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CERT Advisory CA-2002-22 Multiple Vulnerabilities in Microsoft SQL Server




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CERT Advisory CA-2002-22 Multiple Vulnerabilities in Microsoft SQL Server

   Original release date: July 29, 2002
   Last revised: --
   Source: CERT/CC

   A complete revision history can be found at the end of this file.

Systems Affected

     * Microsoft SQL Server 7.0
     * Microsoft SQL Server 2000
     * Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine 2000

Overview

   The Microsoft SQL Server contains several serious vulnerabilities that
   allow remote attackers to obtain sensitive information, alter database
   content, compromise SQL servers, and, in some configurations,
   compromise server hosts.  These vulnerabilities are public and have
   been addressed by Microsoft Security Bulletins, but we believe their
   collective severity warrants additional attention.

I. Description

   Since December 2001, Microsoft has published eight Microsoft Security
   Bulletins regarding more than a dozen vulnerabilities in the Microsoft
   SQL Server.  This document provides information on the five most
   serious of these vulnerabilities; references to the remainder are
   provided in Appendix B.

   In isolation, many of these vulnerabilities have significant
   preconditions that are difficult for an attacker to overcome. However,
   when exploited in combination, they allow attackers to gain additional
   flexibility and increase their chances for success. In particular, the
   privilege escalation vulnerability described in VU#796313 allows an
   attacker to weaken the security policy of the SQL server by granting it
   the same privileges as the operating system.  With full administrative
   privileges, a compromised Microsoft SQL Server can be used to take
   control of the server host.

   The CERT/CC encourages system administrators to take this opportunity
   to review the security of their Microsoft SQL servers and to apply the
   appropriate patches from the Microsoft bulletins listed in Appendix B.
   
   VU#796313 - Microsoft SQL Server service account registry key has weak
   permissions that permit escalation of privileges (CAN-2002-0642)

     The Microsoft SQL Server typically runs under a dedicated "service
     account" that is defined by system administrators at installation
     time.  This definition is stored in the Windows registry with
     permissions that allow the SQL Server to change the value of the
     registry key.  As a result, attackers with access to the
     "xp_regwrite" extended stored procedure can alter this registry key
     and cause the SQL Server to use the LocalSystem account as its
     service account.

     Upon rebooting the server host or restarting the SQL service, the SQL
     Server will run with the full administrative privileges of the
     LocalSystem account.  This ability allows a remote attacker to submit
     SQL queries that can execute any command on the system with the
     privileges of the operating system.

   VU#225555 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflow in
   pwdencrypt() function (CAN-2002-0624)

     The Microsoft SQL Server provides multiple methods for users to
     authenticate to SQL databases. When SQL Server Authentication is
     used, the username and password of each database user is stored in a
     database on the SQL server. When users supply a password to the
     server using this method, a function named pwdencrypt() is
     responsible for encrypting the user-supplied password so that it can
     be compared to the encrypted password stored on the SQL server.

     There is a buffer overflow in pwdencrypt() that allows remote
     attackers to execute arbitrary code on the SQL server by supplying a
     crafted password value.  Successful exploitation of this
     vulnerability requires knowledge of a valid username and will cause
     the supplied code to execute with the privileges of the SQL service
     account.

   VU#627275 - Microsoft SQL Server extended stored procedures contain
   buffer overflows (CAN-2002-0154)

     Microsoft SQL Server provides a scripting construct known as an
     "extended stored procedure" that can execute a collection of server
     commands together.  Several of the extended stored procedures
     included with the Microsoft SQL Server contain buffer overflow
     vulnerabilities.  These procedures provide increased functionality
     for database applications, allowing them to access operating system
     or network resources.

     Parameters are passed to extended stored procedures via an API that
     specifies the actual and maximum length of various parameter data
     types.  Some of the extended stored procedures fail to adequately
     validate the length of input parameters, resulting in stack buffer
     overflow conditions.

