NIC 60001, September 1991                                 DDN New User Guide


SECTION 9.  NETWORK SERVICE CENTERS AND CONTACTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
   9.1  The DDN Network Information Center (NIC). . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
   9.1.1  General Reference Service Provided by the NIC . . . . . . . . . 91
   9.1.2  NIC Online Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
   9.1.3  NIC U.S. Mail Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
   9.2  Network Monitoring Centers (NMCs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
   9.2.1  NMC Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
   9.2.2  NMC Contacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
   9.2.3  NMC U.S. Mail Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
   9.3  Host Administrators and Node Site Coordinators. . . . . . . . . . 93
   9.4  Military Communications and Operations Command Contacts . . . . . 94
   9.5  Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network
        Systems Organization (DISA DNSO). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
   9.6  Network Use Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

SECTION 10.  BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

SECTION 11.  GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

APPENDIX A.  NETWORK RESOURCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

APPENDIX B.  COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112

INDEX


                              LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 2-1     Methods of Accessing the Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Figure 4-1     TAC Card Illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 6-1     User Registration Template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Figure 8-1     Internet Address Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84





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NIC 60001, September 1991                                 DDN New User Guide


                           SECTION 1.  INTRODUCTION

1.1   Welcome

Welcome to the Defense Data Network, or the DDN, as it is more commonly
called.  The DDN is a powerful operational military network.  It might be
thought of as an "umbrella" network composed of several large segments or
subnetworks.  The unclassified portion of the DDN is a subnetwork known as the
MILNET.  The MILNET connects the DDN to an even larger network that includes
military contractors, universities, and research centers; this entire
collection of interconnected networks is called the Internet.  Its users
number in the thousands.  It is the MILNET on which this document focuses.

The DDN New User Guide explains the policies, concepts, and conventions of the
DDN, with major emphasis on the MILNET.  The Guide contains an overview of and
a tutorial introduction to the DDN, along with descriptions of its more
interesting network programs and services.  It is not intended to be a highly
technical document, and it does not cover the procedures for attaching
hardware, terminals, or other equipment to the network.  This information is
provided in other documents [1,2].

Originally, the MILNET was an integral part of the research network known as
the ARPANET (after the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which was the
sponsor).  In 1984, the MILNET and the ARPANET were physically separated, and
gateways were installed to allow traffic to be interchanged between the MILNET
and the research networks sponsored by DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency).  By 1990, the original ARPANET technology had become
obsolete, and the ARPANET was discontinued in June of that year.

The DDN affords its users a wealth of services and resources.  Many of your
colleagues already work on the network, and you will be able to communicate
with them quickly and easily, even though they may be hundreds of miles away. 
The DDN also allows you to participate in discussions about topics of interest
to you and gives you the opportunity to use network programs and tools to
enhance your own capabilities.

Using a computer network is not difficult.  However, as with any new tool,
using it proficiently requires learning some procedures and guidelines and
practicing your new skills.  The DDN New User Guide will provide the
background information necessary to get you started.  We hope you find it a
useful introduction to the DDN.

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1.2  Using This Guide

The DDN New User Guide is written for the beginning user and should be
supplemented with reading from other sources.  Network-specific terms are
defined both in context and in the Glossary (Section 11).  Throughout the
text, references appear in the form "[n]".  The bracketed numbers refer to
citations in the Bibliography (Section 10), which lists documents containing
additional explanatory or background information.  Also, check online help
systems and the documentation that usually accompanies the network programs
you use.  (Watch for pointers to online help files when you first access a
program or service.)  We encourage you to expand your knowledge of the network
by consulting these and other information sources whenever you can.

The Guide is divided into sections and subsections, each covering topics of
interest to a new user.  A summary of the contents of each section follows.

     *  Section 1 (this section) is a brief introduction to the Guide.

     *  Section 2, The Defense Data Network, describes the structure of the
        DDN and its administration.  It also describes the MILNET and the 
        role of the Defense Network System Organization (DNSO).  It provides
        a brief historical sketch of the evolution of the DDN from the
        original ARPANET.

     *  Section 3, Network Connection, describes the ways in which various
        machines access the network.

     *  Section 4, DDN TAC Access, describes the procedures for obtaining 
        and using a TAC Access Card and provides detailed procedures for
        accessing the network through a Terminal Access Controller (TAC) or
        a Mini-TAC.  Also included is background information that will be
        helpful to TAC and Mini-TAC users, such as common error messages, 
        TAC commands, and instructions for performing file transfers.

     *  Section 5, Network Use, provides "how-to" instructions for some of
        the DDN's most useful services, such as electronic mail programs, FTP,
        and TELNET.

     *  Section 6, The DDN Network Information Center (NIC), describes in
        detail the databases, programs, files, documents, and services offered
        by the NIC.

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     *  Section 7, Security Considerations and Network Conduct, explains the
        legal and courtesy standards of the network.  The importance of host
        and network security is discussed, and in Section 7.1, the require-
        ments for legitimate access to the DDN are defined.  Be sure to read
        the etiquette section (Section 7.3).  Adhering to the guidelines given
        there will decrease your chances of unwittingly offending other users
        during your first days on the net.

     *  Section 8, Network Concepts Overview, provides some background
        information on terms and concepts that a new user might hear but not
        understand.  This section includes discussions on topics such as the
        Domain Name System (DNS), network addressing, Government Open Systems
        Interconnection Profile (GOSIP), and gateway concentrators.

     *  Section 9, Network Service Centers and Contacts, describes network
        service providers and how to reach them.  The DDN Network Information
        Center (NIC) is logically the first place to look for information
        unavailable at the local level.  The NIC can help you solve network
        use problems, locate documents and resources, or identify appropriate
        points of contact (POCs) for further assistance.

     *  Sections 10 and 11 are a Bibliography and a Glossary of terms used in
        this guide.

     *  The appendices contain information about resources available to
        network users and answers to some of the questions most often asked
        by new users.

     *  A feedback form is located at the back of the Guide.  We encourage our
        readers to use the form to make suggestions or point out errors.  We
        value your comments and suggestions and will consider them for future
        versions of the DDN New User Guide.  You may also send suggestions
        online to SUGGESTIONS@NIC.DDN.MIL.









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1.3  Document Conventions

      [NOTE:  Most of the printing/typographic conventions described here 
      do not apply to the online version of this document.  They are visible
      only in the hard-copy version.]

This document uses several printing conventions to identify the difference
between characters you type (input) and those that a computer prints to your
screen (output).  These conventions are described below.

Unless otherwise indicated, all user input is terminated by pressing the
carriage return or Enter key on your keyboard.  (Pressing this key does not
cause a visible character to be printed.)  In this document, the carriage
return or Enter key is represented as <Return>.  Both input and output are
characterized by a typewriter-like font to further differentiate them from the
surrounding text.


1.3.1  User Input Display

Your input (i.e., the characters you type) is represented in bold typeface:

         Your input looks like this.     


1.3.2  Machine Output Display

A non-bold, non-proportional font represents machine prompts, messages, and
other output.

         Machine text looks like this.   


1.3.3  Comment Display

In examples or instructions, Italics indicate comments we have inserted for
further clarification.

         Our comments look like this.



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1.3.4  Typing Control Characters

In using the network, it may sometimes be necessary for you to type special
characters known as control characters.  These characters are often
represented in documentation by a letter prefixed with the circumflex
character "^" -- e.g., ^y.  When entering these control characters, you must
press the control key simultaneously with the desired letter.  For example, if
you see a "^y" in input instructions, this indicates a control-y, and it means
that you should press the control key while you type the letter "y". 
Throughout this Guide, the control key is represented by the circumflex,
unless otherwise stated.































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NIC 60001, September 1991                                 DDN New User Guide



                     SECTION 2.  THE DEFENSE DATA NETWORK


2.1  Network Overview

When you access a local computer, you are largely unaware of what kind of link
connects your terminal to the computer you wish to use.  The terminal seems to
be the computer, since it prints or displays what is happening.  As you
progress in your work, you may need to move data from your local computer onto
another computer, or you may wish to send a message to a colleague working on
a computer at a distant location.  At this point, the usefulness of a
communication network becomes apparent.

A communication network is a group of computers joined by data-carrying links.
A network may be as small as two or three personal computers tied together by
local telephone lines and located in the same building, or it may be a vast
complex of computers spread over the world, whose data links include long-haul
telephone lines, satellite relays, fiber-optic cables, or radio links.  It is
also possible for several different networks to be interconnected to form an
"internetwork" or "internet."

Everyone is familiar with telephones.  Phone sets inside the house connect to
outside lines that lead into nearby local or regional telephone exchanges. 
These exchanges are connected to make up one or more national telephone
systems.  The national telephone systems communicate with each other to make
up an international telephone network.  There are also private telephone
systems that are totally separate from the public telephone system and have
their own equipment.

Computer networks follow a similar pattern.  Local area networks (called LANs)
may connect computers within a building or in different buildings.  A LAN may
remain separate, or it may interconnect to regional, national, or worldwide
commercial or government networks.  Many of these large and small networks are
gradually interconnecting through gateways to form a worldwide system of data
networks similar to the telephone system.  Indeed, since many computer
networks use telephone communication lines to carry data from one computer to
the next, the two systems are closely interwoven.




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You do not need detailed knowledge of this technology to use a network, but
you do need to understand the concept of going through layers of equipment and
interconnections.  Effective network use also requires knowing the online
addresses of people or machines with which you wish to communicate and knowing
your own network address as well.

The DDN is a special kind of data network known as a packet-switched network. 
On this network, a terminal or a source host computer (generally just called a
host) passes a message along with its destination address to the local Packet
Switching Node (PSN) computer.  The PSN breaks the message into packets, or
smaller chunks of data.  Each of these packets has the same destination
address and source address as the original message, plus a sequence number
indicating which piece of the original message it represents.  The packets are
passed from PSN to PSN until they reach the destination PSN, where they are
reassembled in their original order and delivered to the destination host.

A packet switched network differs from a circuit-switched network in that no
predetermined dedicated path exists for delivery of the data.  Each packet
takes the best route that it can find at the time, and all the packets in a
message do not necessarily take the same route.  Once the packets arrive at
the destination PSN, they are reassembled in the correct sequence and
delivered to the destination host as a complete message.


2.2  Network Access Methods

The Defense Data Network (DDN) is made up of a variety of equipment.  Its
users provide terminals, modems, and host computers.  The DDN supplies node
computers, encryption equipment, and leased telephone lines.  You can reach
the network from your terminal in several ways by using different combinations
of hardware in conjunction with different network programs.  These network
connection methods are shown in Figure 2-1.

      [NOTE:  Because of software limitations, figures are not visible in 
      the online version of this document.]





                 Figure 2-1.  Methods of Accessing the Network

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A terminal may reach a host in several ways.  

     *  A wire or cable may run directly from the terminal to the computer;
        this is called a hard-wired terminal.  

     *  A terminal may communicate with a computer via a telephone connected
        to the terminal through a modem or acoustic coupler; this is called a
        dial-up terminal.

Dial-up terminals generally connect to the network at 1200 bits per second
(bps), although other speeds can be used.

      [NOTE:  The speed setting of both your terminal and your modem must
      be the same to enable the two devices to communicate properly with
      one another.]

With the appropriate equipment, personal computers may also be used as
terminals.  In this case, the personal computer emulates (or acts like) a
terminal when it is used in terminal mode.

A terminal may be directly attached to a local area network (LAN) or to a
local switch (similar to a telephone switch).  The user of such a terminal can
reach any computer on the LAN or any computer connected to the switch.  The
LAN may also be connected to the DDN through a gateway, which is a computer
whose software can direct traffic from the LAN onto the larger long-haul
network and vice versa.


2.3  Organization of the DDN

The Defense Data Network is a large military common-user data communications
internetwork operated for the Department of Defense (DoD) by the Defense
Network Systems Organization (DNSO) of the Defense Information Systems Agency
(DISA).  The DDN is made up of several networks.  The MILNET is the DDN
network that is connected to the Internet.


2.4  Development of the DDN

As mentioned previously, the MILNET is an unclassified military network that
is part of the DDN.  It was built using technology developed as part of the
ARPANET, which was the prototype packet-switched network.

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The ARPANET was built by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
in 1969 as an experiment to determine the viability of a store-and-forward,
host-to-host, packet-switched network.  The network designers wanted to
demonstrate that computers made by different manufacturers, of different
sizes, and running different operating systems, could communicate with one
another across a network.  It was envisioned that users of such a network
could share programs and communicate via the network with other users at
distant locations.  The experiment was successful, and today many data
networks are modeled after the ARPANET.

In 1979, the Department of Defense decided to interconnect several DoD
long-haul computer networks through a set of internet protocols so that these
networks could share the same backbone of node computers linked by high-speed
telephone lines.  Protocols are rules or standards by which computers
communicate on a network.  

The ARPANET protocols were developed by researchers known as the Internet
Working Group (IWG), under the sponsorship of the DARPA Information Processing
Techniques Office (IPTO).  The protocols were tested for several years on the
ARPANET, and they proved useful for creating the networking environment that
the DoD wanted.

In 1982, the DoD issued a directive [3] adopting a single set of communication
protocols based on the ARPANET protocols.  This was followed later in 1982 by
a directive [4] to create the DDN as a parent, or umbrella, operational
military network made up of several existing or planned DoD computer networks.

By 1983, the ARPANET, which was still considered an experimental network, had
grown to over 300 computers, many used for day-to-day operational military
purposes as well as for research.  Other military users were seeking
networking services.  To meet this growing need for an operational military
network, the DoD evaluated several network architectures and finally chose the
DARPA Internet architecture as the model for its common-user communications
network, the DDN.

In September 1984, the original ARPANET was split into two separate
unclassified networks--a military research and development network (ARPANET)
and a military operational communications network (MILNET).  The split
returned to DARPA a network for experimentation and established an
unclassified military network able to accommodate the DoD's growing
operational needs.

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In June 1990, the ARPANET was officially dissolved.  Many sites that were
formerly part of the ARPANET are now connected to the National Science
Foundation Network, NSFNet.  The MILNET remains under the administration of
DISA.  Plans for upgrading and expanding the current network are now underway.

A Defense Research Internet (DRI) will meet defense needs, while the National
Research and Education Network (NREN) will provide a national forum for
research and education.


2.5  The Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems
     Organization (DISA DNSO)

DISA's Defense Network Systems Organization (DNSO) evolved from the Defense
Communications System Organization in 1991 (the same year in which DISA
evolved from the Defense Communications Agency).  The DNSO handles overall
management, operations, and policy guidelines for the DDN.  It assists new
military subscribers in bringing their computers and related equipment onto
the DDN.

The DNSO provides many services to network users and potential network
subscribers.  It is responsible for

     *   Keeping the network "up and running,"
     *   Providing user assistance,
     *   Setting policies and guidelines,
     *   Anticipating growth and expansion,
     *   Assisting new subscribers.

Among its other duties, the DNSO also

     *   Manages access control and security for the network backbone,
     *   Designates host and node contacts,
     *   Coordinates military sponsors,
     *   Provides technical management of contracts for services, equipment,
         and software obtained from outside vendors.

To provide operational management support for the DDN, the DISA DNSO has
designated a person to act as the primary Point of Contact (POC) for
operations for each of the DDN networks.  For example, the MILNET Manager is
responsible for MILNET operations.  One of his/her duties is to approve all
host connections to the MILNET and all changes to such connections.  For
information about how to contact the current MILNET Manager or any of the
other DDN network managers, you may contact the DDN Network Information
Center.  (See Section 6.1.1.)
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                        SECTION 3.  NETWORK CONNECTION


3.1  Host Access

To open a connection through the network from one host to another, you must
first log in to one of the hosts from a terminal.  After logging in, you may
open a connection across the network to a second host.  Once this connection
is established, you may log in to the remote host computer and work there. 
When you finish and log out of the remote computer, the network connection is
closed and you are back where you began--still logged in to the first host. 
In this way, it is easy to use the resources of more than one computer
(assuming that you have a valid account on each system).

The direct host-to-host connection just described is called a TELNET
connection.  TELNET is a valuable network tool, because it lets you use
programs and utilities on remote machines that may not be available locally. 
You may also open a specialized host-to-host link called a file transfer or
FTP connection.  (FTP is the acronym for File Transfer Protocol.)  FTP allows
you to copy or transfer files from one host to another.  Sections 5.1.2 and
5.1.3 provide specific details for executing host-to-host FTP and TELNET
connections.


3.2  TAC Access

You can access the network by connecting a hard-wired or dial-up terminal to a
terminal access controller, or TAC, and then logging into the TAC by entering
a valid Userid and Access Code (password).  When a wire or cable runs directly
from a terminal to a TAC, it is called a "hard-wired" terminal.  A TAC allows
a wide variety of terminals to communicate directly with any host on the
network without going through an intervening host.  After logging into a TAC,
you can reach a network host by specifying its host address.  You may also
establish this type of connection on a Mini-TAC (see Section 4.2.6).

      [NOTE:  You must be a registered, authorized user to obtain a TAC
      Userid and Access Code.  See details in Section 4.1.1.]




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3.3  Gateway Access

If a computer is attached to a LAN or a non-DDN network, a gateway or
concentrator manages communication between the local network and the DDN.  The
gateway is transparent--that is, you should be unaware that it is there.  Some
sites do not allow traffic to flow from the DDN to their internal network.  In
such cases, the gateway exists and is functional, but you must use the gateway
host itself to perform any tasks that require access to the DDN (e.g., to
establish a TELNET or FTP connection to a DDN host).  Electronic mail can
travel over this type of gateway transparently.  Ordinarily, you need no
special commands or syntax to communicate through a gateway.  Figure 2-1
illustrates a gateway connection from a LAN to the DDN, as well as the other
connection strategies discussed in this Section.

      [NOTE:  Because of software limitations, figures are not visible in 
      the ASCII format of the online version of this document.]


3.4  A Word About Personal Computers

Although Personal Computers (PCs) can be attached to the DDN in several ways
(including as hosts), at present, most personal computers on the DDN are not
hosts--that is, they have not implemented the network protocols and are not
attached directly to a PSN.  Functioning simply as terminals, they have no
other capabilities so far as the network is concerned.

Like a terminal, a PC can be connected to a host, Terminal Access Controller
(TAC), or Mini-TAC through either a dedicated or a dial-up line.  In these
cases, the PC needs special software that allows it to imitate a terminal.

Once you have assembled the proper equipment, you will need to configure the
software for your particular system.  You will often need to set the following
parameters:

     speed           The baud rate (in bits per second) at which data is sent
                     and received; usually 300 or 1200 baud if your connection
                     is through a dial-up modem.  However, 9.6 dial-up service
                     is currently being introduced.  For direct lines, check
                     with your Node Site Coordinator.

      data bits      Usually set at 8

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      stop bits      Usually set at 1

      parity         Usually set to "even" or "none"

If these settings do not work, ask local user representatives or host
personnel what your system requires.  Consult the documentation that
accompanies your personal computer, software, and/or modem for details of
operation.

