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TUCoPS :: HP/UX :: ciacf018.txt

HP MPE IX




            _____________________________________________________
                       The U.S. Department of Energy
                    Computer Incident Advisory Capability
                           ___  __ __    _     ___
                          /       |     /_\   /
                          \___  __|__  /   \  \___
            _____________________________________________________

                             INFORMATION BULLETIN

		            MPE/iX Vulnerabilities


March 24, 1995 1500 PST                                        Number F-18
_____________________________________________________________________________

PROBLEM:	Three security vulnerabilities exist in the MPE/iX operating
                system.
PLATFORMS:      HP3000 Series 900 systems running any release of MPE through
                and including the Limited Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20).
DAMAGE:		Users can gain additional privileges and/or special
                capabilities.
SOLUTION:       Update all systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0, or
                Apply patch MPEHX26A (MPE/iX Release 4.0  B.40.00), or
                patch MPEHX26B (Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0  X.50.20).
FIX:            The problem is fixed in the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0
                (C.50.00).
AVAILABILITY:   The 5.0 General Release and all patches are available now.
_____________________________________________________________________________

VULNERABILITY	The security vulnerabilities in the MPE/iX operating system
ASSESSMENT:	can be used by local users to gain unauthorized access
		privileges which may result in system compromise.  CIAC urges
		affected sites to install the appropriate patch as soon as
		possible.
_____________________________________________________________________________
 
       CRITICAL Information about MPE/iX Vulnerabilities

CIAC has obtained information from Hewlett Packard regarding new security
vulnerabilities in the MPE/iX operaing system which will allow local users
to gain unauthorized access privileges.  Specific patch details are provided
below.

Following are the copies of the HP bulletins (HPSBMP9503-00x):

[Begin HP Bulletin]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Summary of 'Daily Security Bulletins Digest' documents
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Document Id    Description						Page 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HPSBMP9503-003 Security Vulnerability (HPSBMP9503-003) in MPE/iX releases
HPSBMP9503-002 Security Vulnerability (HPSBMP9503-002) in MPE/iX releases
HPSBMP9503-001 Security Vulnerability (HPSBMP9503-001) in MPE/iX releases


===============================================================================
Detailed list of 'Daily Security Bulletins Digest' documents
===============================================================================
Document Id: [HPSBMP9503-003]
Date Loaded: [03-20-95]

Description: Security Vulnerability (HPSBMP9503-003) in MPE/iX releases
===============================================================================

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
      HEWLETT-PACKARD SECURITY BULLETIN: (MPE/iX) #00003, 20 March 95
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The information in the following Security Bulletin should be acted
    upon as soon as possible. Hewlett-Packard will not be liable for
    any consequences to any customer resulting from customer's failure
    to fully implement instructions in this Security Bulletin as soon
    as possible.

_______________________________________________________________________
PROBLEM:  Security vulnerability in the MPE/iX operating system
PLATFORM: HP3000 Series 900 systems running any release of MPE through and
          including the Limited Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20)
DAMAGE:   Users can gain additional privileges and/or special capabilities
SOLUTION: Update all systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0, or
          Apply patch MPEHX26A (MPE/iX Release 4.0  B.40.00), or
                patch MPEHX26B (Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0  X.50.20)
FIX:      The problem is fixed in the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00)
AVAILABILITY: The 5.0 General Release and all patches are available now.
_______________________________________________________________________


   A. Nature of the problem

      It has been found that HP 3000 systems running MPE/iX Release 4.0
      (B.40.00), Release 4.5 (C.45.00), and the Limited Release of
      MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20) have a vulnerability that can be exploited by
      users to gain additional privileges and/or capabilities, but only if
      the users are already logged on to the system.  This problem does not
      permit a user to gain additional privileges by accident.  However, a
      user can exploit this vulnerability to gain System Manager (SM)
      capability.

   B. Fixing the problem

      Hewlett-Packard recommends that you update your HP 3000 Series 900
      computer systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00), as
      this problem is fixed in that release.  Updating to the 5.0 General
      Release is the easiest and safest way to get the fix for this security
      problem.  Customers with HP System Support contracts should have
      already received their shipments of the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0
      (C.50.00).

