Visit our newest sister site!
Hundreds of free aircraft flight manuals
Civilian • Historical • Military • Declassified • FREE!


TUCoPS :: Linux :: Apps A-M :: lnx5380.htm

ELF - parasite resolving symbols within a host process image



30th May 2002 [SBWID-5380]
COMMAND

	parasite resolving symbols within a host process image

SYSTEMS AFFECTED

	All Linux versions & distributions

PROBLEM

	grugq [grugq@gmx.net] posted following:
	

	It has been some number of months  since  the  release  of  \"Subversive
	Dynamic Linking\", and while the basic theory is still sound,  the  time
	has come to release a second technique for a parasite resolving  symbols
	within a host process image. This updated  technique  is  cleaner,  more
	portable, more technically correct and less detectable using  no  system
	calls at all.
	

	A process image is a collection of one or more  objects  mapped  into  a
	common  address  space.   The   dynamic   linker   co-ordinates   symbol
	resolution, and effectively communication, between  these  objects.  The
	linker uses a  link_map  structure  to  keep  track  of  each  object\'s
	location and symbol resolution data. The link_map structure  is  pointed
	to by a reserved entry in the GOT of each object and  retrieved  by  the
	dynamic linker when required. The link_map structures  are  also  linked
	together in a doubly linked list. This list is traversed by the  dynamic
	linker when it attempts to resolve a symbol.
	

	A  parasite  is  capable  of  utilizing  the  link_map  list   just   as
	effectively as the dynamic linker. The attached code demonstrates how  a
	parasite can trivially  accomplish  the  tasks  required  to  resolve  a
	symbol  using  link_maps.  This  proof  of  concept  code  demonstrates:
	locating the ELF header of the host  object  with  position  independant
	code;  locating  the  link_map  structure,  and  traversing   the   list
	attempting to resolve the requested symbol within each object.
	

	This code can be made small enough (< 400 bytes)  to  fit  in  larger
	shellcode,  removing  the  need  to  hardcode  addresses   for   library
	functions. This is not the primary  intent  of  the  code,  however  the
	possibility for such use does exist.
	

	

	

	 Code

	 =====

	

	

	/*

	 * Copyright (C) 2002 the grugq.

	 * All rights reserved.

	 *

	 * For educational purposes only.

	 *

	 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS\'\' AND ANY

	 * EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE

	 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE

	 * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE

	 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL

	 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS

	 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)

	 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT

	 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY

	 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF

	 * SUCH DAMAGE.

	 */

	

	#include <elf.h>

	#define NULL	((void *)0)

	

	#define	PAGE_SIZE	4096

	// below is the real align(), but since we care about size, and we end up

	// walking down and will likely discard the rounded up value

	// we might as well use the cheat

	// #define	ALIGN(k, v)	(((k) + ((v) - 1)) & ~((v) - 1))

	

	#define PAGE_ALIGN(k)	((k) & ~(PAGE_SIZE - 1)) // the cheat page_align()

	

	/* a POSIX structure */

	struct link_map {

		Elf32_Addr	  l_addr;

		char		* l_name;

		Elf32_Dyn	* l_ld;		/* .dynamic ptr */

		struct link_map	* l_next,

				* l_prev;

	};

	

	struct resolv {

		Elf32_Word	* hash;

		Elf32_Word	* chain;

		Elf32_Sym	* symtab;

		char		* strtab;

		int		  num;

	};

	

	static int

	strmatch(const char *src1, const char *src2)

	{

		register char	* s1 = src1,

				* s2 = src2;

	

		for (; *s1 == *s2; s1++, s2++)

			if (*s1 == 0x00)

				return (1);

		return (0);

	}

	

	static inline struct resolv *

	build_resolv(struct link_map *l, struct resolv *r)

	{

		Elf32_Dyn	* d;

	

	

		/* we could have an implicit test for 0, knowing the value of DT_NULL

		 * but that isn\'t as clean, and the asm code doesn\'t change... */

		for (d = l->l_ld; d->d_tag != DT_NULL; d++) {

			switch (d->d_tag) {

			case DT_HASH:

				{

					Elf32_Word	* h;

	

	

					/* whether an element is relocated seems to 

					 * be an entirely platform dependant issue. */

					h = (Elf32_Word *)

						((char *)d->d_un.d_ptr+l->l_addr);

	

					r->num = *h++; /* num buckets */

						  h++; /* num chains */

					r->hash = h;

					r->chain = &h[r->num];

				}

				break;

			case DT_STRTAB:

				r->strtab = (char *)d->d_un.d_ptr;

				break;

			case DT_SYMTAB:

				r->symtab = (Elf32_Sym *)d->d_un.d_ptr;

				break;

			default:

				break;