Local site representatives should be the first point of contact for PC-related
problems.  If you have no such representative, contact the Host Administrator
for the host you are trying to reach.  The NIC may also be able to help with
some of the problems you encounter.  Check to see if your organization has a
PC users group, as other users can be a valuable source of advice.  In
addition, the network has several general and machine-specific PC interest
groups that can provide a broad range of information and answers.  (See
Appendix A for information on these groups, and see Section 4.2.5 for a
discussion of transferring files through a TAC or Mini-TAC to a PC.)
























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                           SECTION 4.  DDN TAC ACCESS

This section provides information about TAC cards and explains how to use a
TAC or Mini-TAC to log on to the network and set it to transfer files.  It
also provides information on special settings that may be required to allow
the TAC/Mini-TAC to transfer files and function more efficiently.


4.1  TAC Card Information

The following paragraphs explain how users are registered to receive TAC
cards, what items are printed on a TAC card, and how to get a TAC Users'
Guide.


4.1.1  TAC User Registration

If you are unable to connect directly to your host computer, you will be
issued a TAC Access Card that allows you to access your host via a TAC or
Mini-TAC.  Whether you are located hundreds or thousands of miles away from
the host or right next door, you will need a TAC card only if you cannot
access your host directly.

TAC access requires official authorization from a MILNET Host Administrator,
as well as the assignment of a unique TAC Userid and Access Code (Password).

After official authorization, the NIC issues each MILNET TAC user a TAC Access
Card containing a Userid and Access Code.  The NIC cannot issue a card until
it has received approval from the Host Administrator for the user's primary
MILNET host.

      [NOTE:  If you need a TAC card for a limited time, your Host
      Administrator can probably issue you a TAC guest card, which is
      good for up to three months.  If you need such temporary access,
      contact your Host Administrator.]

Regardless of whether you normally use a direct connection to your host, you
may need a TAC Access Card if you travel extensively.  Because TACs and
Mini-TACs are located all over the world, an Access Card allows you to log in
when you are out of town without incurring long distance phone charges.

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The TAC Access Card contains a Userid and Access Code.  This Userid and Access
Code are to be used only by the person to whom the card is issued.  While
there is a strict policy of limiting TAC cards to one per person, you may have
many DDN host login accounts, and one TAC card can be used to access any of
these accounts.  You do not need a TAC card from each host on which you have
an account.  Any TAC card works on all TACs.

Note that TAC cards are issued to users by individual name only.  They are not
issued to groups of users or entire offices.  This policy applies even when
many users share a single login account.  Not only is this a security measure,
but it also prevents multiple users from losing DDN access when a single card
is invalidated.

If you are using a card issued to another DDN user, please notify the person
listed as the CONTACT on the card.  This is probably your Host Administrator. 
Inform him/her that you are using an account on his/her host and that you wish
to have a TAC card issued in your own name.


4.1.1.1  Users Behind Concentrators

DDN Management Bulletin 76 [5] states that only administrators of hosts that
are directly connected to the MILNET can authorize TAC or Mini-TAC Access
Cards for their users.  Administrators of hosts that are behind concentrators
or gateways cannot directly authorize their users for TAC access.  Such
administrators will need to transfer jurisdiction over their users to a Host
Administrator associated with a directly-connected MILNET host.  If you are a
user or Host Administrator who has questions about this policy, please send a
message to

                          REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL

or call 1-800-365-DNIC for assistance.

If you access the MILNET via a concentrator, the name of that concentrator,
its address, and its administrator will appear on the HOST, NETADDRESS, and
CONTACT lines of your TAC card.  You may still use your card to access your
primary login account, even if it is on another host; however, you must know
the network address of your primary host.  The administrator of your primary
host can tell you its address.  You must know this address when you log into a
TAC and when you request help with a TAC login problem.

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4.1.2  TAC Card Example

Figure 4-1 is a sample of the left portion of a DDN TAC Access Card.  To help
you understand the information on the TAC card, we have identified what each
information item represents.




























                           Figure 4-1.  TAC Card Example



TAC cards are perforated and include instructions to "detach here" and "fold
here," allowing you to reduce the size of the card so that you may insert it
in a wallet or credit card case.


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      WARNING!!  Do not laminate your TAC Card.  Because of NIC printing
      requirements, blank cards are enclosed within carbon-coated envelopes.
      This carbon material fades very quickly when placed in plastic envelopes
      or when permanently laminated.  This phenomenon also extends to the
      placement of transparent tape over the print.  If you wish to preserve
      or darken the information printed on your card, we recommend that you
      use a ballpoint pen to rewrite it just above or below the appropriate
      item.

The most important information on the right-hand portion of your TAC card is
your mailing address.  However, the NIC includes its toll-free User Assistance
Hotline number on this section of the card in case you lose the left half.  In
addition to the hotline number, the top of the card contains a brief set of
user guidelines.  As an authorized TAC or Mini-TAC user, you are expected to
comply with these guidelines.  If you find yourself in the position of sharing
a TAC Access Card with other users, please notify your Host Administrator and
request a TAC card for each individual.


4.1.2.1  Common TAC Card Userid/Access-Code Input Errors

Just below the guidelines section is a key that shows how each printed
character appears on a TAC card.  The statement, "Access codes never contain a
one, zero, 'Q' or 'Z'" follows.  Remember that these characters are invalid
only in Access Codes and not in Userids.  If you find that the TAC or Mini-TAC
is returning a "Bad Login" error message during your first attempts to log in,
check to see if you are typing one of these invalid characters.  For example,
if you're typing a zero, try the letter O (oscar).  If you're typing a Q
(quebec), try the letter G (golf) instead.  Use the key to compare the printed
characters.  Be aware that other character can also be similar.  For instance,
the 8 (eight) sometimes looks like a B (bravo), and the S (sierra) sometimes
looks like a 5 (five).  TAC card Userids and Access Codes are not case-
sensitive, i.e., you can enter them in either uppercase or lowercase
letters.

If you have any questions about reading or using your TAC access card, call
the NIC for assistance at 1-800-365-DNIC.





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4.1.3  Obtaining the TAC Users' Guide

The paragraph in fine print at the bottom of your TAC card alerts you that
further, more comprehensive information is available to you.  Upon written
request, you can obtain the TAC Users' Guide from the Defense Information
Systems Agency (DISA).  This document is geared toward users who are
interested in learning some of the finer points of TAC usage.

To order the TAC Users' Guide, send a note specifying its title and DCAC
310-P70-74 to the following address:

      Defense Information Systems Agency
      Attn:  Code BIAR
      701 S. Courthouse Road
      Arlington, VA  22204-2199


4.2  TAC Login Procedures

This section discusses how to use a TAC or Mini-TAC to log in to the DDN.  It
also describes how to connect to a TAC or Mini-TAC, lists some common TAC or
Mini-TAC error messages, and presents information about transferring files
through a TAC to a PC.


4.2.1  Connecting to a TAC or Mini-TAC

The following paragraphs explain the various ways in which you can connect to
a TAC or a Mini-TAC.


4.2.1.1  Dial-up TACs

To connect to a TAC/Mini-TAC using the telephone system, follow the general
procedures described here.  Because the exact steps required to dial the
TAC/Mini-TAC depend on your local hardware setup, check with local site
representatives for details.

You may obtain the number of the nearest TAC/Mini-TAC directly from the
network by using the TACNEWS service (see Section 6.3.3) or by calling the NIC
at 1-800-365-DNIC.  You can look up the phone number of a specific TAC or
Mini-TAC via the NIC WHOIS service (see Section 6.3.1).  

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In addition, many TAC/Mini-TAC phone numbers are listed on the back of your
TAC Access Card.


4.2.1.2  Using a Terminal with an Acoustic Coupler

To use an acoustic coupler, first dial the TAC/Mini-TAC number on a telephone
and listen for the dial tone.  When you hear the tone, put the telephone
handset into the indicated position on the coupler cuffs.


4.2.1.3  Using a Dial-up Modem

A dial-up modem will be wired to your telephone and to your terminal. 
(Consult the instructions that come with the modem to attach it to your
terminal and set it properly.)  Begin by dialling the TAC/Mini-TAC number on
the telephone.  Then, wait for the tone, switch the modem from "voice" to
"data," and set the handset back on the telephone cradle.  Note that the speed
of the terminal must match the speed of the modem.  Also note that some modems
are "smart"--that is, you will not have to use the telephone to dial the
number.  Instead, you will type some instructions to your terminal, such as
"DIAL5551212" or "ATDT9,18003682227."  The modem will then dial the number as
instructed and make the connection for you.  See your modem instruction manual
for exact details.


4.2.1.4  Using a PC and Communications Software

To access a TAC/Mini-TAC, you can use one of the popular communications
software packages such as Procomm or Xmodem.  These programs often enable the
PC to dial the TAC/Mini-TAC, open the host connection, and enter your Userid
and Access Code automatically.  If you use such a package, be sure you know
how to dial the TAC/Mini-TAC by hand in case there are problems with the
script or the equipment.  It is also useful to know the address of the host
you connect to and how to alter the script when changes are made to the
network. 

Finally, for security reasons, you should enter your Userid and Access Code
manually when logging in rather than including this information within the
access script.


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4.2.1.5  Hard-Wired TACs

If you are to connect to a host via a hard-wired TAC, you will need to consult
a local user representative or Node Site Coordinator to learn the procedure
for getting to the TAC/Mini-TAC.  The procedure will vary depending upon what
equipment is used and how it is configured at your location.


4.2.2  TAC Login

After you have successfully connected to a TAC/Mini-TAC, you must supply a
"wake-up" character to alert the TAC to your presence.  Do this by holding
down the <Control> key and typing the letter Q on your keyboard (^Q).  The
TAC/Mini-TAC should respond with a banner--often a message from the MILNET
Monitoring Center.

Once the TAC banner is displayed on your screen, you can begin the process of
logging into the TAC/Mini-TAC and connecting to a remote host.

Following is a sample scenario showing how to log in to a TAC/Mini-TAC.  For
more detailed instructions on using a TAC/Mini-TAC and setting terminal
parameters, consult the TAC Users' Guide [1].



   CONNECT 1200               (After user dials or otherwise connects to the
                              TAC/Mini-TAC, the modem may print a message
                              similar to this.)

   ^q                         (To alert the TAC/Mini-TAC, the user types a
                              control-q.  It will not appear on the screen.)
   FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
   NIC 1-800-365-DNIC
   29 TAC 114 #:20
   @o 192.112.36.5            (The TAC responds; the user opens a host
                              connection by typing "@o" for open and entering
                              the host address in dot notation format.)
   TAC Userid:  NIC-GUEST
   Access Code:               (The TAC prompts for Userid and Access Code, and
                              the user enters the data.  The Access Code does
                              not echo.)

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TAC Login, continued...

   Login OK                   (The connection is opened and NIC displays
                              information.)
   TCP Trying...Open
   * -- DDN Network Information Center --
   *  
   * For TAC news, type:                     TACNEWS <return>
   * For user and host information, type:    WHOIS <return>
   * For NIC information, type:              NIC <return>
   *
   * For user assistance call (800) 365-3642 or (800) 365-DNIC or
                                                            (703) 802-4535
   * Report system problems to ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL
   NIC, SunOS Release 4.1.1 (NIC) #1: 
   Thu Sep 26 11:18:20 1991 EST
   @. . .
                        (User works on the host and logs off when finished.
                        When disconnected from the host, user returns to the
                        TAC command level.)
   @l
   Logged out           (User types "@l" to log off the TAC/Mini-TAC and the
                        TAC confirms.)


When you enter your TAC Userid and Access Code, remember the following:

     *  <Return> terminates each input line and causes the next prompt to
        appear.

     *  It doesn't matter whether you type your TAC Userid and Access Code 
        in uppercase or lowercase letter.

     *  For security reasons, your Access Code input is either not echoed
        or it is obscured from view with strikeover characters.

     *  If you make a mistake, try using the backspace key (^H) to delete a
        single character.  Use ^U to delete an entire line.  Although these
        commands do not work on every keyboard, they often do.

     *  If you make a mistake while entering either your TAC Userid or Access
        Code, type ^C to abort the login process and return to the TAC command
        mode.  Then try again.

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     *  Sometimes the TAC/Mini-TAC is unable to reach the requested host
        address.  To tell the TAC/Mini-TAC to stop making connection attempts,
        issue a close command:

                        @c <Return>     
                        Closed.          

     *  As long as you have an open connection to a host, you remain logged 
        in to the TAC/Mini-TAC.  If you close the connection to the host or
        the connection is shut down for any reason, you are given ten minutes
        to open another connection with no further login to the TAC/Mini-TAC. 
        If you do not open another connection within ten minutes, the TAC
        attempts to hang up your connection and automatically log you out. 
        To open another connection, simply type the "open" command again and
        supply another host address, as in the example below:

                        @o 128.1.0.1 <Return>       


4.2.3  Common TAC Login Problems

This section covers only TAC login problems.  Problems specific to the
Mini-TAC will be covered in a future revision of this document.

The TAC issues an error message when it does not receive the expected input. 
Some of the most common error messages are presented in this section, along
with suggestions about what to do if you see one.

The TAC sends two kinds of messages.  The first deals with errors in the TAC
login process; the second deals with difficulties in opening a connection to
the destination host.


4.2.3.1  TAC Login Error Messages

You may see one of the following error messages if you have problems logging
in to a TAC.  Each message is accompanied by a brief explanation of its cause
and suggestions for further action.




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BAD LOGIN
      This message means that the combination of Userid and Access Code you
      entered is invalid.  Examine your TAC Access Card carefully to be sure
      you are typing the correct characters and that you are not using any of
      the characters that are invalid in an Access Code.  Note that Access
      Codes never contain a zero (0), a one (1), a Q (quebec), or a Z (zulu),
      since each of these characters may easily be mistaken for another.  If
      your Access Code appears to contain one of these characters, it may be
      the letter O (oscar), the letter L (lima), the letter G (golf), or the
      number 2 (two).

      This message is also displayed if you are using an expired or invalid
      TAC card.  If you are sure you are typing correctly and suspect you are
      using a bad card, contact the NIC at 1-800-365-DNIC, and we can
      determine the validity of your card.


BAD
      This message means you typed a string that is not a valid TAC command,
      and the TAC does not understand your input.  Either you typed something
      incorrectly or there was some interference on your connection. 
      Frequently, simply repeating the command corrects the problem.  However,
      if repeating your input causes another error message, check to make sure
      that you typed the correct command and that your input is in an 
      acceptable format.


NUM
      This message means that the TAC was expecting you to type a number, but
      you typed some other character.  The message is displayed if you type
      the letter O (oscar) as part of the address of the host you are trying
      to connect to, or if you omit the numeric host address after typing @o
      (for open).  Make sure that you are not typing letters in places you
      should be typing numbers; this will probably correct the problem.


WAIT
      The TAC displays this message while it is attempting to validate your
      Userid and Access Code.



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NO CARRIER
      This message comes from your PC or modem.  If this message is displayed
      on your initial attempt to dial the TAC/Mini-TAC, it means that the
      TAC/Mini-TAC did not answer the phone.  This could be because of a power
      failure or other emergency at the site where the TAC/Mini-TAC is
      located, or it could be the result of a mis-dialed telephone number. 
      Try calling the number with a telephone that is not connected to your
      terminal and see if your get a busy signal or other recording from the
      telephone company.

      If this message appears after you have logged in and while you are
      working on the host, it means that something happened to disconnect your
      modem from the TAC/Mini-TAC.  Try dialing the TAC/Mini-TAC again.  If
      the problem persists, contact your site systems representative to check
      your modem, or call the Monitoring Center for your area to check the
      TAC/Mini-TAC.


4.2.3.2  Host Connection Errors

Host connection error messages are sent when you have successfully logged in
to the TAC and while the TAC is trying to connect to the host you specified. 
You know that you have successfully logged in to the TAC when you see the
"Login OK, TCP trying..." message.


DESTINATION HOST DEAD
      This message means that the remote host is physically powered off or 
      the cable to the network has been removed.  The host is "down."  Since
      host down-times are normally relatively short, wait a while and try to
      log in again.  If the host remains unavailable, call the Host
      Administrator for the destination host and ask when the system will be
      available again.  If you do not know the Host Administrator's phone
      number, the NIC can provide it or the name and number of the coordinator
      of the network the host is attached to.







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DESTINATION HOST UNREACHABLE
DESTINATION NET UNREACHABLE
HOST NOT RESPONDING
      Several network conditions can cause these messages.  They may be
      displayed if the host or its PSN is down or if a gateway between the TAC
      and the host is down.  Also, check to ensure that you specified the
      correct host address.  Typing a nonexistent network address will cause
      such a message to be generated.  If the condition persists, call the NIC
      for assistance.


4.2.4  Changing the TAC Intercept Character

The "@" sign is the default TAC intercept character.  The intercept character
is the character that signals the TAC to interpret any character(s) that
follow immediately as TAC commands rather than passing them through to the
network.

However, once you have connected to your host, you may want to send an @
directly through to the network--for example, when you type a DDN mail
address.  To make the TAC pass the @ on to the host rather than intercepting
it, you must type @ twice--i.e., @@.  When you do this, the TAC intercepts the
first "@", transmits the second "@" to the host, and echoes that one back to
you.  You will see @@@ on your screen.  Remember, when you want to type an "@"
for anything other than a TAC command, you must type it twice.  For example,
to send a message to auser@milhost, you would have to type

                        auser@@milhost      

and on your screen you would see

                        auser@@@milhost     

To change the TAC intercept character, you must type @i (for intercept)
followed by the decimal value of the ASCII code of the character you wish to
use in place of the @.  The TAC Users' Guide contains a list of ASCII codes. 
For purposes of text file transfers, we recommend that you change the
intercept to a non-printing character, such as a control character.  For
example, to change the intercept character to control-y (^y), type the
following:
                        @i 25 <Return>      

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(Be sure to insert a space between the @i and the ASCII code number.)  After
you change the intercept character, you must use the new character for all
subsequent TAC commands.  To return to the default TAC intercept character
(the "@" sign) after changing it to ^y, type the following:

                        ^yi e <Return>      

where "i e" stands for intercept escape.


4.2.5  Using a TAC for File Transfer (FTP)

This section presents several TAC command procedures that may facilitate file
transfers through a TAC.  The procedures covered here are 

      *   Changing the TAC intercept character,
      *   Setting flow control on the TAC,
      *   Putting the TAC into binary mode.


4.2.5.1  Changing the Intercept Character

For executing file transfers, you may want to change the TAC intercept
character to one that your file transfer program does not use.  For example,
the Kermit file transfer program uses the "@" (discussed in a subsequent
section).  To change the intercept character, follow the directions in Section
4.2.4 above.


4.2.5.2  Setting Flow Control on the TAC

Setting flow control on the TAC ensures that data will not be transferred at a
rate that causes the TAC buffers to overflow.  The example below assumes that
you have changed the TAC intercept character to ^y.  (The ^y characters are
shown in the examples, but they will not display on your screen as you type
them on your keyboard.)

                        ^yd c a <Return>      
                        ^yf i s <Return>      
                        ^yf o s <Return>      


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where
      ^yd c a   =      device code ASCII, which clears any previously set
                       flow control as well as any padding and parity. 
                       Flow control is incompatible with padding and parity.