      However, if you feel that you cannot update to the 5.0 General
      Release at this time, the proper corrective measure depends on which
      release of MPE/iX your HP 3000 system is running.

      The vulnerability can be eliminated from Release 4.0 and the Limited
      Release of MPE/iX 5.0 by applying a patch, MPEHX26A or MPEHX26B.
      Release 4.5 (C.45.00) MUST be updated to the General Release of
      MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00), as no patch will be created for Release 4.5.

      No patches will be available for versions of MPE/iX prior to
      Release 4.0.  Instead, you must update to a supported release.  HP
      recommends that you update such systems to the General Release of
      MPE/iX 5.0.  If you update to one of the other supported releases,
      you will have to follow the patch instructions described in the next
      section of this bulletin.

   C. How to Install the Patch (for MPE/iX 4.0 & Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0)

   1. Determine which patch is appropriate for your operating system release:

              MPEHX26A for Series 900, MPE/iX 4.0 (B.40.00)
              MPEHX26B for Series 900, Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20)

   2. Obtaining the patch.

       If you have an HP System Support contract, you should be receiving a
       security notification packet that includes a FAX-back form for
       ordering the patches that fix the problems described in the following
       three Security Bulletins -- HPSBMP9503-001, HPSBMP9503-002, and
       HPSBMP9503-003.

       If you do not have an HP System Support contract, you can obtain the
       same patches by ordering MPE/iX SECURITY PATCH, Product Number B5116AA.
       This product is available at no charge.  When ordering the product,
       you need to know which MPE/iX release you are patching and on what
       media you want the patch delivered.  The following chart shows the
       two product options:

                  Option Table for Product Number B5116AA

                           1600BPI   6250BPI
                             Tape      Tape      DDS
                         |---------|---------|---------|
                B.40.00  | 240,AA1 | 240,AA2 | 240,AAH |
                         |---------|---------|---------|
                X.50.20  | 250,AA1 | 250,AA2 | 250,AAH |
                         |---------|---------|---------|

       Phone numbers to HP Direct and other HP Country Sales offices have
       been included at the end of this bulletin for your convenience.

   3.  Apply the patch to your MPE/iX system.

       Installation instructions are included with the MPE/iX SECURITY PATCH
       product.


    D. Impact of the patch and workaround

       Application of the patch will eliminate the vulnerability.


    E. Obtaining General Security Information
       To subscribe to automatically receive future NEW HP Security
       Bulletins from the HP SupportLine mail service via electronic
       mail, send an email message to:

        support@support.mayfield.hp.com   (no Subject is required)

       Multiple instructions are allowed in the TEXT PORTION OF THE
       MESSAGE, here are some basic instructions you may want to use:

       To add your name to the subscription list for new Security
       Bulletins, send the following in the TEXT PORTION OF THE MESSAGE:

                  subscribe security_info

       To retrieve the index of all HP Security Bulletins issued to date,
       send the following in the TEXT PORTION OF THE MESSAGE:

                  send security_info_list

       World Wide Web service for browsing of bulletins is available via
       the HPSL URL:
                  http://support.mayfield.hp.com

       Choose "Support news", then under Support news,
       choose "Security Bulletins"

    F. To report new security vulnerabilities, send email to

          security-alert@hp.com



===============================================================================
Document Id: [HPSBMP9503-002]
Date Loaded: [03-20-95]

Description: Security Vulnerability (HPSBMP9503-002) in MPE/iX releases
===============================================================================

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
      HEWLETT-PACKARD SECURITY BULLETIN: (MPE/iX) #00002, 20 March 95
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The information in the following Security Bulletin should be acted
    upon as soon as possible. Hewlett-Packard will not be liable for
    any consequences to any customer resulting from customer's failure
    to fully implement instructions in this Security Bulletin as soon
    as possible.