     Since some of the vulnerable procedures are configured by default to
     allow public access, it is possible for an unauthenticated attacker
     to exploit one or more of these buffer overflows. SQL Server
     databases are commonly used in web applications, so the vulnerable
     procedures may be accessible via the Internet. Microsoft Security
     Bulletin MS02-020 states

     An attacker could exploit this vulnerability in one of two ways.
     Firstly, the attacker could attempt to load and execute a database
     query that calls one of the affected functions. Secondly, if a
     web-site or other database front-end were configured to access and
     process arbitrary queries, it could be possible for the attacker to
     provide inputs that would cause the query to call one of the
     functions in question with the appropriate malformed parameters.

   VU#399260 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains heap buffer overflow in
   SQL Server Resolution Service (CAN-2002-0649)

     The SQL Server Resolution Service (SSRS) was introduced in Microsoft
     SQL Server 2000 to provide referral services for multiple server
     instances running on the same machine. The service listens for
     requests on UDP port 1434 and returns the IP address and port number
     of the SQL server instance that provides access to the requested
     database.

     The SSRS contains a heap buffer overflow that allows unauthenticated
     remote attackers to execute arbitrary code by sending a crafted
     request to port 1434/udp. The code within such a request will be
     executed by the server host with the privileges of the SQL Server
     service account.

   VU#484891 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains stack buffer overflow in
   SQL Server Resolution Service (CAN-2002-0649)

     The SSRS also contains a stack buffer overflow that allows
     unauthenticated remote attackers to execute arbitrary code by sending
     a crafted request to port 1434/udp. The code within such a request
     will be executed by the server host with the privileges of the SQL
     Server service account.

II. Impact

   VU#796313 - Microsoft SQL Server service account registry key has weak
   permissions that permit escalation of privileges

     As a precondition, this vulnerability requires the ability to modify
     the SQL service account registry key (for example, via the
     "xp_regwrite" extended stored procedure). Attackers must convince an
     administrator to grant this access, or they must obtain it by
     exploiting one of the vulnerabilities listed in this advisory.

     This vulnerability allows attackers to weaken the security policy of
     the SQL Server by elevating its privileges and causing it to run in
     the LocalSystem security context. As a side effect, it increases the
     severity of the other vulnerabilities listed in this advisory and may
     enable attackers to compromise the server host as well.

   VU#225555 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflow in
   pwdencrypt() function

     This vulnerability allows remote attackers with knowledge of a valid
     username to execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the SQL
     service account.

   VU#627275 - Microsoft SQL Server extended stored procedures contain
   buffer overflows

     This vulnerability allows unauthenticated remote attackers to execute
     arbitrary code with the privileges of the SQL service account.

   VU#399260 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains heap buffer overflow in
   SQL Server Resolution Service

     This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code
     with the privileges of the SQL service account.

   VU#484891 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains stack buffer overflow in
   SQL Server Resolution Service

     This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code
     with the privileges of the SQL service account.

III. Solution

Apply a patch from Microsoft

   VU#796313 - Microsoft SQL Server service account registry key has weak
   permissions that permit escalation of privileges

   VU#225555 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflow in
   pwdencrypt() function

     Microsoft has published Security Bulletin MS02-034 to address these
     vulnerabilities. For more information, please see

     http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-034.asp

VU#627275 - Microsoft SQL Server extended stored procedures contain
   buffer overflows

     Microsoft has published Security Bulletin MS02-020 to address this
     vulnerability. For more information, please see

     http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-020.asp

VU#399260 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains heap buffer overflow in
   SQL Server Resolution Service

   VU#484891 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains stack buffer overflow in
   SQL Server Resolution Service

     Microsoft has published Security Bulletin MS02-039 to address these
     vulnerabilities. For more information, please see

     http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-039.asp

Block external access to Microsoft SQL Server ports

   As a workaround, it is possible to limit exposure to these
   vulnerabilities by restricting external access to Microsoft SQL Servers
   on ports 1433/tcp, 1433/udp, 1434/tcp, and 1434/udp. Note that
   VU#399260 and VU#484891 can be exploited using UDP packets with forged
   source addresses that appear to belong to legitimate services, so
   system administrators should restrict all incoming packets sent to
   1434/udp.