      ^yf i s   =      flow control input start, which enables flow control
                       so that the terminal sending data will not send it
                       faster than the TAC can handle it.

      ^yf o s   =      flow control output start, which disables flow control
                       from the TAC to the terminal.


4.2.5.3  Putting the TAC in Binary Mode

To transfer binary files over the network, you must first put the TAC into
binary mode.  Doing so disables the TAC intercept character.  You must disable
the intercept character because if the TAC receives what it considers to be an
intercept character--even though the character is embedded in a file--it
interrupts the transfer process and tries to interpret whatever follows the
intercept as a command.

To put the TAC in binary mode, first open a connection to your host.  After
establishing the host connection, put the TAC in binary mode with the commands
shown below.  (Here again, the example assumes you have changed the intercept
character to ^y.)  The commands must be typed in the order shown, because if
you start binary input before you initiate binary output, the TAC will ignore
the "^yb o s command" and treat it simply as a character string to transmit
over the network.

                        ^yb o s <Return>      
                        ^yb i s <Return>      

where

      ^yb o s   =       binary output start, which enables 8-bit binary 
                        output mode from the TAC.

      ^yb i s   =       binary input start, which enables 8-bit binary 
                        input mode to the TAC.


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Logging out of your host returns the TAC to non-binary mode, re-enabling local
control with @ commands.  This is the only way to reset the TAC from binary to
non-binary mode (short of hanging up or disconnecting from the TAC itself).


4.2.6  A Brief Word About Mini-TACs

Mini-TACS are new and improved DDN access controllers similar to the TACs
currently in use.  As with the original TACs, Mini-TACs provide DDN access to
network users who are geographically distant from their host computers.  When
a user dials a local or toll-free phone number and types the required series
of commands, it opens a long-distance connection to the user's host computer.

TACs support up to 63 asynchronous user ports.  The smaller, more compact
Mini-TAC can handle only 16 asynchronous terminal connections, but it has
other capabilities (i.e., synchronous terminals, HFEP, etc.).  Both TACs and
Mini-TACs allow normally incompatible terminals and hosts to communicate with
one another using the DDN as the go-between.  While both types of access
controllers serve similar roles, the Mini-TACs provide more advanced
operational and security features.

Like a TAC, the Mini-TAC returns error messages to its users if it cannot
understand a command.  Currently, from a user standpoint, the Mini-TACs and
the TACs are essentially the same.  If you notice any difference in behavior
between TACs and Mini-TACs and you need assistance, call the MILNET Monitoring
Center or the NIC.  At present, some TAC commands can be abbreviated to one
character.  However, in the future, Mini-TAC commands may need to be at least
two characters long to ensure that they are differentiated from other commands
starting with the same letters.













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                        SECTION 5.  NETWORK USE


A computer attached to the DDN can reach a large community of users and access
a wide variety of software.  Research tools, documents, files, and mailing
lists are all readily accessible through the DDN.  This section describes the
procedures for using these network tools, three of which are major network
services: electronic mail (SMTP), file transfer (FTP), and remote login
(TELNET).  These services are integral to the DDN protocols and are offered by
all hosts that have implemented the full set of network protocols.

Although the functionality of the services discussed here is the same on every
host, what the user sees may differ from host to host because software is
often customized to suit the host operating system.  For this reason, it is
important to read local online and hard-copy documentation and to consult
online help files for specific details on using these services on your host. 
Check with your local Host Administrator or site systems representative if you
need more information.  The sections below provide a generic description of
how to use electronic mail, FTP, and TELNET.


5.1  Electronic Mail

The DDN capability that is used more often than any other is electronic mail. 
Electronic mail lets users send messages to one another over the network. 
System programs accept and store mail messages from users on other hosts that
are directed to local users.  These programs automatically recognize the
incoming traffic as electronic mail, translate it to a format compatible with
the receiving mail program, and direct the messages to the correct recipients.

Most users have an online mail file where all messages addressed to them are
stored.

You can print, read, or delete your mail using the local mail program. 
However, you should not edit or alter the structure of your mail file except
through a mail program, as each message has unique characteristics that
identify it as mail, such as a header, a character count, and a time stamp. 
Editing the mail file directly may alter these characteristics so that the
mail program no longer recognizes the data as mail.

Host computers usually provide one or more programs for reading and sending
mail.  Most mail programs provide you with the following capabilities:

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      *   Reading messages

          All mail programs have a command that allows you to read messages
          received over the network.  Mail programs normally offer options 
          for selecting and displaying specific messages from those received
          and stored in your mailbox.


      *   Printing, deleting, or moving messages

          With your local mail program, you can print your messages (if a
          printer is available), move them into other (editable) files, or
          delete them.  It is important that you learn how to delete or move
          messages after reading them; otherwise, your mail file may overflow
          and prevent additional mail from being delivered.


      *   Sending messages

          You can send messages to other users on the same host or to anyone
          on the network that has a mail service.  No passwords are required
          to send mail, but it is necessary to know the network mailbox, or
          address, of the person to whom you are sending mail.  Network
          mailboxes usually take the form

                           USERNAME@HOSTNAME.DOMAIN

          e.g., SMITH@NIC.DDN.MIL.

Mail that is transmitted over the DDN normally requires a network address made
up of a username and a hostname.  Occasionally, you can omit the hostname. 
For example, if you are sending a message to a user on the same host as the
one you are using (your local host), you need not include the hostname.  This
is similar to sending an interoffice memo, which rarely needs a full name and
address to reach its destination.  On the other hand, a message sent to "John
Smith, U.S.A" has little chance of being delivered without more information. 
The same is true of electronic messages without a valid address.  Any message
with an incomplete or incorrect address is returned to the sender with an
error message.  If a mail message is undeliverable due to network or machine
problems, most mail programs try to resend it several times before returning
it to the sender.

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Many mail programs allow you to use a local text editor to revise or correct
the text of the message you are preparing.  The mail programs themselves
usually have simple editing features that allow you to delete a character,
word, or line, or to make simple corrections.  An entire file may be sent as
the text of a message, assuming the file is not too large.  Many mailers
outside the DDN truncate or discard messages that are longer than 50,000
characters in size, envelope and header data included.

Following are examples of some typical procedures for sending and reading
mail, and for getting help within a network mail program.  These are general
scenarios; your host may run a different program or implementation than the
ones shown.  Only the bare essentials for using these mail programs are
included here.  We urge you to read the manuals for your mail system and to
explore the online help facilities to expand your knowledge of what your
implementation has to offer.

In the examples that follow, note that the prompt character consistently
indicates what operating system or program you are dealing with currently, and
that the prompt character changes as you progress from one system/program to
another.


      [NOTE:  Computer names, user names, electronic addresses, and other
      data used in examples throughout this manual are not intended to
      represent currently valid input/output--i.e., some of the data may 
      be "ficticious" but the format is accurate.]
















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5.1.1  UNIX MAIL Examples

Sending Mail Via UNIX

      [NOTE:  UNIX is case-sensitive.  Most UNIX systems require that
      commands be entered in lowercase.]

      % mail nic@nic.ddn.mil <Return>     (User asks to send mail to a well-
                                          known mailbox.  The percent sign (%)
                                          is a standard UNIX system prompt,
                                          while "mail" is the command that
                                          invokes the Mail program. User must
                                          insert a space before typing the
                                          message address on the same line.)

      Subject:  How to get RFCs <Return>
                                          (The Mail program prompts for a
                                          subject, and the user supplies it.)

      How do I retrieve RFCs using the electronic mail utility?
      Thanks for your help. <Return>
      ^d                                  (The user types the message text,
                                          ending with a control-d (^d) in the
                                          first character space of a line.)
 
      %                                   (UNIX prompt returns.)


Reading UNIX MAIL

      % mail <Return>                     (User invokes the Mail program at 
                                          the UNIX prompt.)

      You have mail.                      (The Mail program announces that
                                          there is mail waiting in the user's
                                          mailbox and prints the headers of
                                          messages received since user last
                                          checked his mail.)

      New mail: 1) 16/Dec SMITH@ISI.EDU (292)  Where is RFC 212?
                2) 17/Dec JONES@NIC.DDN.MIL  (145)  Re:  RFC 212
                3) Etc...         

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Reading UNIX Mail, continued...


      & p 1 <Return>                      (Mail prompt [&] is presented, and
                                          user asks the Mail program to print
                                          message 1 [p 1].  The full message
                                          text will be printed on the user's
                                          screen.)


Getting Help for UNIX MAIL

Typing

      man mail        connects you to the online Mail manual from the UNIX
                      prompt.

      help            displays help for Mail users after program is invoked.

      ?               displays a list of Mail commands after program is
                      invoked.





















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5.1.2  InfoMail Examples

Sending a Message Via InfoMail

      [NOTE:  Since InfoMail runs under the UNIX operating system, and UNIX
      is case sensitive, InfoMail commands must normally be entered in
      lowercase.]


      DDN1-> infomail <Return>            (User invokes the InfoMail program 
                                          at his local system prompt.)
      InfoMail -- Version 0.3x
      Username: code123 <Return>
      Password: <no echo> <Return>        (The InfoMail banner is displayed,
                                          and user is asked to log in with his
                                          mail username and password.)

      --> compose <Return>                (At the InfoMail prompt, the user
                                          asks to create a message --
                                          "compose".)
      To: command@ddn2.dca.mil <Return>
      From: CODE123@DDN1.DCA.MIL          (InfoMail prompts for address of
                                          recipient and automatically supplies
                                          user's address on "From" line.)
      Subject:  Dial-ups <Return>
      Date: 12 July 1992                  (InfoMail prompts for subject, and
                                          user enters the subject of the
                                          message.  InfoMail automatically
                                          supplies the current date.)
      
      Text: Request dial-ups for our site.  Usage demand is up.
      . 
                                         (InfoMail prompts for text, and 
                                          user enters, terminating the text
                                          with a carriage return, a period in
                                          the first space of the next line,
                                          and another carriage return.)
      --> quit <Return>
      DDN1->                              (User types "quit" to exit from
                                          InfoMail.  The local system prompt
                                          returns.)

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Reading Mail with InfoMail

      DDN2->infomail <Return>             (User invokes the InfoMail program 
                                          at his local system prompt.)
      InfoMail -- Version 0.3x
      Username: COMMAND <Return>
      Password: <no echo> <Return>        (The InfoMail banner is displayed,
                                          and user is asked to log in with his
                                          mail username and password.  These
                                          may be entered in either upper or
                                          lowercase. After a successful login,
                                          InfoMail notifies user of mail in
                                          his "Inbox.")
      INBOX.
         1  FROM:  CODEB999 / SUBJECT: DIAL-UPS / 13 Jul
         2  FROM:  AF@DDN.A / SUBJECT: SCHEDULE / 14 Jul
      --> next <Return>
                                          (At the InfoMail prompt, user issues
                                          a command to display the next
                                          message, and InfoMail does so.)
      To: COMMAND@DDN2.DCA.MIL
      From: CODE123@DDN1.DCA.MIL
      Subject:  Dial-ups
      Date: 13 July 1992
      Text:
      Request dial-ups for our site.  Usage demand is up.

      --------------------END OF DOCUMENT----------------------
      --> next <Return>                   (User types "next" to ask for the
                                          next message.)
      To: COMMAND@DDN2.DCA.MIL
      From: AF@DDN1.DCA.MIL
      Subject:  SCHEDULE
      Date: 14 July 1992
      Text:
      What is the schedule for the next InfoMail demo?

      --------------------END OF DOCUMENT----------------------
      --> quit <Return>                   (User types "quit"to exit from the
                                          InfoMail program.)


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Getting Help for InfoMail

Typing

   -->?                       Prints a list of all the commands that can be
                              issued at this stage of the Mail procedure.

   --><commandname> ?         Lists possible input for completing the
                              specified command.

   -->describe <commandname>  Tells what the specified command does and how
                              to use it.

   -->example <commandname>   Prints an example of the specified command.

InfoMail manuals are available from 

                  BBN Communications Division
                  10 Moulton St., Cambridge, MA 02238



5.2  File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

FTP is a protocol that enables you to move a file from one computer to another
even if the computers have different operating systems and file storage
formats.  You can move data files, programs, text files, and/or anything that
can be stored online.

To use FTP, you must know the hostname or the host address of the remote host.

You must also have an authorized username and password on the remote host
system, and you must know the name of the file you want to retrieve from or
send to that system.  You can then copy files either to or from the remote
system.  Not every file, however, can be FTP'd.  Only those files that have
public "read access" (i.e., a file protection designation that permits
transfers) can be transferred from one system to another.

Some hosts provide the username "anonymous" for FTP file retrieval from their
systems; this is called the "anonymous login convention."  Any character
string is accepted as a password for an anonymous login.  


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An anonymous login account works only with FTP.  It is not an account that can
be accessed for general use.  You cannot use the anonymous convention to send
files to a remote host, as this requires a specific login account on that
host; you may only use it to transfer files to your local workspace from a
host on which you do not have a login account.

These are the general steps used for a file transfer procedure:

      1.  Log in to your local host and invoke the FTP program.

      2.  Provide the hostname or host address for the remote system.

      3.  When you have successfully established a connection to the remote
          host, log in with your authorized username and password on that
          system.

      4.  Issue commands to send or retrieve files.

      5.  When you are finished, log off the remote host and exit from the 
          FTP program.

Depending on the FTP implementations on your host and on the remote host, it
may be possible to display a directory listing of the public files on the
remote host and to request remote system status information. 

As you will see from the examples, when you transfer a file with FTP, messages
regarding the status of the action you have requested are displayed throughout
the process.  The FTP server on the remote host sends the File Transfer
messages.  These messages have the following characteristics: 

      *  Every FTP command generates at least one reply.  

      *  A reply consists of a three-digit return code, followed by a line of
         text describing the response.  

      *  If a single line of text accompanies the return code, a single space
         separates the code from the text.  

      *  If more than one line accompanies the return code, a hyphen (-)
         separates the code from the text.  


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During a File Transfer session, you enter a command and then wait for a
message indicating whether the command was accepted.  Further system messages
describe the outcome of any transfer you may request.

The text that accompanies the FTP return codes may differ slightly from server
to server, but the general meaning of the numeric codes remains constant.  

Programs based on the FTP protocol vary a great deal in implementation
details.  The examples provided here should be taken only as guidelines. 
Consult your local system representatives for assistance with the FTP
implementation on your host.

Before you begin a File Transfer session, it is best to become familiar with
the general command sequence. 

An example of an FTP session conducted between two UNIX systems appears on the
next page.  In the example, a user carries out several standard FTP
procedures, such as asking for a directory listing of the public files on the
remote system and then changing to another directory.  Remember that the
commands to accomplish these tasks may vary from host to host, and not all 
host FTP servers implement all commands.





















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5.2.1  Transferring a File on a UNIX System

In the following example, both hosts are running UNIX.

 abacus-1>ftp fs3.nisc.nic.com <Return>
 Connected to FS3.NISC.NIC.COM            (User invokes the FTP program at his
                                          local system prompt, and the remote
                                          FTP server responds by displaying
                                          its banner and requesting a login,
                                          as shown below.)

 220 fs3 FTP server (NIC Version x.xx ... Wed July 17 16:20:33 EDT) ready.
 Name (fs3.nisc.nic.com:barbv): anonymous <Return>
 331 Guest login ok, send ident as password.
 Password: guest <Return> (no echo)
 230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
 ftp>ls <Return>
 200 PORT command successful.
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list.
 etc
 pub
 netinfo
 INDEX
 ls-lR
 226 Transfer complete.
 47 bytes received in 0.02secs (2.3 Kbytes/sec)
                                          (After successfully logging in as
                                          "anonymous guest," the user asks for
                                          a directory listing of public files
                                          at the FTP prompt.  FTP responds,
                                          printing messages regarding the
                                          transfer.)
 ftp>cd netinfo <Return>
 250 CWD command successful.
 ftp>ls <Return>
 200 PORT command successful.             (At the FTP prompt, user issues a
                                          command to change to the netinfo
                                          directory, then asks for a listing
                                          of files in the new working
                                          directory--netinfo.)

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UNIX File Transfer, continued...


 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list.
 interest-groups
 domains
 nsfnet.policy
 226 Transfer complete.
 125 bytes received in 0.04. seconds (3.1 Kbytes/s) 
 ftp>get nsfnet.policy <Return>           (User asks for a transfer of the
                                          specified file to his own file
                                          system.  Since he does not specify 
                                          a new filename, the file retains the
                                          same name on the local system.)
 200 PORT command successful.
 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for nsfnet.policy (2790 bytes).
 226 Transfer complete.
 local: nsfnet.policy   remote: nsfnet.policy
 2847 bytes received in 0.12 seconds (23 Kbytes/s)
 ftp> bye <Return>
 ftp> Goodbye.
 abacus-2>                                (User types "bye"to exit from the
                                          FTP program.  The local system
                                          prompt is displayed again.)


5.2.2  How to FTP a Directory Listing

The example that follows demonstrates how to retrieve a list of file names
from a public directory.  (Not all hosts provide this feature; check with the
online help system or your local user support representative.)  In the
example, the user is logged on to a host running the UNIX operating system. 
He uses FTP to connect to the host NIC.DDN.MIL, then logs in under username
"anonymous" and password "guest."  He enters the "dir" (directory) command for
the directory "RFC" to see the names of accessible files.  (Because the actual
directory list is long, only the first few files and the last file are shown
in the example.)





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After the directory listing is displayed, the user can copy a file or files
from the remote host directory, but this procedure is not included in the
example.  He issues the FTP "quit" command to exit from the FTP program and
close the connection to the remote host, which returns him to the local host
operating system.

   % ftp <Return>

   FTP> nic.ddn.mil <Return>

   Assuming 36-bit connections, paged transfers)
                <NIC.DDN.MIL FTP Server Process...

   FTP> login anonymous <Return>

   Password: guest <Return>

   User ANONYMOUS logged in at Wed 7-Aug-91  14:14 EDT, job 31. 
   FTP> dir rfc <Return>

   <List started.
   PS:<RFC> 
   rfc-index.TXT.114 
   rfc189.TXT.1
   rfc407.TXT.1
   .
   .
   .
   rfc931.TXT.1
   226 Transfer complete.
   47 bytes received in 0.02secs (2.3 Kbytes/sec)
   FTP> quit <Return>
   QUIT command received. Goodbye. 

   % 







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5.3  Using TELNET

Another valuable way to use the network is offered by the TELNET utility,
which allows you to log in to a remote host from a local host (assuming that
you have an authorized account on the remote host).  Once you have established
a TELNET connection and logged into the remote host, you can enter data, run
programs, and otherwise operate just as though you were logged in directly. 
During a TELNET session, each transition to a different interactive program
causes a shift to a different command level.  With each level, the form of the
prompt varies.  Command formats also vary with each level.  You can often tell
which system/program you are using by the prompt symbol.  The steps for
running TELNET are very briefly summarized as follows:

      *  Log in to your local host.

      *  Invoke the TELNET program from that host.

      *  Identify by hostname or host address the remote host that you want
         access to.

      *  When the TELNET connection is established, log in to the remote host
         with the username and password that have been assigned to you on that
         host.