_______________________________________________________________________
PROBLEM:  Security vulnerability in the MPE/iX operating system
PLATFORM: HP3000 Series 900 systems running the Limited Release of MPE/iX 5.0
DAMAGE:   Users can gain access to a higher TurboImage privilege
SOLUTION: Update all systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0, or
          Apply patch MPEHX25A (Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0  X.50.20).
FIX:      The problem is fixed in the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00)
AVAILABILITY: The 5.0 General Release and all patches are available now.
_______________________________________________________________________


   A. Nature of the problem

      It has been found that HP 3000 systems running the Limited Release of
      MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20) have a vulnerability that can be exploited by
      logged on users to gain a higher TurboImage privilege.  This problem
      does not permit a user to gain additional privileges by accident.

   B. Fixing the problem

      Hewlett-Packard recommends that you update your HP 3000 Series 900
      computer systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00), as
      this problem is fixed in that release.  Updating to the 5.0 General
      Release is the easiest and safest way to get the fix for this security
      problem.  Customers with HP System Support contracts should have
      already received their shipments of the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0
      (C.50.00).

      However, if you feel that you cannot update to the 5.0 General
      Release at this time, the vulnerability can be eliminated from the
      Limited Release of MPE/iX 5.0 by applying a patch, MPEHX25A.

   C. How to Install the Patch (for the Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0)

   1. Determine which patch is appropriate for your operating system release:

              MPEHX25A for Series 900, Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20)

   2. Obtaining the patch.

      If you have an HP System Support contract, you should be receiving a
      security notification packet that includes a FAX-back form for
      ordering the patches that fix the problems described in the following
      three Security Bulletins -- HPSBMP9503-001, HPSBMP9503-002, and
      HPSBMP9503-003.

      If you do not have an HP System Support contract, you can obtain the
      same patches by ordering MPE/iX SECURITY PATCH, Product Number B5116AA.
      This product is available at no charge.  When ordering the product,
      you need to know which MPE/iX release you are patching and on what
      media you want the patch delivered.  The following chart shows the
      two product options:

                  Option Table for Product Number B5116AA

                           1600BPI   6250BPI
                             Tape      Tape      DDS
                         |---------|---------|---------|
                B.40.00  | 240,AA1 | 240,AA2 | 240,AAH |
                         |---------|---------|---------|
                X.50.20  | 250,AA1 | 250,AA2 | 250,AAH |
                         |---------|---------|---------|

      Phone numbers to HP Direct and other HP Country Sales offices have
      been included at the end of this bulletin for your convenience.

   3. Apply the patch to your MPE/iX system.

      Installation instructions are included with the MPE/iX SECURITY PATCH
      product.


   D. Impact of the patch and workaround

      Application of the patch will eliminate the vulnerability.


   E. Obtaining General Security Information
      To subscribe to automatically receive future NEW HP Security
      Bulletins from the HP SupportLine mail service via electronic
      mail, send an email message to:

        support@support.mayfield.hp.com   (no Subject is required)

      Multiple instructions are allowed in the TEXT PORTION OF THE
      MESSAGE, here are some basic instructions you may want to use:

      To add your name to the subscription list for new Security
      Bulletins, send the following in the TEXT PORTION OF THE MESSAGE:

                  subscribe security_info

      To retrieve the index of all HP Security Bulletins issued to date,
      send the following in the TEXT PORTION OF THE MESSAGE:

                  send security_info_list

      World Wide Web service for browsing of bulletins is available via
      the HPSL URL:
                http://support.mayfield.hp.com

      Choose "Support news", then under Support news,
      choose "Security Bulletins"

   F. To report new security vulnerabilities, send email to

          security-alert@hp.com


===============================================================================
Document Id: [HPSBMP9503-001]
Date Loaded: [03-20-95]

Description: Security Vulnerability (HPSBMP9503-001) in MPE/iX releases
===============================================================================

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
      HEWLETT-PACKARD SECURITY BULLETIN: (MPE/iX) #00001, 20 March 95
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The information in the following Security Bulletin should be acted
    upon as soon as possible. Hewlett-Packard will not be liable for
    any consequences to any customer resulting from customer's failure
    to fully implement instructions in this Security Bulletin as soon
    as possible.