			}

		}

		return (r);

	}

	

	static void *

	resolve(char *sym_name, long hn, struct link_map *l)

	{

		Elf32_Sym	* sym;

		struct	resolv	* r;

		long		  ndx;

	

	

		/* XXX error checking is a waste of space in a parasite; size matters */

		r = build_resolv(l, alloca(sizeof(*r)));

	

		for (ndx = r->hash[ hn % r->num ]; ndx; ndx = r->chain[ ndx ]) {

			sym = &r->symtab[ ndx ];

	

			/* this check is optional */

			if (ELF32_ST_TYPE(sym->st_info) != STT_FUNC)

				continue;

	

			if (strmatch(sym_name, r->strtab + sym->st_name))

				return (((char *)l->l_addr) + sym->st_value);

		}

	

		return NULL;

	}

	

	static struct link_map *

	locate_link_map(void *my_base)

	{

		Elf32_Ehdr	* e = (Elf32_Ehdr *)my_base;

		Elf32_Phdr	* p;

		Elf32_Dyn	* d;

		Elf32_Word	* got;

	

	

		p = (Elf32_Phdr *)((char *)e + e->e_phoff);

	

		while (p++<(Elf32_Phdr *)((char*)p + (e->e_phnum * sizeof(Elf32_Phdr))))

			if (p->p_type == PT_DYNAMIC)

				break;

	

		/* XXX error checking, see above */

		/* 

		if (p->p_type != PT_DYNAMIC)

			return (NULL);

		*/

	

		for (d = (Elf32_Dyn *)p->p_vaddr; d->d_tag != DT_NULL; d++)

			if (d->d_tag == DT_PLTGOT) {

				got = (Elf32_Word *)d->d_un.d_ptr;

				break;

			}

		/* XXX error check, see above */

		/*

		 if (got == NULL)

		 	return (NULL);

		*/

	

		/* a platform dependant value. CPU architecture, not OS determined. */

	#define GOT_LM_PTR	1

		return ((struct link_map *)got[GOT_LM_PTR]);

	}

	

	void *

	resolv(void *my_base, char *sym_name, long hn)

	{

		struct link_map	* l;

		void		* a;

	

	

		/* scan link maps... */

		l = locate_link_map(my_base);

	

		/* hope that the list is NULL terminated */

		while (l->l_prev)

			l = l->l_prev;

		

		/* scan link maps for the symbol. slow, but technically correct. */

		for (; l->l_next; l = l->l_next)

			if ((a = resolve(sym_name, hn, l)))

				return (a);

	

		return (NULL);

	}

	

	static inline void *

	text_addr(void)

	{

		void	* a;

	

	

		/* This isn\'t the cleanest way of getting an address that our code

		 */

		__asm__ (

			\"	call	.Lnext	\\n\"

			\".Lnext:		\\n\"

			\"	pop	%%eax	\\n\"

			: \"=a\" (a)

			:

		);

	

		return ((void *)PAGE_ALIGN((long)a));

	}

	

	/* The value typically used on Linux i386 boxes is 0x08048000 */

	static void *

	locate_my_base(void)

	{

		char	* a;

	

	

		/* We really should do a signal() for SIGSEGV and ensure that if we 

		 * miss the ELF header (for some reason) we dont segfault the host

		 * process image */

		for (a = text_addr();; a -= PAGE_SIZE) 

			if (!memcmp(a, ELFMAG, SELFMAG))

				return (a);

	

		/* never reached. we either explode above, or get what we came for. */

		return (NULL);

	}

	

	/* With size considerations it makes more sense to hardcode the elf_hash()

	 * value for a given symbol. This has the added benefit of improving

	 * execution speed. */

	unsigned long

	elf_hash(const char *name)

	{

		unsigned long	h = 0, g;

	

		while (*name) {

			h = (h << 4) + *name++;

	

			if ((g = h & 0xf0000000))

				h ^= g >> 24;

			h &= ~g;

		}

		return (h);

	}

	

	int

	main (void)

	{

		unsigned long	  hn;

		void	* my_addr;

		char	* sym_name = \"printf\";

		int	(*printf)(const char *, ...);

	

	

		hn = elf_hash(sym_name);

		my_addr = locate_my_base();

		printf = resolv(my_addr, sym_name, hn);

	

		(*printf)(\"Hello World\\n\");

	

		return (0);

	}

	

	

SOLUTION

	Use Windows ? ;-)


TUCoPS is optimized to look best in Firefox® on a widescreen monitor (1440x900 or better).
Site design & layout copyright © 1986-2014 AOH