      *  Perform whatever tasks you like on the remote machine, being careful
         not to violate any remote operating system rules.

      *  When finished working on the remote host, type the remote logout
         command.  Then close the TELNET connection if it is not automatically
         closed on logout.

      *  You are once again operating in your local host system environment.

TELNET has other advanced features too numerous to discuss here.  Check you
local TELNET user program for online documentation, or talk to your local Host
Administrator or user support representative for more information.


5.3.1  Invoking TELNET with the Hostname on the Command Line

In the following example, a user TELNETs from a local UNIX host to a remote
SunOS host.  Once the connection has been established, the prompts, commands, 

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and responses are those of the SunOS environment.  To the user, it appears as
though he/she were directly logged in to the SunOS computer.

After the user is done working on the remote host, he issues the SunOS logout
command.  This logout automatically returns him to the TELNET program on the
local host, closes the TELNET session, and returns the local operating system
prompt (%).

Note that instead of invoking the TELNET program and then issuing an "open"
command to the remote host at a TELNET prompt, the user supplies the remote
host address directly on the program invocation line.  (Not all
implementations recognize this form of connection.)  In addition, note that
the user would need an authorized account on the NIC host to log in with
username and password as shown in the example.

  % telnet nic.ddn.mil <Return>           (User issues the telnet command,
                                          giving the remote hostname as an
                                          argument on the command line.) 
  trying...
  connected to nic.ddn.mil
  escape character is '^]'

  NIC.DDN.MIL, SunOS UNIX (nic)           (TELNET prints messages during
                                          connection establishment, affirms
                                          the connection, and notifies the
                                          user of the escape character [see
                                          discussion of escape charaters in
                                          Chapter 4]. The Sun host prints its
                                          banner and prompt--@.)
  @ login <userid> <Return>
  Password:        <Return>               (User enters his remote system
                                          userid and password.  The password
                                          does not echo on screen.)
         ...USER SESSION...

  @ logout <Return>                       (After completing his work on the
                                          SunOS host, user issues a logout
                                          command to exit from the remote
                                          system.  The connection is closed
                                          automatically and the local prompt
                                          reappears.)
  Connection closed by remote host.
  %

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5.3.2  TELNET Using Host Address

Instead of invoking TELNET and specifying a hostname for the remote host, you
may specify the remote address in dot notation format.  Some hosts require the
network address to be enclosed in brackets if it is supplied on the command
line.  (Many TELNET implementations prompt for a network hostname or address if
you do not specify one, and they may allow you to open the connection after
asking for help or issuing other TELNET commands.)  To establish a TELNET
connection using a host address, proceed as shown in the example below.  The
example presumes a user on a UNIX host connecting to the NIC's SunOS system
via TELNET.  After reaching the NIC host, the user looks up a name with the
WHOIS program, exits from WHOIS, and then closes the connection.  (Note the
change from UNIX prompt symbol to the NIC prompt and back again.)

   % telnet 192.112.36.5 <Return>
   Trying 192.112.36.5 ...
   Connected to nic.ddn.mil.
   Escape character is '^]'.

   SunOS UNIX (nic)

    -- DDN Network Information Center  --
   *
   * For TAC news, type:                  TACNEWS <return>
   * For user and host information, type: WHOIS <return>
   * For NIC information, type:           NIC <return>
   *
   * For user assistance call (800) 365-3642 or (800) 365-DNIC or
                                                (703) 802-4535
   * Report system problems to ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL

   NIC, SunOS Release 4.1.1 (NIC) #1: 
   Thu Sep 26 11:18:20 1991 EST
   @ whois varallob <Return>
   Connecting to id Database . . . . . .
   Connected to id Database
   Varallo, Barbara (BV36)         varallob@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Network Solutions, Inc.
      505 Huntmar Park Drive
      Herndon, VA 22070
      (703) 802-8461
      Record last updated on 08-Aug-91.

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TELNET from UNIX to NIC, continued...

   Enter a handle, name, mailbox, or other field, optionally preceded
   by a keyword, like "host nic".  Type "?" for short, 2-page
   details, "HELP" for full documentation, or hit RETURN to exit.
   ---> Do ^E to show search progress, ^G to abort a search or output <---
   Whois: <Return>
   @ logout <Return>

   Thu Sep 26 11:19:28 1991 EST
   Connection closed by foreign host.
   %






























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            SECTION 6.  DDN NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER (NIC)


The DDN Network Information Center (NIC) is located at the DDN Installation
and Integration Support (DIIS) program office in Chantilly, Virginia.  The NIC
is funded by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Defense Network
Systems Organization (DNSO).  The NIC is responsible for providing general
reference services to DDN users via telephone, electronic mail, and U.S. mail.

The NIC also provides databases and information services of interest to
network users, including the WHOIS registry of network users, the NIC/Query
browsing system, TACNEWS, and the official DoD Host Name Service.  The NIC
maintains the RFC (Request for Comments) collection.  Many of the online files
are available through the NIC's automatic mail service, SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL.

Among its other duties, the NIC 

      *  registers hosts and domains,
      *  assigns IP network numbers and Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs),
      *  provides hostname translation tables and domain name system server
         files to the DDN and the Internet,
      *  registers network users,
      *  issues MILNET TAC Access Cards.

These services are described in more detail in the "Current DDN NIC Services"
booklet.


6.1  Contacting the NIC

6.1.1  NIC User Assistance Help Desk

The NIC provides user assistance in a number of ways.  Our main Help Desk
phone numbers are

         1-800-365-DNIC    (within the continental United States)
         1-703-802-4535    (outside the continental United States and in the
                           Washington, D.C. metropolitan area)

         1-703-802-8376    FAX Number


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The first number is toll free, while the area code 703 numbers are toll free
in the Washington area only. 

The NIC provides Help Desk assistance to those who experience problems with
using the network in general, and with terminal-to-TAC use in particular. 
Should you have a security problem or concern, the NIC can connect you with
the Security Coordination Center.  In addition, the NIC is happy to answer
questions about any other service outlined in this section.  The NIC Help Desk
services are available from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. (EST or EDT), Monday through
Friday.  


6.1.2  NIC Host

The NIC computer's hostname and network address are 

                     NIC.DDN.MIL
                     192.112.36.5

NIC online services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. 


6.1.3  NIC Online Contacts

The NIC supports several online mailboxes to provide assistance in specific
areas.  This list is provided here for easy reference.  The following sections
provide more detailed information regarding the type of inquiries each mailbox
handles.

     Type of Inquiry                             Network Mailbox

     General User Assistance                     NIC@NIC.DDN.MIL
     TAC and Non-TAC User Registration           REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Urgent Security Matters                     NIC-ALERT@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Host, Domain, and Net Registration          HOSTMASTER@NIC.DDN.MIL
     NIC.DDN.MIL Computer Operations             ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Comments on NIC Publications, Services      SUGGESTIONS@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Security Concerns and Questions             SCC@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Usage-Sensitive Billing Questions           BILLING@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Automatic Mail Service                      SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL
     Reporting NIC Software Bugs                 BUG-SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL

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6.1.4  NIC U.S. Mail Address

The current mailing address of the NIC is

                  Network Information Center
                  14200 Park Meadow Drive, Suite 200
                  Chantilly, VA 22021


6.2  NIC Services

In addition to the user assistance Help Desk described in Section 6.1.1, the
NIC provides registration, billing, and security support services.


6.2.1  Network and User Registration Services

The NIC registers the following network entities:

      *  domains 
      *  IP network numbers
      *  inverse addressing data
      *  Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs)
      *  hosts
      *  TACs/Mini-TACs
      *  gateways and PSNs
      *  some network-related organizations.

MILNET host, TAC, gateway, and PSN registrations are coordinated with the
MILNET Manager.  If you wish to register an IP network, domain, or ASN,
contact the NIC Help Desk for information regarding procedures.  New users
seldom need to register these entities.

Each individual who has TAC access to the DDN must be registered in the NIC
WHOIS database.  Host Administrators register individuals in the database as
part of the process of authorizing TAC cards for them.  However, any
individual with a working Internet electronic mail address can be registered
in the database.  You will find it useful to be registered in this database
because it serves as an electronic white pages for DDN users.



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To be registered in the NIC WHOIS database, you will need to fill out a copy
of the NIC registration template (Figure 6-1 below) and send it to the network
mailbox REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL.  You may obtain this template via file transfer
(FTP) from the NIC.DDN.MIL machine (192.112.36.5 is the numeric host address)
using the pathname

            NETINFO/USER-TEMPLATE.TXT

or you may enter the required information yourself.  In addition to the
template, this file contains detailed instructions and samples to help with
completing the form.  (Instructions for using FTP to copy/retrieve a file are
presented in Section 5.1.2, or you may consult your local FTP documentation.)


  FULL NAME:  Jones, James J.          Last name, first name, middle initials
                                       (no titles)
  U.S. MAIL ADDRESS: NIC
     Room 38C, Suite 200
     14200 Park Meadow Drive
     Chantilly, VA 22021               Complete address, including codes, mail
                                       stops, etc.

  PHONE: (703) 802-4535                Give both commercial and DSN, if
                                       available, e.g., (DSN) 123-4567

  AUTHORIZING HOST: NIC.DDN.MIL        Host address of host on which you have
                                       your primary login account.

  PRIMARY LOGIN NAME: jjjones          Name you log in with (username)

  PRIMARY NETWORK MAILBOX:             
  jjjones@NIC.DDN.MIL                  Network mailbox where your mail is
                                       normally delivered.


                   Figure 6-1.  User Registration Template






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6.2.2  Usage-Sensitive Billing Service Desk

Since the advent of usage-sensitive billing on the DDN, the NIC has provided a
service to answer queries about bills charging for use of the DDN.  This
support is aimed at those POCs who receive bills and have questions about
them.  If you have a bill for DDN usage and have any questions about it, you
can contact the NIC Help Desk as described in Section 6.1.1 or send a message
to BILLING@NIC.DDN.MIL.


6.2.3  Security Coordination Center (SCC)

The NIC is the site of the DDN Security Coordination Center (SCC).  The SCC
acts in conjunction with the DDN Network Security Officer (NSO) to coordinate
actions related to security incidents and network vulnerabilities.  The SCC
relays security-related information to the Network Security Officer (NSO) and
works with him/her in handling network security problems.  In addition, the
SCC issues DDN Security Bulletins to network users.  You can contact the SCC
in the following ways:

      By Electronic Mail:        SCC@NIC.DDN.MIL

      By Phone:                  1-800-365-DNIC (continental U.S.)
                                 1-703-802-4535 (outside U.S. and in the
                                                D.C. metro area)
      By FAX:                    1-703-802-8376

      By U.S. Mail:              Network Information Center/SCC
                                 14200 Park Meadow Drive, Suite 200
                                 Chantilly, VA  22021

Phone hours are from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., Eastern Standard or Eastern Daylight
Time.


6.3  NIC User Programs

The NIC offers several online programs that DDN users may access to retrieve
various kinds of information.  The WHOIS, TACNEWS, NIC/Query, and SERVICE
programs and their access procedures are described in this section.  The NIC's
Kermit server is also described.

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6.3.1  WHOIS/NICNAME

WHOIS/NICNAME is the NIC program that looks up information in an electronic
"white pages" directory of network users.  You can also obtain information on
hosts, TACs, domains, and other network entities from WHOIS.  WHOIS lists the
name, network mailbox, U.S. mail address, telephone number, and host for each
user registered in its database.  For other entities, it provides such
information as the domain name, a list of domain servers, domain contacts,
network numbers, network contacts, known hosts on a given network, Host
Administrators, Node Site Coordinators, and phone numbers and network mailbox
addresses for all contacts.


6.3.1.1  Accessing WHOIS

Here are some instructions for accessing the WHOIS program from different
points of origin:

From a TAC

      *   Type @n.

      *   After being greeted by the TAC banner, press <Return> and enter 
          your TAC userid and TAC Access Code when prompted.

      *   After the NIC host banner and greeting are displayed, type WHOIS
          <Return>.


From a DDN Host

      *   Log onto your local host and TELNET to the NIC, e.g.,

                  telnet nic.ddn.mil <Return>     

         or

                  telnet 192.112.36.5 <Return>    

      *   After the NIC host banner and greeting is displayed, type WHOIS
          <Return>.

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Via Electronic Mail

      *   From your login host, invoke the mail program and send a message to 

                  SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL

      *   As the subject of the message (i.e., on the "Subject:" line), enter
          WHOIS and the string you want the program to search on--e.g., 

                  Subject: whois nic.ddn.mil

          Any valid WHOIS search input string can be sent to the SERVICE
          program.  However, if the response is large, it will be split into
          several return messages.  If it is very, very large, it may exceed
          the capacity of the Mail server, but most search outputs are well
          within its limits.

You may also run the WHOIS/NICNAME program from a local host if you have one
of the several WHOIS/NICNAME user programs that are available for various
operating systems.  Contact the NIC if you are interested in obtaining such a
program.


6.3.1.2  Using WHOIS 

To use WHOIS, you can supply either the name or the NIC "handle" of the person
or entity you are trying to identify.  The handle is a unique identifier that
the NIC assigns to each entity registered in its database.  Partial searches
on the first part of a name are also possible.

The WHOIS program accessible on the NIC host also recognizes certain keywords.

These keywords are inserted in the search string before the entity for which
you want information.  They tell WHOIS to limit its search to certain kinds of
records--such as host records only, or domain records only.  Such keywords can
increase the speed of a search.  Some of the keywords that the NIC host's
WHOIS program recognizes are as follows:

            DOM      for domain records
            GA       for gateway records
            HO       for host records
            NET      for network records
            PSN      for PSN records
            TAC      for TAC records.

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WHOIS is not case sensitive.  Some of the examples that follow use keywords
and some do not.  Those that do use keywords assume that you have used TELNET
to connect to the NIC.DDN.MIL for access to their WHOIS program.  For a
complete list of keywords and examples of how to use them, simply type help or
a question mark (?) at the WHOIS prompt, e.g.,

          Whois: help <Return>    

WHOIS responds to your query in one of three ways:

      1.  If WHOIS finds a unique record for the individual/entity you have
          identified as the subject of the search, it immediately displays 
          the following information:

          *  the name
          *  the NIC handle
          *  the organization (if applicable)
          *  the mailing address
          *  the phone number
          *  the network mailbox.

      2.  If WHOIS finds several records that match the search input, it
          displays a brief list of the matching entries and asks you to choose
          the correct match by using the handle (a unique character string in
          parentheses following the name).  A search by handle produces the
          expanded output for the matching entity.

      3.  If no record matches the search input, WHOIS displays the message
          "No match for <username>," where username is the search string
          entered.

The following examples illustrate some of the WHOIS capabilities.  For more
information on using WHOIS, connect to the NIC host and type "whois help".


6.3.1.3  WHOIS Search Examples

      [NOTE:  The names, addresses, phone numbers, and other information 
      shown in the following examples are meant to be representative only;
      they are not necessarily actual or accurate data and should not be
      used for contacting any of the entities/persons so identified!]

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WHOIS Search by Name

      SunOS UNIX (nic)
 
      -- DDN Network Information Center  --
      *
      * For TAC news, type:                  TACNEWS <return>
      * For user and host information, type: WHOIS <return>
      * For NIC information, type:           NIC <return>
      *
      * For user assistance call (800) 365-3642 or (800) 365-DNIC or
                                                   (703) 802-4535
      * Report system problems to ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL

      NIC, SunOS Release 4.1.1 (NIC) #1: 
      Thu Sep 26 14:11:08 1991 EST
      @ whois roscoe <Return>          (There is only one "Roscoe," so a
                                       complete entry is displayed for him.)
      Connecting to id Database . . . . . .
      Connected to id Database

         ROSCOE, Joe A. (JAR)          JROSCOE@HOST-1.DOMAIN.MIL
         Air Force Data Systems
         Design Center/SDTS
         Willits Air Force Base, W. Va.  12345
         Phone:  (123) 456-7890
         MILNET TAC User

         Record last updated on 31-Oct-90













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WHOIS Search by Partial Name

You may search using only a partial name as the search string by entering the
partial name followed by one to three dots (...).  This search feature will
work only if the dots follow the partial name without any intervening spaces. 
This kind of search is apt to produce multiple "hits" (hits are entries that
match a given search string).

Note that the partial name search also finds any NIC handles that begin with
the partial name input ("ros" in the example below).

      @ whois ros... <Return>

        Rosati, David (DR16)         Rosati@BAR.FOO            (234) 567-8901
        Rosales, Alphonso L. (ALR)   Rosales@NIC.DDN.MIL       (345) 678-9012
        Roscoe, Joe A. (JAR)         Roscoe@HOST-1.DOMAIN.MIL  (123) 456-7890
        .
        .
        .
        Schuman, Richard O. (ROS)    Schuman@FOO.BOO.Com       (456) 789-0123

        There are 25 more entries.  Show them?


To obtain all the information pertaining to any of the names identified by the
search, do a WHOIS search on the handle (the text in parentheses immediately
following the name); this will produce a full entry.















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WHOIS Search by Handle

If a WHOIS search produces multiple hits on your query, search by the unique
handle to get the full entry of the hit you want to display.  Precede the
handle with an exclamation point.  Users on hosts running a UNIX operating
system may need to precede the exclamation point with a backslash (\).

      @ whois !jar                        (Jar is the handle for ROSCOE.)

        ROSCOE, Joe A. (JAR)              JROSCOE@HOST-1.DOMAIN.MIL
        Air Force Data Systems
        Design Center/SDTS
        Willits Air Force Base, W. Va.  12345
        Phone:  (123) 456-7890
        MILNET TAC User

        Record last updated on 31-Oct-90



WHOIS Search by Hostname

If you know a hostname and need to obtain the host address, you may use WHOIS
to look it up by typing your input as shown in the following example:


      NIC, SunOS Release 4.1.1 (NIC) #1: 
      Thu Sep 26 14:11:08 1991 EST
      @ whois ddn-conus.ddn.mil <Return>             (User enters known host-
      Connecting to id Database . . . . . .          name after connecting to
      Connected to id Database                       the NIC host and types a
      ^E 14:13:03 -- No matches yet in 0 searches.   ^E to see how the search
                                                     is progressing.)
      BBN INC. (DDN1)
         1300 North 17th Street
         Arlington, VA 22209

         Hostname: DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
         Nicknames: DDN1.DCA.MIL,DDN.DCA.MIL
         Address: 26.21.0.17
         System: BBN-C/70 running UNIX

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WHOIS Search by Hostname, continued...


         Host Administrator:
            Bolden, Michelle L. (Shelly)  (MLS6)  Bolden@BBN.COM
            (703) 284-4600

         Record last updated on 05-Sep-91.