_______________________________________________________________________
PROBLEM:  Security vulnerability in the MPE/iX operating system
PLATFORM: HP3000 Series 900 systems running Release 4.0, Release 4.5, and
          the 5.0 Limited Release of MPE/iX
DAMAGE:   Users can gain additional privileges and/or special capabilities
SOLUTION: Update all systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0, or
          Apply patch MPEHX24A (MPE/iX Release 4.0  B.40.00), or
                patch MPEHX24B (Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0  X.50.20)
FIX:      The problem is fixed in the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00)
AVAILABILITY: The 5.0 General Release and all patches are available now.
_______________________________________________________________________


   A. Nature of the problem

      It has been found that HP 3000 systems running MPE/iX Release 4.0
      (B.40.00), Release 4.5 (C.45.00), and the Limited Release of
      MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20) have a vulnerability that can be exploited by
      users to gain additional privileges and/or capabilities, but only if
      the users are already logged on to the system.  This problem does not
      permit a user to gain additional privileges by accident.  However, a
      user can exploit this vulnerability to gain System Manager (SM)
      capability.

   B. Fixing the problem

      Hewlett-Packard recommends that you update your HP 3000 Series 900
      computer systems to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0 (C.50.00), as
      this problem is fixed in that release.  Updating to the 5.0 General
      Release is the easiest and safest way to get the fix for this security
      problem.  Customers with HP System Support contracts should have
      already received their shipments of the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0
      (C.50.00).

      However, if you feel that you cannot update to the 5.0 General
      Release at this time, the proper corrective measure depends on which
      release of MPE/iX your HP 3000 system is running.

      The vulnerability can be eliminated from Release 4.0 and the Limited
      Release of MPE/iX 5.0 by applying a patch, MPEHX24A/B.  Release 4.5
      (C.45.00) MUST be updated to the General Release of MPE/iX 5.0
      (C.50.00), as no patch will be created for Release 4.5.

   C. How to Install the Patch (for MPE/iX 4.0 & Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0)

   1. Determine which patch is appropriate for your operating system release:

              MPEHX24A for Series 900, MPE/iX 4.0 (B.40.00)
              MPEHX24B for Series 900, Limited Release MPE/iX 5.0 (X.50.20)

   2. Obtaining the patch.

       If you have an HP System Support contract, you should be receiving a
       security notification packet that includes a FAX-back form for
       ordering the patches that fix the problems described in the following
       three Security Bulletins -- HPSBMP9503-001, HPSBMP9503-002, and
       HPSBMP9503-003.

       If you do not have an HP System Support contract, you can obtain the
       same patches by ordering MPE/iX SECURITY PATCH, Product Number B5116AA.
       This product is available at no charge.  When ordering the product,
       you need to know which MPE/iX release you are patching and on what
       media you want the patch delivered.  The following chart shows the
       two product options:

                  Option Table for Product Number B5116AA

                           1600BPI   6250BPI
                             Tape      Tape      DDS
                         |---------|---------|---------|
                B.40.00  | 240,AA1 | 240,AA2 | 240,AAH |
                         |---------|---------|---------|
                X.50.20  | 250,AA1 | 250,AA2 | 250,AAH |
                         |---------|---------|---------|

       Phone numbers to HP Direct and other HP Country Sales offices have
       been included at the end of this bulletin for your convenience.


   3.  Apply the patch to your MPE/iX system.

       Installation instructions are included with the MPE/iX SECURITY PATCH
       product.

       NOTE: IF YOU DECIDE TO APPLY ONE OF THE TWO PATCHES MENTIONED
       ABOVE RATHER THAN UPDATE YOUR HP 3000 TO THE GENERAL RELEASE OF
       MPE/iX 5.0, YOU MUST RE-APPLY ALL MPE/iX PATCHES PREVIOUSLY INSTALLED
       ON YOUR SYSTEM.