Appendix A. - Vendor Information

   This appendix contains information provided by vendors for this
   advisory.  As vendors report new information to the CERT/CC, we will
   update this section and note the changes in our revision history. If a
   particular vendor is not listed below, we have not received their
   comments.

Appendix B. - CERT Vulnerability Notes sorted by Microsoft Security Bulletin
ID

   This appendix contains a list of CERT Vulnerability Notes sorted in
   reverse chronological order by their corresponding Microsoft Security
   Bulletin IDs.  System administrators should use this list to ensure
   that each of the patches listed in these bulletins have been applied.

   MS02-039 : Buffer Overruns in SQL Server 2000 Resolution Service Could
   Enable Code Execution (Q323875)
   
          VU#399260 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains heap buffer
          overflow in SQL Server Resolution Service

          VU#484891 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains stack buffer
          overflow in SQL Server Resolution Service

          VU#370308 - Microsoft SQL Server 2000 contains denial-of-service
          vulnerability in SQL Server Resolution Service

   MS02-038 : Unchecked Buffer in SQL Server 2000 Utilities Could Allow
   Code Execution (Q316333)
   
          VU#279323 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflows in
          several Database Consistency Checkers

          VU#508387 - Microsoft SQL Server contains SQL injection
          vulnerability in replication stored procedures

   MS02-035 : SQL Server Installation Process May Leave Passwords on
   System (Q263968)

          VU#338195 - Microsoft SQL Server installation process leaves
          sensitive information on system

   MS02-034 : Cumulative Patch for SQL Server (Q316333)
   
          VU#225555 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflow in
          pwdencrypt() function

          VU#682620 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflow in
          code used to process "BULK INSERT" queries

          VU#796313 - Microsoft SQL Server service account registry key
          has weak permissions that permit escalation of privileges

   MS02-030 : Unchecked Buffer in SQLXML Could Lead to Code Execution
   (Q321911)

          VU#811371 - Microsoft SQLXML ISAPI filter vulnerable to buffer
          overflow via contenttype parameter

          VU#139931 - Microsoft SQLXML HTTP components vulnerable to
          cross-site scripting via root parameter

   MS02-020 : SQL Extended Procedure Functions Contain Unchecked Buffers
   (Q319507)
   
          VU#627275 - Microsoft SQL Server extended stored procedures
          contain buffer overflows

   MS02-007 : SQL Server Remote Data Source Function Contain Unchecked
   Buffers
   
          VU#619707 - Microsoft SQL Server contains buffer overflows in
          openrowset and opendatasource macros

   MS01-060 : SQL Server Text Formatting Functions Contain Unchecked
   Buffers

          VU#700575 - Buffer overflows in Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 and SQL
          Server 2000

Appendix C. - References

   http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-007.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-020.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-030.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-034.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-035.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-038.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-039.asp
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS01-060.asp
http://support.microsoft.com/support/misc/kblookup.asp?id=Q316333
http://support.microsoft.com/support/misc/kblookup.asp?id=Q319507
http://support.microsoft.com/support/misc/kblookup.asp?id=Q323875
http://www.appsecinc.com/resources/alerts/mssql/02-0000.html
http://www.nextgenss.com/vna/ms-sql.txt
http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/4/26086.html
http://www.securityfocus.com/bid/5014
http://www.securityfocus.com/bid/5204
http://www.securityfocus.com/bid/5205
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/139931
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/225555
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/279323
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/338195
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/370308
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/399260
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/484891
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/508387
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/619707
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/627275
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/682620
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/700575
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/796313
http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/811371
_________________________________________________________________

   The CERT Coordination Center thanks NGSSoftware and Microsoft for their
   contributions to this document.
   _________________________________________________________________

   Author: This document was written by Jeffrey P. Lanza. Your feedback is
   appreciated.
   ______________________________________________________________________

   This document is available from:
   http://www.cert.org/advisories/CA-2002-22.html
______________________________________________________________________

CERT/CC Contact Information

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Phone: +1 412-268-7090 (24-hour hotline)
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Revision History

Jul 29, 2002:  Initial release

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