      Would you like to see the registered users of this host? y <Return>

         There are 202 registered users:

      Adams, Quentin (QAA1)           nsc-robins@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
                                                 (912) 926-6912 (DSN) 468-6912
      Agney, Violet (VA24)            NSCElmen@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
                                             (907) 552-4919 (DSN) 317-552-4919
      Agnor, Robert J. (RJA25)        NAVTELCOM@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
                                                 (202) 282-0824 (DSN) 292-0824
      Atkinson, Barry K. (BKA)        DIA-RSE@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
                                                 (703) 284-0801 (DSN) 251-0801
      Bailey, Erich (EB68)            NSC-Presidio@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
                                                 (415) 561-2241 (DSN) 586-2241
      There are 197 more matches.  Show them? n <Return>
        Enter a handle, name, mailbox, or other field, optionally preceded
        by a keyword, like "host sri-nic".  Type "?" for short, 2-page
        details, "HELP" for full documentation, or hit RETURN to exit.
      ---> Do ^E to show search progress, ^G to abort a search or output <---



Note that this search produces the hostname, the host address, and the name
and phone number of the Host Administrator.  Pressing <Return> will produce a
list of the people registered with the NIC as users of that host.  You will
find the same information if you know the host address or nickname and search
on one of those instead of the official hostname.






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WHOIS Search by TAC Name

You may use WHOIS to obtain a TAC telephone number if you know the name of the
TAC.  A search by TAC name will also show contact information on the Node Site
Coordinator for the TAC.  Follow the example below to do this type of search.


        Enter a handle, name, mailbox, or other field, optionally preceded
        by a keyword, like "host sri-nic".  Type "?" for short, 2-page
        details, "HELP" for full documentation, or hit RETURN to exit.
      ---> Do ^E to show search progress, ^G to abort a search or output <---

      Whois: tac belvoir.mt.ddn.mil <Return>
      Fort Belvoir (BELVOIR-MIL-TAC)
         Army Information Systems Command (USAISC)
         Building 246, Room 202, 2nd Floor
         Fairfax, VA 22060
   
       (703) 781-0050 (R8) [300/1200 bps] {B}
       (703) 781-0100 (R8) [300/1200 bps] {B}

         Hostname: BELVOIR.MT.DDN.MIL
         Address: 26.0.0.142
         TAC number: 162
         Hardware: C/30

         Coordinator:
            Jewell, Brenda K.  (BJ53)  NSCBelvoir@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
            (703) 664-3458 (DSN) 354-3458

         Record last updated on 22-Jun-90.











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WHOIS Search by PSN Number

You may use WHOIS to search by node (PSN) number.  The output from this search
will show the usual POC information as well as a list of the hosts connected
to that node that are registered with the NIC.

      Whois: psn 202 <Return>
      GSI (CHANTILLY2-IMP)
         14200 Park Meadow Drive
         Chantilly, VA 22021

         CHANTILLY2 is PSN/IMP 202 on network 26

         Coordinator:
            Zalubski, John  (JZ7)  zalubskij@NIC.DDN.MIL
            (703) 802-8462

         Record last updated on 04-Sep-91.

         No hosts found on this PSN.


      Whois: psn 201 <Return>
      GSI (CHANTILLY-IMP)
         14200 Park Meadow Drive
         Chantilly, VA 22021

         CHANTILLY is PSN/IMP 201 on network 26

         Coordinator:
            Zalubski, John  (JZ7)  zalubskij@NIC.DDN.MIL
            (703) 802-8462

         Record last updated on 04-Sep-91.

         Hosts on this PSN:

         CHANTILLY1.MT.DDN.MIL        26.0.0.201
         NIC1.DDN.MIL                 26.1.0.201
         SUN1.DDN.MIL                 26.24.0.201
         GSI-GW1.DDN.MIL              26.25.0.201, 192.112.36.1, 
                                      192.112.37.1, 192.112.38.1

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WHOIS Search by Network Number

You may use WHOIS to search by network number.  To search for information
about a Class C network, make sure the last octet in the network number is
zero.  To search for a Class B network, make sure that the last two octets are
zero.  See section 8.4 for a discussion of network addresses and classes.


      Whois: 192.112.36.0 <Return>
      Government Systems, Inc. (NET-LOCALNET)
         14200 Park Meadow Drive, Suite 200
         Chantilly, VA  22020

         Netname: LOCALNET
         Netnumber: 192.112.36.0

         Coordinator:
            McCollum, Robert  (RM584)  bobm@NIC.DDN.MIL
            (703) 802-8476

         Domain System inverse mapping provided by:

         NIC.DDN.MIL                 192.112.36.5
         NIC-DEV.DDN.MIL             192.112.38.89

         Record last updated on 14-Aug-91.

      Would you like to see the known hosts on this network? y <Return>

         There are 2 known hosts:

         NIC.DDN.MIL                  192.112.36.5
         GSI-GW1.DDN.MIL              26.25.0.201, 192.112.36.1,
                                      192.112.37.1, 192.112.38.1



The user can enter "y" for yes or simply press <Return> to see a list of hosts
registered with the NIC as part of this network.



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WHOIS Search by Domain Name


      Whois: dom dca.mil <Return>
      Defense Information Systems Agency (DCA-DOM)

         Domain Name: DCA.MIL

         Administrative Contact, Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
            Hostmaster  (HOSTMASTER)  HOSTMASTER@NIC.DDN.MIL
            (800) 365-DNIC (703) 802-4535

         Record last updated on 18-Sep-91.

         Domain servers in listed order:

         NS.NIC.DDN.MIL               192.67.67.53
         A.ISI.EDU                    26.3.0.103, 128.9.0.107
         C.NYSER.NET                  192.33.4.12
         TERP.UMD.EDU                 128.8.10.90
         NS.NASA.GOV                  128.102.16.10, 192.52.195.10
         AOS.BRL.MIL                  192.5.25.82

      Would you like to see the known hosts under this secondary domain? y

         There are 60 known hosts:

         ANTARES.DCA.MIL              128.19.0.14
         BELLATRIX.DCA.MIL            128.19.0.5
         C4SD.DCA.MIL                 26.8.0.76
         CMMC-BBN.DCA.MIL             26.18.0.70
         CMMC-IMW.DCA.MIL             26.29.0.76
      There are 55 more matches.  Show them? n <Return>
      Whois: 


As you can see, domain searches allow you to identify the hosts providing name
service for the domain, as well as the names and phone numbers of the
administrative and technical contacts for the domain (in this case, the NIC
Hostmaster group).


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6.3.2  NIC/QUERY

NIC/Query is a browsing service that allows you to page through general
information about the Defense Data Network (DDN).  Topics included under
NIC/Query are presented in a numbered menu.  All the services of the TACNEWS
program are also available via NIC/Query for the sake of simpler user
accessibility.

The program is largely self-explanatory, and online help is available if you
need it.  You do not need a login account on the NIC machine for access.  To
access NIC/Query, simply open a TELNET connection to NIC.DDN.MIL, and then
type "nic" or "query", as shown below.


      @ nic <Return>
      NIC/Query Version: 1.4 Thu, 26 Sep 91 14:27:13 

      Stop output every 24 lines? ([Y]/N/# of lines) y <Return>
      ROOT

      Use NIC/Query to access a hierarchy of information about the Defense
      Data Network (DDN) and the Network Information Center (NIC) using simple
      menus.  Bugs to BUG-QUERY@NIC.DDN.MIL.

      **
      ** Note that a carriage return is required after every command.
      ** Select menu item 1 for help using this program.
      **

         1) HELP -- Introduction, changes, detailed help, help summary.
         2) WHOIS -- Directory of DDN users.
         3) HOSTS -- Describes DDN hosts.
         4) PROTOCOLS -- Describes DDN protocols.
         5) RFCS -- Requests For Comments technical notes.
         6) NIC DOCUMENTS -- Documents available from the NIC.
         7. TACNEWS -- TACnews program.

      ROOT: Enter a menu# (1 - 7), or a command ('?' to list).
      NIC/Query: 1 <Return>
      HELP -- Introduction, changes, detailed help, help summary.


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NIC Query Example, continued...


         1. INTRODUCTION -- An introduction to the NIC/Query system.
         2. CHANGES -- Differences from the old version of NIC/Query.
         3) NOVICES -- Detailed help for new users.
         4. HELP SUMMARY -- Brief description of NIC/Query concepts and
            commands.

      HELP: Enter a menu# (1 - 4), or a command ('?' to list).
      NIC/Query: 1 <Return>


In the example above, the user asks for help at the "NIC/Query:" prompt.  A
submenu is presented so he can select the level or type of information he
wishes to have displayed.


6.3.3  TACNEWS

TACNEWS is a NIC online service that offers login help to TAC users.  It also
offers access to the interactive TAC locator program that allows you to find
the three TAC phone numbers closest to a phone number you enter.  TACNEWS
provides a mechanism for reading the DDN Newsletters, DDN Management
Bulletins, and DDN Security Bulletins.  Users should read these publications
regularly to stay current on DDN policies, announcements, and network news
items.  Access TACNEWS by logging into a TAC and typing "tacnews", as shown in
the example on the next page:














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   @n <Return>
   TAC Userid: <Username> <Return>             Enter your TAC Username here.
   Access Code: <Access Code>                  Enter your TAC Access Code.  It
                                               will not echo on screen.
   Login OK
   TCP Trying...Open
   Trying 192.112.36.5 ...
   Connected to NIC.DDN.MIL.
   Escape character is '^]'.

   *  -- DDN Network Information Center --
   *
   *  For TAC news, type:                    TACNEWS <Return>
   *  For user and host information, type:   WHOIS <Return>
   *  For NIC information, type:             NIC <Return>
   *
   *  For user assistance call (800) 365-DNIC or (703) 802-4535
   *  Report system problems to ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL or call 
                                                  (703) 802-4535
      @ tacnews <Return>
      TACnews Version: (xxxx.xxx) Thu, 26 Sep 91 14:30:14 

      Stop output every 24 lines? ([Y]/N/# of lines) y <Return>
        1. Announcements -- Updated 11-Jul-91
        2. TACs, List of U.S. TAC Dial-Ins, 23K
        3. Locator, Finds U.S. TAC Dial-Ins
        4. Eur/Pac, List of European/Pacific TAC Dial-Ins, 15K
        5. Login, Help with TAC login, 6K
        6. Newsletters, DDN -- Updated 16-Sep-91
        7. Bulletins, DDN Management -- Updated 16-Sep-91
        8. Bulletins, DDN Security -- Updated 16-Sep-91

      Type a menu number (1 - 8), ? for options, "HELP" for instructions.
      TACnews: 7 <Return>
      There are 30 Bulletins online.  The latest:
           .
          80  21-Dec-90   REGISTRATION OF IP NETWORK NUMBERS
          81   9-Apr-91   MTACs Operational with Limited Monitoring and
                          Control Capability
      --> 82  23-Apr-91   Corrected   MTACs Operational with Limited
                          Monitoring and Control Capability
      Type an issue number (22 - 82), ? for options, or "HELP" for full help.
      TACnews: 82 <Return>

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Alternatively, you may open a TELNET connection to NIC.DDN.MIL from a local
host to read TACNEWS, as shown in the following example:

      % telnet nic.ddn.mil <Return>
      Trying 192.112.36.5 ...
      Connected to nic.ddn.mil.
      Escape character is '^]'.

      SunOS UNIX (nic)

       -- DDN Network Information Center  --
      *
      * For TAC news, type:                  TACNEWS <return>
      * For user and host information, type: WHOIS <return>
      * For NIC information, type:           NIC <return>
      *
      * For user assistance call (800) 365-3642 or (800) 365-DNIC or
                                                   (703) 802-4535
      * Report system problems to ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL

      NIC, SunOS Release 4.1.1 (NIC) #1: 
      Thu Sep 26 14:11:08 1991 EST
      @ tacnews <Return>
      TACnews Version: (xxxx.xxx) Thu, 26 Sep 91 14:30:14 

      Stop output every 24 lines? ([Y]/N/# of lines) y <Return>

        1. Announcements -- Updated 11-Jul-91
        2. TACs, List of U.S. TAC Dial-Ins, 23K
        3. Locator, Finds U.S. TAC Dial-Ins
        4. Eur/Pac, List of European/Pacific TAC Dial-Ins, 15K
        5. Login, Help with TAC login, 6K
        6. Newsletters, DDN -- Updated 16-Sep-91
        7. Bulletins, DDN Management -- Updated 16-Sep-91
        8. Bulletins, DDN Security -- Updated 16-Sep-91

      Type a menu number (1 - 8), ? for options, "HELP" for instructions.
      TACnews:




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TACNEWS services are also available via the NIC/Query program; this redundancy
allows users connecting to the NIC via TELNET to take advantage of all
services in a single connection session.

If you wish to have newsletters and bulletins delivered online to your network
mailbox, send a message to REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL including your name and
address and indicating that you wish to be on the online distribution for the
newsletters and bulletins.


6.3.4  NIC Kermit Server

For PC users who cannot access FTP from their hosts, the NIC has an anonymous
Kermit server available.  (A server is a software module that provides a
service to users or user programs that request it.)  You should be familiar
with the Kermit file transfer protocol and have a PC communications program
that supports that protocol before you attempt to transfer documents with it.

To download a file from the NIC using the Kermit server, proceed as follows:

      1.  Set the receive packet size on your PC Kermit to 60.

      2.  Connect to NIC.DDN.MIL (192.112.36.5) through a TAC or Mini-TAC.

      3.  Once you get the NIC login prompt (@), change the TAC intercept
          character to a control-y (^y)  by issuing the following TAC command:

                  @i 25 <Return>

          Notice that you must type the "@" symbol because it signals the TAC
          that you are issuing a command.

      4.  Press <Return> to get the NIC prompt (@ is now the NIC prompt
          symbol), then type 

                  kermit <Return>

          This command activates the Kermit server on the NIC.

      5.  Drop back to your PC Kermit and get the file that you want from 
          the NIC.

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      6.  When you are finished, type "bye" to end the Kermit session on 
          your PC.

For more information on using Kermit through a TAC, see the files KERMIT-
TAC-INFO.TXT and KERMIT-NICSERVER.TXT in the NETINFO/ directory on the
NIC.DDN.MIL host.  These files are also available via the SERVICE mail server
(see Section 6.3.5).


6.3.5  NIC Automated Mail Service

SERVICE is an automated electronic mail system provided by the DDN Network
Information Center.  It allows access to most online NIC documents and
information via electronic mail.

To use the mail service, send a message to SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL.  In the
SUBJECT field, enter the type of service you are requesting, followed by any
arguments needed to further define your request.  The message body is normally
ignored; however, if you leave the SUBJECT field empty, the first line of the
message body is used as the request.  If your request involves the
transmission of large files, they are broken into smaller, separate messages;
however, a few files are too large to be sent through the mail system. 
SERVICE requests are processed automatically once a day.

The following services are currently available.  Each item on the list is
followed by an example of a subject line for requesting that service:

      HELP             This message; a list of current services.
                       Subj:  HELP

      RFC nnnn         nnnn is the RFC number.
                       Subj:  RFC 822

      RFC Index        Retrieves the index of RFCs.
                       Subj:  RFC INDEX

      IEN nnn          nnn is the IEN number or the word INDEX.
                       Subj:  IEN 828




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      NETINFO xxx      xxx is a file name or the word INDEX.
                       Subj:  NETINFO DOMAIN-TEMPLATE.TXT

      SEND xxx         xxx is a fully specified file name.
                       Subj:  SEND IETF/1WG-SUMMARY
                       Subj:  SEND INTERNET-DRAFTS/DRAFT-IETF-IWG-BGP-OO.TXT

      HOST xxx         Returns information about host xxx.
                       Subj:  HOST NIC.DDN.MIL

      INDEX            Returns the master list of available index files.

      FYI nnn          Returns the specified FYI document, where nnn is the
                       FYI number or the word INDEX.
                       Subj:  FYI 1

      WHOIS xxx        Returns information about xxx from the WHOIS service.
                       Use "WHOIS HELP" for information on using WHOIS.
                       Subj:  WHOIS MCCOLLUMB


6.4  Documents Published by the NIC

The NIC compiles, edits, and publishes the documents listed below, all of
which are available online.  The file NIC-PUBS.TXT in the NETINFO/ directory
on NIC.DDN.MIL contains an expanded, annotated list of NIC publications that
are currently available either online or in hardcopy.  Many of these documents
are deposited at the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), where they
are available to military network users.  Hardcopies of documents and RFCs are
also available from the former NIC, SRI International in Menlo Park, CA. 
Contact SRI for prices and ordering information.  (Ordering instructions are
also provided in the online file NIC-PUBS.TXT.)  You may contact the NIC to
confirm document availability or to learn about newly available documents.


THE DDN NEW USER GUIDE
      The document you are reading.  A brief guide to DDN network tools and
      services designed to introduce users to the network.  The Guide is
      available online as NETINFO/NUG.DOC.



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THE NETWORK PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATIONS AND VENDORS GUIDE
      The Vendors Guide lists software and hardware implementations of the 
      DDN protocols, based upon information supplied by vendors.  This
      document is for informational purposes only.  Entry on this list does
      not imply endorsement.  Available online as NETINFO/VENDORS-GUIDE.DOC.


RFCs (Copies only via FTP)
      Requests for Comments, or RFCs, are network technical notes, each of
      which is identified by a unique number.  The RFCs are available online
      via anonymous FTP as RFC/RFCnnnn.txt (where nnnn is the RFC number). 
      RFCs are available in hardcopy from SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.


6.5  Online Reference Files at the NIC

Several public files on the NIC.DDN.MIL host are of special interest to
network users.  The pathnames and brief descriptions of some of these files
are listed below.  You may retrieve these files via FTP (using USERNAME
anonymous, PASSWORD guest).  See Section 5.1.2 for FTP instructions.  You may
also obtain the files by electronic mail using the NIC Mail SERVICE program
(see Section 6.3.5) or via the NIC Kermit Server (see Section 6.3.4).

NETINFO/MIL-NSC.TXT
      Node Site Coordinators for each node or PSN on the MILNET.


NETINFO/HOSTS.TXT
      Official Internet DoD Hostname Table, which lists the names and numbers
      of domains, networks, gateways, and hosts on the DoD Internet.  It is
      designed to be machine readable.  From this file, two additional files
      are generated: 

      HOSTS.TXT-Z, a UNIX compressed version of the HOSTS.TXT file, and
      MIL-HOSTS.TXT, a complete listing of the MILNET hosts in HOSTS.TXT.


NETINFO/HOST-LOCATION.TXT
      Addresses of MILNET hosts locations, sorted geographically.

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NETINFO/HOSTSERVER-INSTRUCTIONS.TXT
      Instructions for using the NIC's hostname server to transfer the host
      table.


NETINFO/MIL-HOST-ADMINISTRATORS-A-L.TXT
      Military Host Administrators "A" through "L," sorted by hostname.  


NETINFO/MIL-HOST-ADMINISTRATORS-M-Z.TXT
      Military Host Administrators "M" through "Z," sorted by hostname.


NETINFO/NIC-PUBS.TXT
      Information about publications available from the NIC.


NETINFO/NUG.DOC
      Online version of this document.


NETINFO/WHAT-THE-NIC-DOES.TXT
      General information regarding NIC services.


NETINFO/USER-TEMPLATE.TXT
      Template for users who want to be registered in the WHOIS database.


NETINFO/TAC-LOCATION.TXT
      Geographic location of each TAC.  This file is useful for locating the
      TAC closest to you.