       Patch MPEHX24A/B replaces the Operating System SOM (OS SOM) in
       NL.PUB.SYS.  This process has the effect of removing all previously
       installed MPE/iX patches from the OS SOM.  You can obtain all prior
       General Release patches by ordering the current MPE/iX PowerPatch tape
       (B.40.09) for Release 4.0 or the current MPE/iX PowerPatch tape
       (X.50.24) for the Limited Release of 5.0.  If you have an HP System
       Support contract, call your local Hewlett-Packard support contact.
       Otherwise, call your local HP Sales representative and order Product
       Number 50757A -- PowerPatch Tape.  Be sure to indicate which version
       of the PowerPatch tape you require and the correct media type.
       PowerPatch tapes are available free of charge to customers who have an
       HP System Support contract and at a nominal charge to customers who
       do not.


    D. Impact of the patch and workaround

       Application of the patch will eliminate the vulnerability.  See the
       NOTE above for the patch impact.


    E. Obtaining General Security Information
        To subscribe to automatically receive future NEW HP Security
        Bulletins from the HP SupportLine mail service via electronic
        mail, send an email message to:

        support@support.mayfield.hp.com   (no Subject is required)

        Multiple instructions are allowed in the TEXT PORTION OF THE
        MESSAGE, here are some basic instructions you may want to use:

        To add your name to the subscription list for new Security
        Bulletins, send the following in the TEXT PORTION OF THE MESSAGE:

                  subscribe security_info

        To retrieve the index of all HP Security Bulletins issued to date,
        send the following in the TEXT PORTION OF THE MESSAGE:

                  send security_info_list

        World Wide Web service for browsing of bulletins is available via
        the HPSL URL:
                  http://support.mayfield.hp.com

        Choose "Support news", then under Support news,
        choose "Security Bulletins"

    F. To report new security vulnerabilities, send email to

          security-alert@hp.com

_______________________________________________________________________

          United States                          Canada
          Tel: 800-386-1117                      Tel: 800-387-3154
          Fax: 800-386-1118

          Austria                                Netherlands
          Tel: 43 222/250 00-200                 Tel: 31 20-5476040
          Fax: 43 222/250 00-311                 Fax: 31 20-5477778

          Belgium                                Norway
          Tel: 32 2/778.33.99                    Tel: 47 2 273 5767
          Fax: 32 2/778.33.88                    Fax: 47 2 273 5620

          Czech Republic                         Poland
          Tel: 42/2/4717230                      Tel: 48/22/375085
          Fax: 42/2/4717611                      Fax: 48/22/374783

          Denmark                                Portugal
          Tel: 45 45 99 11 45                    Tel: 351(1)301 7343
          Fax: 45 45 82 11 46                    Fax: 351(1)301 7568

          Finland                                Russia
          Tel: 358 0-8872 2000                   Tel: 7095-923-5001
          Fax: 358 0-8872 2002                   Fax: 7095-230-2611

          France                                 Slovenia
          Tel: 33(1)60 77 30 04                  Tel: 386(61)159-3322
          Fax: 33(1)69 91 86 79                  Fax: 386(61)558-597

          Germany                                Slovak Republic
          Tel: 49 70 31/14-55 40                 Tel: 42/7/765896
          Fax: 49 70 31/14-10 80                 Fax: 42/7/763408

          Greece                                 Spain
          Tel: 30/1/6896411                      Tel: 34(1)631 11 11
          Fax: 30/1/6896512                      Fax: 34(1)631 11 22

          Hungary                                Sweden
          Tel: 36/1/1420986                      Tel: 46 8-750 22 10
          Fax: 36/1/1223692                      Fax: 46 8-793 90 50

          Iceland                                Switzerland (French)
          Tel: 354/1/671000                      Tel: 41(22)780 44 65
          Fax: 354/1/673031                      Fax: 41(22)780 42 20

          Ireland                                Switzerland (German)
          Tel: 353/1/2844633                     Tel: 41 1/735 72 70
          Fax: 353/1/2844622                     Fax: 41 1/735 77 11

          Italy                                  Turkey
          Tel:                                   Tel: 90-1-224 59 25
          Fax: 39 2/75.30.645                    Fax: 90-1-224 59 39

          Mexico                                 UK
          Tel: (+52 5) 326-4684                  Tel: 44-344-369231
                                                 Fax: 44 344-361014

          European Headquarters &                Middle East and
          Multicountry Sales Region              Afrika Operation
          Tel: 41/22/780/8111                    Tel: 41/22/780/4111
          Fax: 41/22/780/8609                    Fax: 41/22/780/4770

          Australia                              Korea
          Tel: (61-2)950-7491                    Tel: (822)769-0612
          Fax: (61-2)878-5596                    Fax: (822)769-0523

          Asia Pacific Headquarters              Malaysia
          Tel: (65) 290-6217                     Tel: (60-3)295-2315
          Fax: (65) 291-9697                     Fax: (60-3)291-5495

          Hong Kong                              Singapore
          Tel: (852)599-7571                     Tel: (65) 290-6005
          Fax: (852)506-9261                     Fax: (65) 296-9023

          Japan                                  Taiwan
          Tel: (81-423)30-7888                   Tel: (886-2)717-9620
          Fax: (81-426)45-4312                   Fax: (886-2)714-8793

          Other Countries
          Call your local HP Country Sales office or distributor
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[End HP Bulletin]

CIAC is the computer security incident response team for the U.S.
Department of Energy.  Services are available free of charge to DOE and DOE
contractors.

DOE and DOE contractor sites can contact CIAC at:
    Voice:   510-422-8193
    FAX:     510-423-8002
    STU-III: 510-423-2604
    E-mail:  ciac@llnl.gov

For DOE and DOE contract site emergencies only, call 1-800-SKYPAGE
(1-800-759-7243) and enter PIN number 8550070 (primary) or 8550074
(secondary).

Previous CIAC notices, anti-virus software, and other information are
available via WWW (http://ciac.llnl.gov/) and anonymous FTP from
ciac.llnl.gov (IP address 128.115.19.53).

CIAC has several self-subscribing mailing lists for electronic publications:
1.  CIAC-BULLETIN for Advisories, highest priority - time critical
    information, and Bulletins, important computer security information;
2.  CIAC-NOTES for Notes, a collection of computer security articles;
3.  SPI-ANNOUNCE for official news about Security Profile Inspector (SPI)
    software updates, new features, distribution and availability;
4.  SPI-NOTES, for discussion of problems and solutions regarding the use of
    SPI products.

Our mailing lists are managed by a public domain software package called
ListProcessor, which ignores E-mail header subject lines. To subscribe (add
yourself) to one of our mailing lists, send requests of the following form:

subscribe list-name LastName, FirstName PhoneNumber

as the E-mail message body, substituting CIAC-BULLETIN, CIAC-NOTES,
SPI-ANNOUNCE or SPI-NOTES for "list-name" and valid information for
"LastName" "FirstName" and "PhoneNumber."  Send to: ciac-listproc@llnl.gov
not to: ciac@llnl.gov

e.g.,
subscribe ciac-notes O'Hara, Scarlett 404-555-1212 x36
subscribe ciac-bulletin O'Hara, Scarlett 404-555-1212 x36

You will receive an acknowledgment containing address and initial PIN, and
information on how to change either of them, cancel your subscription, or get
help.
_____________________________________________________________________________


PLEASE NOTE: Many users outside of the DOE and ESnet computing communities
receive CIAC bulletins. If you are not part of these communities, please
contact your agency's response team to report incidents. Your agency's team
will coordinate with CIAC. The Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams
(FIRST) is a world-wide organization. A list of FIRST member organizations
and their constituencies can be obtained by sending E-mail to
first-request@first.org with an empty subject line and a message body
containing the line: send first-contacts.

This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of
the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the
University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,
expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for
the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, product, or
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately
owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process,
or service by trade name, trademark manufacturer, or otherwise, does not
necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring
by the United States Government or the University of California. The views
and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect
those of the United States Government nor the University of California, and
shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

_____________________________________________________________________________


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