NETINFO/USA-TAC-PHONES.TXT
      Phone numbers for TACS within the fifty states.


NETINFO/FOREIGN-TAC-PHONES.TXT
      Phone numbers for TACs outside the U.S.


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NETINFO/DOMAIN-CONTACTS.TXT
      Name, mailbox, and phone number for each domain contact registered with
      the NIC.


NETINFO/NETWORK-CONTACTS.TXT
      Name, mailbox, and phone number for each network contact registered with
      the NIC.  The NIC registers all IP networks and designates a contact for
      each one.


NETINFO/00NETINFO-INDEX.TXT
      Name and a brief description of each file available in the publicly
      accessible NETINFO directory on the NIC host.


NETINFO/KERMIT-INFO.TXT
      General information on the Kermit program.


NETINFO/KERMIT-NICSERVER.TXT
      Specific information on the NIC Kermit server.


NETINFO/KERMIT-TAC-INFO.TXT
      Specific information on TAC usage with Kermit.


PROTOCOLS/GOSIP-V1.DOC
      Version 1 of the GOSIP document.


PROTOCOLS/GOSIP-ORDER-INFO.TXT
      Descriptions of GOSIP-related documents and information on how to obtain
      them.


RFC/RFCnnnn.TXT, where nnnn is the RFC number
      Network technical notes, known as Requests for Comments, or RFCs, are
      online in the directory RFC/ on the NIC.DDN.MIL host.  New RFCs are
      announced to network users via an online distribution list maintained 
      by the NIC.  Individuals who want to be added to the RFC notification
      list should send a message to RFC-REQUEST@NIC.DDN.MIL.

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RFC/RFC-INDEX.TXT
      Lists all RFCs in reverse numerical order, with the most recent RFC at
      the top.  Includes author, title, date of issue, RFC number, number of
      hardcopy pages, number of online bytes, format (ASCII text), and
      information regarding other RFCs that make a given RFC obsolete or
      update it.  Notes whether an RFC is also an FYI.


FYI/FYInn.TXT, where nn is the FYI number
     (FYI = For Your Information)  General information technical notes issued
     as special RFCs.


FYI/FYI-INDEX.TXT
     Mirror of the RFC Index, but listing only FYIs.  Notes the corresponding
     RFC number for each FYI.


























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            SECTION 7.  SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS AND NETWORK CONDUCT


7.1  Requirements for Legitimate DDN Access

Only authorized users engaged in U.S. Government business or applicable
research, or who are directly involved in providing operations or system
support for Government-owned or Government-sponsored computer communications
equipment, may use the DDN.  The network is not available for use by the
general public, nor is it intended to compete with comparable commercial
network services.  Users of the DDN must not violate privacy or other
applicable laws and should not use the networks for advertising or recruiting
purposes without the express permission of the Defense Information Systems
Agency.

Unauthorized use of the DDN is illegal.  Persons who break into Government
networks or use Government computer resources without authorization will be
prosecuted.  Hosts that permit this type of access will be disconnected from
the network.

      [NOTE: DISA reserves the right to discontinue DDN access to any 
      user(s) who are, in DISA's opinion, not conducting legitimate 
      Government business/activity.  DISA will send one letter of warning
      through command channels (via registered mail) to any user found to 
      be conducting illegitimate business.  Should the illegitimate activity
      continue, DISA will terminate the user's access without additional
      notice.]


7.2  Security Considerations and Guidelines for Network Conduct

Several levels of responsibility provide security for the DDN.  At the most
basic level, individual users should take precautions to minimize the chances
that their accounts could be compromised.  They bear the primary
responsibility for the protection of their information.  If more users were to
take this responsibility seriously and act accordingly, the majority of
computer security breaches would not occur.




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You can best protect your own files via careful password management.  Do not
use an unmodified word from any language; this includes words spelled
backward.  Your Host Administrator should have suggestions as to proper
password choices.

Follow these recommendations to reduce the possibility of compromise of your
computer system or files:

      *  Do not leave your terminal logged in and unattended.

      *  Know your operating system's protection mechanisms and make sure 
         that all your files are set up with appropriate protection modes.

      *  Choose a password that meets the guidelines of your site or, at
         minimum, one that is not an unmodified word from any language.  A
         simple modification involves prefixing a word with a numeral (or
         several numerals).

      *  Change your password as required by your site or, at minimum, every
         six months.

      *  Do not write your password down on paper or record it in a file
         stored on any computer disk, floppy disk, PC, or magnetic tape.

Users have the primary responsibility for protecting their own accounts, but
several other people have roles in providing system and network security.

Host Administrators are generally responsible for ensuring that their host
sites maintain a reasonable level of protection from the possibility of
network compromise.  They must act as liaisons with the DDN Network Security
Officer (DDN NSO), the Security Coordination Center (SCC), vendors, law
enforcement bodies, and other appropriate agencies to resolve any outstanding
security problems and prevent their recurrence.  They are responsible for the
enforcement of all DDN policies at their site.

The NSO recommends security policy affecting the DDN and is responsible for
its general enforcement.  The NSO also works closely with Host Administrators
to resolve network and related computer security problems and incidents
affecting their sites.



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The DDN Security Coordination Center is located at the NIC.  The SCC acts as a
liaison between Host Administrators and the NSO and between MILNET sites and
Internet security response centers such as the Computer Emergency Response
Team (CERT).

If you suspect that a computer break-in has occurred, you should contact your
Host Administrator.  The flow of security incident reporting should be from
the end user to the Host Administrator or other appropriate individual, who
then determines if the problem is local or network related.  If the problem is
network related, the Host Administrator should refer the problem to the
appropriate site as noted in DDN Security Bulletin 9003 [7].  In such cases,
the Host Administrator's first step is to call the MILNET Monitoring Center
for your area.  Phone numbers for the Monitoring Centers are found in Section
9.2.


7.3  Network Conduct

The network environment is somewhat different from the traditional workplace. 
Rules for proper conduct are gradually emerging to fit this new environment. 
The rules and guidelines presented here relate to four areas:

      *  passwords
      *  file protection
      *  plagiarism
      *  network mail. 


7.3.1  Passwords

Since use of the network is restricted, passwords, access codes, and TAC cards
should never be shared.  Change your host login password regularly and report
any unauthorized use of passwords to your Host Administrator.  MILNET TAC
cards and records of host Userids and Access Codes should be kept in a safe
place.  Users should be familiar with and follow local security guidelines.


7.3.2  File Protection

Most operating systems have a method of protecting files from network read and
write access.  The recommended file protection default for directories is "no

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read and no write to outside users."  If your files are protected in this way,
you can still make them accessible to outside users over the network, but you
must take action to reset file and directory protections to make this happen.

As a new user, you should find out what the protection default is on your host
and ensure that files you don't want accessible to other users are protected. 
Ask you Host Administrator about default file and directory protection
settings and for instructions on protecting/unprotecting files.


7.3.3  Plagiarism

Even if a file is unprotected, you are not free to copy or read it without
first asking permission.  It is as inappropriate to read online mail or browse
through online files without permission as it would be to read a colleague's
hardcopy mail or rummage around in his desk.

Electronic plagiarism of another's work is just as unethical as plagiarism by
any other means.  Be sure to credit users whose work you cite or whose ideas
you express.  Copyright laws must also be carefully observed and obeyed.

It is easy and convenient to exchange code and programming across the network.

Many code developers are extremely generous in sharing their work.  Even so,
before copying or using someone else's code, be sure to get permission from
the developer or maintainer and credit the source in your documentation. 
Under no circumstances should programming or code from anywhere on the network
be used (verbatim or edited) commercially without the owner's explicit
permission.


7.3.4  Mail

Electronic mail is a powerful communication tool that must be used with care. 
The following guidelines will help you avoid offending other users and
overloading the network.

It is easy to forward mail you receive; but the writer may never have intended
that anyone else read the message.  For this reason, it is wise to check with
the sender before forwarding a private message of any significance.



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The DDN is a business environment, so try to keep your messages short and to
the point.  It is easy to send off a quick message, only to realize a moment
later that you needed to say more.  To avoid this, organize your thoughts and
send a single message rather than several incomplete ones.  This will make
your mail far more useful to the recipients, and minimize the load on the
network.

Online mail tends to change a person's style of communication.  Sending mail
is so quick that it is tempting to send your immediate reaction to a message
rather than a more considered, appropriate response.  Do not use derogatory or
inappropriate language in messages, especially those sent to discussion
groups.  Keep in mind that no one likes to be offended or embarrassed by
careless comments.

Finally, if you regularly send mail to a large group, learn how to create a
mailing list.  Otherwise, each recipient must scroll through a list of the
mailboxes of all other recipients as a part of the message header.

Remember, use of the network is a privilege.  It is your duty to use the
network responsibly as it was intended to be used and to obey general network
policies.  In return, the network gives you access to many tools and to an
online community of other network users.


7.4  Additional Security Information

Host and system administrators are encouraged to order "DCAC 310-P115-1, DDN
Security Management procedures for Host Administrators," May 1991.  Copies may
be obtained in the following manner:

      a.  Government agencies may request a publication by submitting a DCA
          Form 117, Publication of Blank Form Request, to the Director, DISA,
          ATTN: BIAR, Arlington, VA 22204-2199.

      b.  Other organizations may request a publication by submitting a letter
          with appropriate justification to the address given above.  The DCA
          Form 117 is used by Government agencies ONLY.





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                     SECTION 8.  NETWORK CONCEPTS OVERVIEW


8.1  Introduction

In the following paragraphs, we provide some general information about topics
such as usage-sensitive billing, network concentrators, network addresses, the
Domain Name System, and GOSIP.  Although most new DDN users will not be
actively involved in any of the areas covered in this section, they do involve
concepts you should become familiar with, since they are important to all DDN
users.


8.2  Usage-Sensitive Billing

The usage-sensitive billing system was implemented on the DDN to distribute
costs more equitably, based on actual use of network resources.  The tariff
structure is designed to support cost recovery so that the amount recovered
from each subscriber is proportional to that subscriber's use of network
resources.

Generally speaking, all hosts and dedicated terminals are charged a basic
monthly rate.  Users' network connections are charged on a per-minute basis. 
A charge is also levied for each kilopacket of traffic sent by each host or
terminal user.  Charges reflect peak-versus-nonpeak usage and precedence
level.

Monthly bills are sent to designated representatives of the military branches
as well as to other Government agencies.  The bills are then distributed
according to locally established policies.  That is, a packet of several bills
might be sent to a site and then distributed to other individuals by the
billing Point of Contact (POC) at that site.

It is rare for an individual user to see a bill.  However, you should be aware
that your use of the DDN does affect costs charged back to your service and,
perhaps, to your host site.  Therefore, all users should be conscientious in
conforming to host site usage policies.




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The NIC provides a Usage Sensitive Billing (USB) Service Desk to help answer
inquiries from DDN users or user organizations regarding the traffic and/or
connection charges shown on their billing reports.  USB Service Desk personnel
are available by phone Monday through Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.,
Eastern time.  Electronic mail is accepted 24 hours per day.

Service Desk personnel have access to many sources of DDN usage information. 
They are available to answer general questions as well as site- or
user-specific questions.  In the event a question or inquiry goes beyond the
scope of the Service Desk, the caller can be referred to a more appropriate
contact or agency.

Use the following information to contact the USB Service Desk:

By Electronic Mail:                  BILLING@NIC.DDN.MIL

By Phone:                            1 (800) 365-DNIC (inside the U.S.)
                                     1 (703) 802-4535 (outside the U.S.)

By U.S. Mail:                        DDN Network Information Center
                                     ATTN: Usage-Sensitive Billing Desk
                                     14200 Park Meadow Drive, Suite 200
                                     Chantilly, VA  22021



8.3  Network Concentrators

Networks can be categorized according to size or geographic distribution, and
they can be referred to as local area networks (LANs) or wide area networks
(WANs).  A LAN might serve a single office, a building, or an entire military
site.  WANs are typically cross-country networks employing technologies such
as satellites or long distance land lines; they can serve large geographic
areas such as military installations located throughout the world.  The DDN is
a WAN that reaches all major DoD installations worldwide.

To expand computer communications not only across geographical distances, but
also across different networking technologies, gateways are used to connect
networks together into internetworks or "internets."  The DDN is part of an
IP-based internetwork known to DDN users as "the Internet."


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The use of gateway concentrators as a method of connecting to the DDN is a
relatively new trend.  Gateway concentrators enable LANs and hosts at military
installations to connect to the DDN.  Concentrators lessen the need for
individual host connections without limiting local users' access to full DDN
service.

Gateway concentrator use increased when DISA limited the number of PSN ports
that would be available to connect hosts directly to the DDN.  This
limitation, coupled with the long lead time required for direct host
connections, lent impetus to the establishment of gateway concentrator
programs for the military.  Currently, the Air Force and the Army have
concentrator programs to fulfill their long-haul data communication
requirements.  These programs have become their primary method of connecting
unclassified computer systems to the DDN.

Gateway concentrators provide a number of advantages for connecting
installations to the DDN: 

      *  Greater Connection Capacity.  
         With the installation of a gateway concentrator at a local site, the
         number of hosts that can be connected to the DDN is no longer limited
         by the number of ports available on a PSN.  Instead, many hosts can
         be connected to a concentrator, and the total amount of traffic they
         pass to the DDN is accommodated by the connection between the gateway
         concentrator and the MILNET PSN to which it is attached.

      *  Quick Connection.  
         The gateway concentrator program was designed to allow multiple hosts
         to access a single DDN port simultaneously.  Computers at an
         installation that requires unclassified worldwide communication will
         be connected to the Internet automatically because their local
         networks are attached to the Internet via the concentrator.  Thus,
         these hosts will not require direct connections to DDN ports.  This
         configuration enables the various military services (e.g., Air Force,
         Army) to manage their host connections directly, and to avoid the
         long wait for individual host connections to DDN ports.

      *  Lower Cost Per Host.
         Because of the DDN usage-sensitive billing system structure, the
         gateway concentrator programs reduce costs for DDN connection.  With
         the installation of a gateway concentrator, the charges for initial

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         host connections are reduced, as the service is charged only once for
         the initial connection of the concentrator itself, rather than for
         each individual host connection.  In addition, traffic between local
         hosts on the network behind a gateway concentrator will not be billed
         because such traffic will not travel across DDN facilities.

The Air Force has a help desk at the Internet Control Center (INCC) to aid
concentrator users in accessing the DDN:

          AFINCC@SERVER.AF.MIL
          Headquarters Standard Systems Center/AQFC
          Building 857, Room 200A
          Gunter Air Force Base, AL 36114-6343
          (205) 416-5771, (205) 416-5861; (DSN) 596-5771, 596-5861



8.4  Network Addressing

The network address is the official numeric address of a host, TAC, or gateway
(as opposed to the official name by which these entities are addressed). 
Network addresses take the format "nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn" (dotted decimal format),
where nnn represents an up to 3-digit decimal identifier from 0 through 255,
and each numeric component is separated from the next with a period.  Each
decimal part represents one octet of a 32-bit network address.  The standard
Internet address is divided into two parts:  a network part and a local host
part.  Based on this two-part division, three classes of Internet addresses
have been defined:  Class A, Class B, and Class C.


CLASS A Network Addresses

Class A network addresses have the following characteristics:

      *  Composed of a 1-byte network address and a 3-byte local address.
      *  The highest-order bit of the (1-byte) network address is set to 0.
      *  Therefore, the first (or network address) byte of a CLASS A address
         must be in the range from 0 to 127.
      *  Consequently, CLASS A could have as many as 128 networks with 2 to
         the 24th power (16,777,216) hosts on each of these networks.


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All directly connected MILNET hosts are on network 26, which is a Class A
network.

For MILNET hosts, 

      *  The first part of the address is the network number (26). 
      *  The second part is the physical port number on the host's PSN. 
      *  The third part is the logical port number (currently 0 (zero) for
         MILNET hosts).
      *  The fourth part is the number of the PSN to which the host is
         connected.

Therefore, a host with the address 26.31.0.73 is on network 26 (the number
assigned to the MILNET) and is attached to port 31 on PSN 73.


CLASS B Network Addresses

Class B network addresses have the following characteristics:

      *  The two high-order bytes of the Internet address contain the network
         number, while the two low-order bytes contain the local host number.
      *  The highest order bits are set to 10, which means that the first byte
         must be a number in the range 128 to 191.
      *  Consequently, CLASS B could have as many as 16,384 networks with 2 to
         the 16th power (65,536) hosts on each of these networks.


CLASS C Network Addresses

Class C network addresses have the following characteristics:

      *  The network number is contained in the three high-order bytes of the
         Internet address, while the local host address is represented in the
         single low-order byte.
      *  The three highest-order bits of the network address are set to 110.
      *  Therefore, the first byte must be in the range 192 to 233.
      *  Consequently, CLASS C could have as many as 2,097,152 networks with
         2 to the 8th power (256) hosts on each of these networks.



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The Internet Registry (IR) at the DDN NIC assigns the network portion of an
address to a network.  The local network coordinator for a specific host
assigns the local portion of that host's network address.

Here are some examples of how each type of network number looks:

                  Class A:  26.31.0.73
                  Class B:  128.18.1.1
                  Class C:  192.67.67.20

     [NOTE:  A network address is different from a user's address.  The 
     term "user address" refers to a person's electronic mailbox, such as
     henry@nic.ddn.mil.]

In addition to the three classes defined above, a class of addresses whose
three highest order bits are 111 has been defined.  It is currently in limited
use.  This class is sometimes referred to as "CLASS D."  Figure 8-1 on the
next page graphically represents the three major Internet address classes.
























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CLASS A Internet Address:


     Byte:       1             2            3            4
            <-----------><-----------><-----------><----------->
     Bit:    0          07           15           23          31

            +--------------------------------------------------+
            | | Network |                                      |
            |0| Address |      Local Address                   |
            +--------------------------------------------------+



CLASS B Internet Address:


     Byte:       1             2            3            4
            <-----------><-----------><-----------><----------->
     Bit:    0          07           15           23          31

            +--------------------------------------------------+
            |1|0|   Network Address   |    Local Address       |
            +--------------------------------------------------+



CLASS C Internet Address:


     Byte:       1             2            3            4
            <-----------><-----------><-----------><----------->
     Bit:    0          07           15           23         31

            +--------------------------------------------------+
            | | | |                                |  Local    |
            |1|1|0|       Network Address          | Address   |
            +--------------------------------------------------+


                    Figure 8-1.  Internet Address Classes

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8.4.1  Finding Network Address Information

The WHOIS database at the NIC contains POC information for every network the
IR (Internet Registry) assigns; however, it may not contain information for
every host on a network.  Therefore, remember to search on the network portion
of the address rather than the complete address when you are using the WHOIS
program to obtain information on a host.

For example, the Class C address

                  192.112.36.70

is not in the database, but searching on

                  192.112.36.0 

shows you information for LOCALNET.  When using WHOIS to find the POC
information for a network, set the local portion(s) of the address to zero. 
(See Section 6.3.1.3 for an example of using WHOIS to search for a network
address.)


8.4.2  Obtaining Network Addresses

DISA assigns all MILNET network addresses (Class A, network 26), and the
MILNET Manager must approve any changes to or deletions of MILNET network
addresses.

The NIC assigns all other Class A, B, and C network addresses.  Requests to
obtain an official Class B or C number or to make changes to hosts registered
with these addresses should be directed online to HOSTMASTER@NIC.DDN.MIL.  To
arrange for a hardcopy application, call the NIC at 1 (800) 365-DNIC. 
Applications can also be requested through the SERVICE mail server (see
Section 6.3.5).


8.4.3  Knowing Your Network Address

Each user should know the network address of his/her host.  It is especially
important to know your host's address if you use a TAC or Mini-TAC because you
will have to enter the address as part of the TAC login sequence.  Your host

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address is often--but not always--the address printed on your TAC card by the
label AUTHORIZING HOST.  Even if you have a script file or program that enters
this information for you as you log in, learn your address so you can tell it
to the NIC or the MILNET Monitoring Center when you call them about a login
problem.


8.5  The Domain Name System

Until the mid-1980s, a DDN host could find data on hostname-to-network-address
translation solely through the use of a file called the host table, which was
generated at the NIC.

The host table contained the name and network address of every host that was
registered with the NIC.  Individual host sites had to transfer and install
new copies of the host table regularly in order to have correct host
addressing information.  The host table had to be updated frequently to enable
mail and other data to be sent back and forth across the Internet.

As time went on, however, the number of hosts listed in the host table became
so large that the file was difficult to maintain efficiently, as well as
difficult and time-consuming for sites to transfer.  As an alternative to the
host table file, the Domain Name System (DNS) was developed.  Currently, the
NIC maintains data for both the host table and the DNS.  The host table
listing is an extremely restricted subset of the hosts registered in the
Domain Name System.

In a nutshell, the DNS is a way of administratively grouping hosts into a
hierarchy of authority.  The DNS allows addressing information to be widely
distributed and updated locally, which results in more efficient data
retrieval and maintenance.  Complete conversion to the DNS will eliminate the
need for one site to maintain a centralized table of names and addresses.

Under the DNS, host name and address information, along with other data, is
distributed throughout the network in a hierarchical scheme.  At the top of
the hierarchy are the root servers that contain information about the
top-level and second-level domains.  At the bottom of the hierarchy are the
individual hosts.




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Each domain within the DNS must have two hosts that provide name service for
it, which means that these hosts must run programs called name servers.  When
queried by programs known as resolvers (located on individual hosts), these
name servers provide name and address information to/for the particular hosts
within their domain.  (The hosts themselves are called servers, even though,
technically, a server is a program.)  Each server contains a subset of
Internet domain information.  If a query arrives at a server that does not
have address information for a particular host, it will be able to direct the
query to the server where the information resides.

Queries regarding specific hostnames usually begin by asking a server that
knows about the top-level domain under which that host falls.  Currently, most
domains on the Internet are registered within one of the following top-level
domains:

      *  COM       for commercial institutions
      *  EDU       for educational institutions
      *  GOV       for non-military government agencies and organizations
      *  MIL       for military agencies and organizations
      *  NET       for backbone networking entities
      *  ORG       for non-profit institutions.

Top-level domains are also registered for countries--e.g., BE for Belgium and
FI for Finland.  The NIC registers information for only the top level of these
country domains.  Lower-level domains are registered within the country.

Hosts registered on the Internet must have names that reflect the domains
under which they are registered.  Such names are called Fully Qualified Domain
Names (FQDNs) and include all domains of which the host is a part.  For
example, NIC.DDN.MIL is the name of the NIC's main host.  The hostname
NIC.DDN.MIL, when taken piece by piece, gives information about the host
itself.  A hostname ending in MIL signifies sponsorship from a
military-related organization.  The second-level domain, DDN, indicates that
the host is used by an organization within the DDN.  The third-level domain,
NIC, indicates the host is used by the NIC.

Between the root servers and the individual hosts are other hosts that act as
servers and contain part of the information within the DNS hierarchy.  For
example, a program looking for the address of NIC.DDN.MIL might first send a
query to a root server.


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The root server would not know the address of NIC.DDN.MIL in particular, but
would direct the query to another server that had information about the
DDN.MIL domain.  The second server would know which hosts provide name service
about NIC.DDN.MIL and direct the query to those hosts.  Finally, the query
would arrive at the specific host providing name service for NIC.DDN.MIL. That
host would return the network address information via the DNS to the host that
initiated the query.  All of this happens very quickly--usually in less than a
minute.

Mail programs must know the address of each host to which they send mail. 
Users normally include a hostname in the headers of their messages.  The mail
program queries either the DNS or a host table to translate that hostname to a
network address.  This enables the mail message to be delivered across the
network.

For example, if a user named Sam wants to send mail to his friend Joe at the
host EXAMPLE.SAMPLE.COM, he can do so in one of two ways.

      1.  Via the Host Table--

          *  The host EXAMPLE.SAMPLE.COM is registered in the host table 
             along with its netaddress.
 
          *  The mail program finds the correct netaddress from the host 
             table on the sender's local host and sends the mail to Joe.

          In this method of transmission, every host that Sam wants to
          communicate with must be listed in the host table file on his own
          host.  Sam may not be able to reply to messages sent to him if his
          host does not recognize the hostname in the sender's return address.


      2.  Via the Domain Name System--

          *  The mail program trying to deliver a message addressed to
             JOE@EXAMPLE.SAMPLE.COM sends a tracker called a query to one of
             seven root servers.

          *  The root server has information on the COM top-level domain and
             knows which two domain servers hold further information on the
             SAMPLE.COM domain.  

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          *  The root server points the query to those domain servers.  

          *  When the query arrives at the ultimate destination server, it
             learns the netaddress of the host EXAMPLE.SAMPLE.COM, and the
             mail program obtains the information necessary to establish a
             path from the sender's host to Joe's host.

          *  The query directs the mail down that path to Joe's mail account
             on the EXAMPLE.SAMPLE.COM host.



8.6  Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP)

The Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) is a document that
describes the Government's plans to transition its networks from the
TCP/IP-based protocols to international protocols based on the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model.  The goal is to add OSI-based functions
to the Internet without sacrificing services now available to Internet users.

Several documents pertain to GOSIP or its implementation; however, we will
mention only one resource that will point you toward the most current
information available.

RFC 1169, "Explaining the Role of GOSIP," [6] discusses how GOSIP should be
applied to near-term network planning and explains the role and applicability
of the GOSIP document.  In addition, it has an appendix that describes other
GOSIP documents and tells how to obtain them.  The appendix also lists
contacts for further information regarding the documents.  This RFC will
probably be updated as the status of GOSIP changes, so check the RFC Index,
available at the NIC, to ensure that you have the most current information.











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              SECTION 9.  NETWORK SERVICE CENTERS AND CONTACTS


The three main service centers on the DDN are:

      *  The DDN Network Information Center (NIC)

      *  The DDN Network Monitoring Centers (NMC) for the United States,
         Pacific, and European areas

      *  The Defense Information Systems Agency's Defense Network Systems
         Organization (DISA DNSO).

This section of the Guide describes the services provided by these
organizations and gives a list of key contacts for each.

This section also tells you how to obtain the names of other key network
contacts, including the following:

      *  Host Administrators
      *  Node Site Coordinators
      *  Military Communications and Operations Command Contacts.

These people and places are sources of network-related information and help,
so it is important for you to familiarize yourself with them.


9.1  The DDN Network Information Center (NIC)

The DDN Network Information Center (NIC) is located at Government Systems,
Inc. (GSI) headquarters in Chantilly, Virginia.  The NIC is funded by the
Defense Information Systems Agency's Defense Network Systems Organization
(DISA DNSO).  Its mission is to provide general reference services to DDN
users via telephone, electronic mail, and U.S. mail.  The NIC is the first
place to turn to if you are not sure who provides the service you need or who
is the right person to contact.  Section 6 describes the NIC services in
detail.




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9.1.1  General Reference Service Provided by the NIC

The NIC provides several kinds of user assistance.  Our main Help Desk phone
numbers are

       1 (800) 365-DNIC (inside the U.S.)
      +1 (703) 802-4535 (outside the U.S.)

The first number is toll-free.  Service is available Monday through Friday,
from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., Eastern time.

The NIC Help Desk assists those who experience problems with the network and
with terminal-to-TAC use.  In addition, the NIC is happy to answer questions
about any other service outlined in this section.

The NIC host computer's hostname and its network address are:

              NIC.DDN.MIL     192.112.36.5

NIC online services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.  


9.1.2  NIC Online Contacts

The NIC supports several online mailboxes to provide assistance in specific
areas.

      Type of Inquiry                           Network Mailbox
 
      General User Assistance                   NIC@NIC.DDN.MIL
      TAC and Non-TAC User Registration         REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Urgent Security Matters                   NIC-ALERT@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Host, Domain, and Net Registration        HOSTMASTER@NIC.DDN.MIL
      NIC.DDN.MIL Computer Operations           ACTION@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Comments on NIC Publications, Services    SUGGESTIONS@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Security Concerns and Questions           SCC@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Usage-Sensitive Billing Questions         BILLING@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Automatic Mail Service                    SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL
      Reporting NIC Software Bugs               BUG-SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL



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9.1.3  NIC U.S. Mail Address

            Network Information Center
            14200 Park Meadow Drive, Suite 200
            Chantilly, VA  22021


9.2  Network Monitoring Centers (NMCs)

The three Network Monitoring Centers are:.

      *  The CONUS MILNET Monitoring Center (CMMC) located at DISA
         headquarters in Washington, DC; the CMMC provides a toll-free hotline
         Trouble Desk phone number for quick reporting of network problems.

      *  The Pacific MILNET Monitoring Center (PMMC) located at Wheeler AFB
         in Hawaii.

      *  The European MILNET Monitoring Center (EMMC) located in Patch
         Barracks, Vaihingen, Germany.

All NMCs provide operations support for several DoD packet-switching networks.

The NMCs concentrate on real-time network management, with the primary
objective of maximizing each network's operating efficiency.  In addition,
they receive the first DDN security incident reports.

Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Communications Division (BBNCD) provides DDN
with operations and technical support, configuration management, software
maintenance and enhancement, hardware maintenance, and required hardware.


9.2.1  NMC Services

NMC services include remote status monitoring, coordination of network outage
troubleshooting efforts, and 24-hours-per-day, 7-days-per-week technical
assistance to users.  The NMCs typically work on backbone-related outages
consisting of node and circuit problems; they provide help in determining
whether host connectivity problems are network related.

Your Host Administrator contacts the appropriate NMC for all network hardware
problems, hardware field service, problems with host interfaces, suspected
node software problems, or DDN security problems.

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9.2.2  NMC Contacts

    Title                Telephone               Network Mailbox

    CONUS MMC            1 (800) 451-7413        DCA-MMC@DCA-EMS.DCA.MIL
                         1 (703) 692-2268     

    European MMC         011 49 711 687 7766     STT-CONTROL@FRG.BBN.COM

    Pacific MMC          1 (808) 656-1472        PMMC@PAC-MILNET-MC.DCA.MIL
 
    MILNET Trouble Desk  1 (703) 692-5726


9.2.3  NMC U.S. Mail Addresses


CONUS MILNET Monitoring Center      Pacific MILNET Monitoring Center
DCA Headquarters                    Defense Communications Agency, Pacific
701 South Courthouse Rd.            Wheeler AFB, HI  96854-5000
Arlington, VA  22204-2199           Attn: P-600
Attn: MILNET Manager

                  European MILNET Monitoring Center
                  BBNCD
                  DCA-Europe
                  Box 1000 Att: DED
                  APO NY 09131-4103


9.3  Host Administrators and Node Site Coordinators

Each host has a representative who serves as its technical and administrative
contact--the Host Administrator.  The Host Administrator provides important
host-related services such as the following:

      *  Collaborates with the DDN PMO on security matters involving hosts,

      *  Interprets network policies as they apply to his/her host, 

      *  Decides which users may access the network (within the guidelines 
         set by the DDN PMO),

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      *  Authorizes user access to the MILNET Terminal Access Controllers
         (TACs) and Mini-TACs,

      *  Helps network users with technical problems involving hosts, and

      *  Works with the Network Information Center and the Network Monitoring
         Centers to provide information and technical assistance.

Each network node, or PSN, has a Node Site Coordinator (NSC).  The Node Site
Coordinator is the local site representative who has access control,
accountability, and coordination responsibility for the DDN-owned network
hardware, software, and circuits located at the node site.

Occasionally, one person serves both roles.  A Host Administrator or Node Site
Coordinator may also designate an alternate who can assist with the
administrative or technical demands of the position.

To find the names, addresses, telephone numbers, and network mailboxes for
these contacts, see Section 6.3.


9.4  Military Communications and Operations Command Contacts

Each military department has designated an organization to serve as the
primary DDN Point of Contact.  Requests for information or assistance should
be directed to the following organizations:

Service     Address                       Telephone               DSN

Air Force   AFDDN PMO                     1 (205) 279-4075/3290   446-4075
            Gunter AFS, AL 36224-6340

Army        OSAISC, AS-PLN-RF             1 (602) 538-6915        879-6915
            Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-5000

Navy        COMNAVTELCOM, Code N521       1 (202) 282-0381/2      292-0381
            Washington, DC 20390-5290





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9.5  Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems
     Organization (DISA DNSO)

      [NOTE:  The Defense Communications Agency, DCA, became the DISA in 1991;
      in the same year, the Defense Communications System Organization became
      the DNSO.]

The Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems Organization
(DISA DNSO) is responsible for overall management of the Defense Data Network
(DDN).  DDN Newsletter 58, available online as DDN-NEWS/DDN-NEWS-58.TXT from
the NIC.DDN.MIL host, contains the most current listing of DISA DNSO personnel
and their areas of responsibility.  Contact the NIC to ensure that this
newsletter still reflects the most current information on DNSO staff contacts.


9.6  If You Have a Network Use Problem


For Questions on:             Contact:

Terminal settings             Host Administrator or User Representative
Host login                    Host Administrator or User Representative
MILNET TAC access             Host Administrator for your primary MILNET host
TAC login procedure           Network Information Center
TAC line problems             TAC Node Site Coordinator or the Monitoring
                              Center
TAC phone numbers             NIC TACNEWS program
General DDN information       Network Information Center
Host line problems            Respective Network Monitoring Center













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                            SECTION 10.  BIBLIOGRAPHY


Many of the manuals and documents listed below are cited in this Guide; others
provide information that should be helpful to you as users of the DDN.  When
available, ordering numbers are given for items that can be ordered from the
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) or from DISA.  Hardcopies of some
of these documents can be ordered from SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.

If the NIC offers online versions, the filenames are shown in brackets.


Cited References

1.  TAC Users' Guide.  DCAC 310-P70-74.  1988 June.

2.  DDN Subscriber Interface Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program Management
    Office, Defense Information Systems Agency, 701 S. Courthouse Rd,
    Arlington, VA 22204-2199.  1983.  (AD-A132 877/2).

3.  DeLauer, R.D., DoD Policy on Standardization of Host-to-Host Protocols for
    Data Communications Networks.  Office of the Secretary of Defense,
    Washington, D.C., 1982 March.  [IEN/IEN-207.TXT]

4.  Carlucci, F. C., "Autodin II Termination," Memorandum for Secretaries of
    the Military Departments, Deputy Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C.,
    1982 April.

5.  Defense Information Systems Agency, DDN Network Systems Organization. 
    Defense Data Network Management Bulletin 76: "TAC User Registration
    Clarification."  Menlo Park, CA.  SRI International, 1990 August 24; DDN
    Mgt. Bul. 76, 1 p.  [DDN-NEWS/DDN-MGT-BULLETIN-76.TXT]

6.  RFC 1169, Explaining the Role of GOSIP.  1990 August. 15 p. 
    [RFC/RFC1169.TXT.]

7.  Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems Organization. 
    Defense Data Network Security Bulletin 9003:  "Security Violation
    Reporting."  Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, DDN Security Coordination
    Center; 1990 February 15; DDN Security Bul. 9003. 2 p.  
    [SCC/DDN-SECURITY-9003]

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8.  RFC 1177, FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to commonly asked "new
    internet user" questions. 1990 August. 24 p.  (Also FYI 4) 
    [RFC/RFC1177.TXT]


Auxiliary User Documentation

DEC-20 User's Manual.  Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA, 1982.

InfoMail Primer.  DCAC 310-P70-70.  1986 May.

InfoMail Reference Manual.  DCAC 310-P70-71.  1986 June.

InfoMail User Guide.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA, 1982.

Mooers, Charlotte.  The HERMES Guide.  Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.,
Cambridge, MA, 1982.


General References

Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.     A History of the ARPANET: the First Decade. 
                                 Report No. 4799, Defense Advanced Research
                                 Agency, Arlington, VA, 1981. [AD-A1115 440]

Cerf, V. and Lyons, R.           "Military Requirements for Packet-Switched
                                 Networks and Their Implications for Protocol
                                 Standardization."  Computer Networks. 7(5):
                                 293-306; 1983 October.

Chou, W. (Ed.).                  Computer Communications: Principles. 
                                 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.;
                                 1983.

Comer, D.E.                      Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles,
                                 Protocols, and Architecture. Englewood
                                 Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.; 1988. 
                                 382 p. 



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DDN Defense Data Network Brochure.  Defense Information Systems Agency,
Defense Network Systems Organization, Washington, DC, 1984. 

DDN Protocol Handbook, 4 Volumes.  SRI International (former DDN NIC), Menlo
Park, CA.  1985. 

DDN Subscriber Security Guide.  Defense Data Network, Program Management
Office, Defense Information Systems Agency, Washington, D.C.  1983.
[AD-A152 524] 

Frey, D.; Adams, R.              !%@:: A Directory of Electronic Mail
                                 Addressing and Networks.  Newton, MA:
                                 O'Reilly and Associates; 1989 August. 284 p. 

FYI 2; FYI on a network management tool catalog: Tools for monitoring and
debugging TCP/IP internets and interconnected devices.  1990 April.  126 p.
(Also RFC 1147) [FYI/FYI2.TXT]

FYI 3;  FYI on where to start: A bibliography of internetworking information. 
1990 August. 42 p. (Also RFC 1175) [FYI/FYI3.TXT] 

Hinden, R., Haverty, J.
and Sheltzer, A.                 "The DARPA Internet:  Interconnecting
                                 Heterogenous Computer Networks with
                                 Gateways."  Computer. 16(9): 38-48; 
                                 1983 September.

Jennings, D.M., et al            "Computer Networking for Scientists." 
                                 Science.  Vol 231: 943-950; 1986 February.

LaQuey, T.L. (Ed.)               Users' Directory of Computer Networks.
                                 Bedford, MA: Digital Press; 1990.  630 p.

Network Protocol Implementations and Vendors Guide.  SRI International (Former
Network Information Center), Menlo Park, CA. 1990. [NETINFO/VENDORS-GUIDE.DOC]

Partridge, C. (Ed.)              Innovations in Internetworking. Norwood, MA: 
                                 Artech House; 1988.

Perry, D.G., et al               The ARPANET and the DARPA Internet.  Library
                                 Hi Tech.  6(2): 51-62; 1988 April.

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Quarterman, J.S.                 Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing
                                 Systems Worldwide. Bedford, MA: Digital
                                 Press; 1989. 719 p.

Ubois, J.                        "Defense Data Network."  National Defense.
                                 Vol.74:  33-35; 1990 February.




































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                           SECTION 11.  GLOSSARY


acoustic coupler
      A type of modem that converts digital signals into sound for trans-
      mission through telephone lines and performs the reverse operation when
      receiving such signals.  Acoustic couplers generally have cups into
      which the telephone handset is placed to make the connection.

anonymous login convention
      Standard username (anonymous) and password (guest) that allows a user to
      log in within FTP for the purpose of retrieving an unprotected public
      access file.

ARPANET
      Packet-switched network developed by the Defense Advanced Research
      Projects Agency.

ASN   Autonomous System Number.  A number assigned by the NIC to an autonomous
      network that request connection to the Internet.

backbone 
      The nodes (PSNs), the TACs, and the telephone lines connecting them that
      form the core of the DDN.

BBNCD
      Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Communications Division; a major hardware
      and software developer for the DDN.

bps   Bits per second.  The unit used for measuring line speed, i.e., the
      number of information units transmitted per second.

case sensitive
      Software differentiation between uppercase and lowercase characters.

CERT
      Computer Emergency Response Team, the DARPA-sponsored group responsible
      for coordinating many security incident response efforts.



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circuit-switched
      A type of network connection.  A circuit-switched connection is a
      continuous electrical connection established between sending and
      receiving users for their exclusive use.  The connection remains active
      until it is closed by the using parties.

concentrator
      A gateway; that is, a computer that interconnects networks.

connection   
      An access path between two ports on a network, established for data
      transmission between the ports.

CONUS 
      Military acronym for the Continental United States.

DARPA
      Defense Advanced Research Project Agency.  The agency that created and
      administered the ARPANET.

DCA DCSO
      Defense Communications Agency, Defense Communications System
      Organization; the group responsible for administering the DDN. (Now
      known as the Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems
      Organization≥DISA DNSO.)

DDN   Defense Data Network.  The DoD long-haul, packet-switched computer
      communications network that includes the MILNET as one of its
      subnetworks.

DIIS 
      The DDN Installation Integration and Support task, which encompasses the
      NIC and its services.

DISA DNSO
      Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Network Systems
      Organization.  Formerly the DCA DCSO (see above).

DNS   Domain Name System.  The hierarchical, distributed database used for
      host name and address resolution that has replaced the need for a
      centralized host table.

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DoD   Department of Defense.

DRI   Defense Research Internet.  A network that will provide state-of-the-art
      internetworking services for the DoD.  It is still in the planning
      stages.

DSN   Defense Switched Network.  A proprietary Government telephone network.

DTIC  
      Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, 
      VA 22314.  A depository for many DoD technical reports.

FQDN  
      Fully Qualified Domain Name.  The complete hostname that reflects the
      domains of which the host is a part.

FTP   File Transfer Protocol.  A network utility for copying files across the
      network; defined in RFC 959.

FYI   A "For Your Information" document, issued also as an RFC, that contains
      information of general interest to the Internet community.

gateway
      A computer that interconnects networks.

GOSIP 
      Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile.  A document that
      addresses the DDN's planned transition from TCP/IP protocols to OSI
      protocols.

handle
      Unique character string identifier assigned to each entry in the NIC
      WHOIS database.

host 
      A computer connected to a PSN on the DDN.

hostname
      A name that officially identifies each computer attached to the DDN.

IMP   Interface Message Processor; see PSN.

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INCC  
      The Internet Control Center.  The service center that provides help to
      Air Force concentrator users.

InfoMail
      The electronic mail program developed by BBNCD.

Internet
      The specific IP-based internetwork of which the DDN is a part.

internetwork 
      A network, such as the DDN, that consists of many interconnected
      networks.

IP    Internet Protocol.  A DoD standard protocol that allows dissimilar 
      hosts to connect to each other through the DDN, defined in RFC 791.

IR    Internet Registry.  The function at the NIC that assigns official IP
      network numbers.

Kermit 
      An error-checking file-transfer protocol used to copy files from one
      computer to another. Also the name given to the public domain software,
      distributed by Columbia University, that supports this protocol.

LAN   Local Area Network.  A network of directly connected machines usually
      located within 10 miles of one another.

long-haul net
      A network spanning long geographic distances, usually connected by
      telephone lines or satellite radio links.

mailbridge 
      A gateway between the MILNET and the Internet, through which mail and
      other data passes.

MIL STD
      Military Standard.  The official military version of a specification.

MILNET
      The DDN unclassified operational military network.

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modem 
      A device that converts digital signals into analog signals (and back)
      for transmission over telephone lines (modulator/demodulator).

MTAC 
      Or Mini-TAC.  A new, improved machine that allows remote network access
      in essentially the same manner as a TAC, but accommodates a wider
      variety of operating systems.

NETINFO
      The name of the publicly accessible directory on the NIC.DDN.MIL host
      that stores many files of interest to users of the network.

network
      The hardware, software, and connections needed to distribute the
      processing of data in a reliable and efficient manner and to enable
      users to exchange and share that data.

NIC   DDN Network Information Center, located at GSI headquarters in
      Chantilly, VA.

NIC.DDN.MIL
      The hostname of the NIC host.  Its network address is 192.112.36.5.

NICNAME 
      See WHOIS.

NIC/Query  
      A general information program on NIC.DDN.MIL.

NMC   Network Monitoring Center.  The CONUS MILNET NMC is located at 701 S.
      Courthouse Rd., Arlington, VA 22204-2199.  Others are located in Europe
      and Hawaii.

NNSC  
      The National Science Foundation's Network Service Center.  The center
      that provides support for the NSFNet backbone.  The NNSC also publishes
      the Internet Resource Guide.

node  
      On the DDN, a packet switch or PSN.  A computer that handles network
      message traffic.
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NREN 
      The National Research and Education Network, the planned high-speed
      national network that will provide a platform for research and
      educational networking efforts.

NSC   Node Site Coordinator.  The local DDN contact responsible for node or
      TAC equipment.

NSFNet
      The packet-switched network that is the backbone of much of the
      Internet.

NSO   Network Security Officer.  The NSO is responsible for setting DDN
      security policy and overseeing its implementation.

NTIS   
      National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce,
      Springfield, VA 22151, (703) 487-4650.  A national depository for
      unclassified technical documents.

OCONUS
      A military acronym for "Outside the Continental U.S."

operating system
      Software that supervises and controls tasks on a computer.

OSD   Office of the Secretary of Defense.

packet switching 
      A data transmission system that uses addressed packets, and in which a
      communications channel is occupied only for the duration of the packet
      transmission.

pathname
      A character string that fully identifies a file.  Pathnames normally
      contain (or imply) device and/or directory names and a filename
      specification.  FTP, TELNET, and electronic mail do not specify a
      standard pathname convention.  Each user must follow the file naming
      conventions of the file systems he wishes to use.



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packet
      The basic unit of data transmitted over the DDN.  Each packet contains
      a header, which consists of addressing and other control information
      and, optionally, any associated data destined for a network user
      process.

POC   Point of Contact.

protocol
      Technical specifications governing the format and timing of information
      exchange between two communicating software processes.

PSN   Packet Switch Node.  A store-and-forward packet switch (formerly called
      an IMP).

RFC   Request For Comment.  A series of technical notes describing DARPA and
      DDN research and development, particularly in the areas of protocol
      design and internetworking. Available for anonymous FTP at NIC.DDN.MIL
      in directory RFC.

SCC   The Security Coordination Center, located at the NIC, that is
      responsible for collecting security-related information, cooperating
      with the NSO in security incident response, and issuing DDN Security
      Bulletins.

server
      A process providing a generalized service to subscribing user processes.
      Server processes normally "listen" on a network address, ready to
      respond to an incoming service request.  The FTP Server is such a
      process; it responds to file transfer requests from FTP users.

SERVICE 
      The name of the NIC's automatic mail server, SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL.  
      Send a message to SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL with "Subject: HELP" for more
      information.

session
      The time during which a connection remains open between a user and
      server port on a network.  For example, in an FTP session, the end-user
      invokes FTP, names the server host he wishes to connect with, issues FTP
      commands, and logs off.

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SIG   Special Interest Group.  An online mailing group whose members exchange
      information on a particular topic.

site  Organization or facility where a host is located.

SMTP
      Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.  Defined in RFC 821.

socket  
      Logical address of a communications access point to a specific device or
      program on a host.

SRI   SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, former location of the DDN Network
      Information Center and early contributor to the development of the DDN.

SunOS
      Sun Microcomputer Systems' proprietary UNIX-based operating system.  
      The operating system used by the NIC host.

TAC   Terminal Access Controller.  A special type of computer attached to a
      PSN.  It allows direct terminal access to the DDN backbone.

TAC Access Code
      Password assigned to MILNET TAC users for TAC login.

TAC Userid 
      Alphanumeric character string that identifies a TAC user upon TAC login.

TACACS
      TAC Access Control System.  A password system that limits use of TACs 
      to authorized users.

TACNEWS
      NIC program for reading DDN Newsletters, Bulletins, and other items of
      interest to TAC users.

TCP/IP
      Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.  DoD standard network
      protocols defined in RFC 793 (TCP) and RFC 791 (IP).



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TELNET
      A protocol for opening a transparent connection to a distant host;
      defined in RFC 854.

terminal
      A communication device that lets a user send information to a computer
      by typing on a keyboard.  It prints responses from the computer on paper
      or a screen.

TIP   Terminal Interface Processor.  A predecessor of the TAC, serving a
      similar function.  See TAC.

UNIX 
      An AT&T Bell Laboratories proprietary operating system that runs on
      large and small computers.  It has become widely used in the scientific
      research and development community.

user 
      A human end-user or an automated user process authorized to access
      network services.

WHOIS 
      NIC program used to access the NIC electronic white pages database.



















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                     APPENDIX A.  NETWORK RESOURCES


One of the questions new users frequently ask when they finally get access to
the network is, "Now what?  What's out there?"  This section lists a few
places you can look for more information about what is available to Internet
users.


Special Interest Groups

An important part of the Internet are its many online Special Interest Groups
(SIGs), which discuss topics ranging from artificial intelligence to Zenith
PCs.  A SIG is an electronic mailing list dedicated to the discussion of a
particular topic.  SIGs are a good way for a new user to learn more about the
network.  Anyone can contribute to a SIG by simply sending mail, and most SIGs
are open for anyone to join.  Information on network SIGs can be found in a
file nicknamed the List-of-Lists, a master list of SIGs with a brief
description of each group and how to join it.

For users who have never done a file transfer before, this is a perfect first
opportunity.  You can use FTP to copy the List-of-Lists from the
FTP.NISC.SRI.COM host by logging in with "USERID anonymous" and "PASSWORD
guest" and using the pathname netinfo:interest-groups. 

Note that many individual hosts redistribute mail for their users--that is,
mailing list messages or digests are delivered once to a single local mailbox,
and then they are announced or forwarded to a list of interested local users. 
Mail redistribution eliminates the need for the local mailer to process myriad
copies of the same message directed to different users and so conserves local
computer resources.  Before adding your name to a SIG distribution list, ask
your Host Administrator or User Representative if SIG or digest mail is
redistributed on your host or posted in a centralized place to be read by all
local users.

In addition, all traffic on the MILNET is subject to usage-sensitive billing,
so before adding your name to a SIG, be sure that the mail traffic you would
generate is consistent with the usage policies of your host.



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NNSC Internet Resource Guide

The NSF Network Service Center (NNSC) compiles and makes available an Internet
Resource Guide.  The goal of the guide is to increase the visibility of
various Internet resources that might help users do their work better.  While
not yet an exhaustive list, the guide is a useful compendium of many 
resources and can be very helpful to a new user.

In the NNSC guide, resources are grouped into sections by type.  Current
sections include descriptions of online library catalogs, data archives,
online white pages directory services, networks, network information centers,
and computational resources such as supercomputers.  Each entry contains the
following information:

      *  a description of the resource,
      *  an identification of who can use the resource, 
      *  an explanation of how to reach the resource network via the Internet,
      *  a list of contacts for more information.

The NNSC distributes the list electronically.  To receive a guide, or to get
on a mailing list that alerts you when it is updated, send a message to
RESOURCE-GUIDE-REQUEST@NNSC.NSF.NET.


FYI Documents

"FYIs" are a series of special RFCs.  The FYI documents address information
that is of general interest to the Internet user community.  They do not
define standards or contain protocol specifications.  Rather, they address
more general topics, provide insight into Internet conventions, answer
commonly asked questions, contain background or historical information, or
provide resource information such as bibliographies or descriptions of
software.  Some FYIs are addressed specifically to new users.

Because FYIs are also RFCs, they are listed along with all the other RFCs in
the RFC Index.  However, the file FYI/FYI-INDEX.TXT on the NIC host lists only
the FYIs.  Each index notes both the FYI number and the RFC number of each
FYI.  You can obtain the FYI Index online by FTPing it or by requesting it
through the SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL mail service.  See Section 5.1.2 for FTP
guidelines and Section 6.3.5 for directions on retrieving information via
SERVICE.  Hardcopies of RFCs are available from SRI International, Menlo Park,
CA (the former NIC).

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NIC Contacts Files

Often users need to communicate with the official Point of Contact (POC)
responsible for a specific network or domain.  While this information is
available via the WHOIS program on the NIC host, as described in Section
6.3.1, the NIC also provides files that contain compilations of the contacts
for domains and networks.  These files are updated weekly and provide a
central resource for useful domain and network POC information.

      *  NETINFO/NETWORK-CONTACTS.TXT lists all assigned networks by number
         and lists the name of the network, plus the name, phone number, and
         electronic mailbox for each POC.

      *  NETINFO/DOMAIN-CONTACTS.TXT is organized by domain name and lists the
         name, phone number, and electronic mailbox for each domain POC. 

With the network information sources and contacts just outlined and the tools
introduced in the previous section, you are now ready to explore the network
on your own.























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                    APPENDIX B.  COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS


Here are answers to some of the questions most commonly asked by users.  The
selections were made from questions addressed to the DDN Network Information
Center.  (See Section 6.1 for NIC network and U.S. mail addresses.)


1.   I want to send mail to my colleague, John Smith.  What is his network
     mailbox?

     Answer:
     The NIC provides an online program called WHOIS (or NICNAME) that
     contains the names, addresses, phone numbers, and online mailboxes of
     many network users.  Since some Host Administrators install this program
     on their host, you should ask him/her if it is available locally.
     Alternatively, you may make a TELNET connection to NIC.DDN.MIL and use
     the WHOIS program running on the NIC host.  (Login to NIC.DDN.MIL is not
     required.)  The WHOIS program may also be accessed via electronic mail. 
     Send a message to SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL and include the word WHOIS and the
     item you wish to search for in the subject line of your message.  You
     will receive an answer overnight. For more information on using SERVICE,
     see Section 6.3.5.


2.   This TAC phone number doesn't work.  What should I do?

     Answer:
     The Network Information Center can test the TAC from our site to
     determine if the problem is in the TAC or if it relates to your equipment
     or the procedure you are using.  If the problem is the TAC, we can give
     you phone numbers for other TACs.  We can help you coordinate with the
     MILNET Monitoring Center to report the TAC problem.


3.   I will be traveling and need to log in to read my mail.  How can I find 
     a TAC phone number to use while I'm on the road?

     Answer:
     You can locate TAC phone numbers in several ways.  The back of your TAC
     card lists many of them.  The TACNEWS program available on the

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     NIC.DDN.MIL host has a menu option that will show you the three TACs
     closest to a phone number you provide.  TACNEWS also provides lists of
     phone numbers for TACs both within and outside the U.S.  See Section
     6.3.3 for an example of TACNEWS usage.  In addition, if you call the NIC
     Help Desk, we will be happy to provide you with phone numbers of TACs.


4.   What is the difference between the MILNET and the DDN?

     Answer:
     The MILNET is a wide area network that constitutes one subnetwork of the
     DDN.  The MILNET carries unclassified operational data.  It is the
     segment of the DDN that is connected to the Internet.  The other
     subnetworks of the DDN carry classified information and are standalone
     networks.


5.   What is the difference between the MILNET and the Internet?

     Answer:
     The Internet is a collection of TCP/IP-based wide area and local area
     networks that are interconnected by various gateways so that users on one
     network can communicate to users on any of the other networks.  (In
     addition, some non-TCP/IP-based networks, such as BITNET, are accessible
     to Internet users via electronic mail.  These networks are usually not
     strictly considered a part of "the Internet.")  The MILNET is a wide area
     network that is connected to the Internet via several gateways called
     mailbridges.


6.   I see a connection on my host from a network number I don't recognize. 
     How can I find the number of someone to contact on that network to check
     on this connection?

     Answer:
     Every IP network number assigned by the Internet Registry at the NIC has
     a registered Point of Contact (POC) who is responsible for that network. 
     To find a particular POC, you can look up the number of the network via
     the NIC's WHOIS program.  Search only on the network portion of the 
     number and type the local portions as zeroes.  (See Section 8.4 for a
     brief explanation of network addressing.  See Section 6.3.1 for how to

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NIC 60001, September 1991                                 DDN New User Guide

     use WHOIS.)  In addition, the NIC provides a publicly accessible,
     regularly updated file that lists all the POCs for each network number
     assigned.  The file is NETINFO/NETWORK-CONTACTS.TXT.  The POC information
     is listed by network number.

7.   How do I get a TAC card?

     Answer:
     Before you can get a TAC card, you must have an account on a host.  Then
     the Host Administrator of a MILNET host (that is, a host whose address is
     on network 26) must approve a TAC card for you.  See Section 4 for a more
     complete explanation of TAC cards and TAC usage.

8.   What is an RFC?

     Answer:
     As RFC 1177 [8] explains, the Request for Comments documents (RFCs) are
     working notes of the Internet research and development community.  A
     document in this series may be on essentially any topic related to
     computer communication, and may consist of anything from a meeting report
     to the specification of a standard.  Most RFCs are descriptions of
     network protocols or services, often giving detailed procedures and
     formats.  These RFCs generally provide information in sufficient
     technical detail to enable developers to create implementations.  Other
     RFCs report on the results of policy studies or summarize the work of
     technical committees or workshops.  Currently, all Internet standards
     are published as RFCs, but not all RFCs are standards.  RFCs are publicly
     available on the NIC.DDN.MIL host.  Indexes of RFCs organized by number
     (in reverse order with the most current RFC at the top), by author, or by
     title are available from the NIC as well.


9.   May I be registered in the WHOIS database?

     Answer:
     Any TAC user must be registered with the NIC.  In addition, any other
     network user can be added to the WHOIS database if he has a working
     network mailbox.  Information regarding a registered user, such as his
     address and network mailbox, is visible via the WHOIS program.  Thus,
     WHOIS acts as a "white pages" directory of network users, enabling other
     users to ascertain where to send mail to them.  To register in the
     database, fill out the template provided in Section 6.2.1 and return it
     online to REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL.  The NIC depends on users to send
     updated information whenever their addresses or mailboxes change.

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