Visit our newest sister site!
Hundreds of free aircraft flight manuals
Civilian • Historical • Military • Declassified • FREE!


TUCoPS :: General Information :: neophyte.txt

The Neophyte's Guide to Hacking




 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------         
         %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%-%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
         %                                                        %
         %            THE NEOPHYTE'S GUIDE TO HACKING             %
         %            ===============================             %
         %                      1993 Edition                      %
         %                 Completed on 08/28/93                  %
         %           Modification 1.1 Done on 10/10/93            %
         %           Modification 1.2 Done on 10/23/93            %
         %                          by                            %
         %%                >>>>>  Deicide  <<<<<                 %%
         %%%                                                    %%%
         %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
                                                                   
     <   The author of this file grants permission to reproduce and   >
     <   redistribute this file in any way the reader sees fit,       >
     <   including the inclusion of this file in newsletters of any   >
     <   media, provided the file is kept whole and complete,         >
     <   without any modifications, deletions or ommissions.          >
     <   (c) 1993, Deicide                                            >

TABLE OF CONTENTS
=================

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ETHICS/SAFETY

3. WHERE TO START

4. PACKET-SWITCHED NETWORKS
    A. Intro to PSNs
    B. How packet-switching works
    C. The Internet
        1. Introduction
        2. Getting access
        3. FTP
    D. X.25 Networks
        1. NUAs
        2. PADs & NUIs
        3. CUGs
        4. SprintNet
        5. BT Tymnet
        6. Datapac
        7. DNIC List

5. SYSTEM PENETRATION
    A. Unix
    B. VMS
    C. MPE (HP3000 mainframes)
    D. VM/CMS
    E. Primos
    F. TOPS 10/20
    G. IRIS
    H. NOS
    I. DECServer
    J. GS/1
    K. XMUX
    L. Starmaster/PACX
    M. Access 2590
    N. PICK
    O. AOS/VS
    P. RSTS
    Q. WindowsNT
    R. Novell Netware
    S. System75/85
    T. AS400
    U. TSO

6. BRUTE FORCE
    A. Passwords
    B. Usernames
    C. Services

7. SOCIAL ENGINEERING

8. TRASHING

9. ACRONYMS

10. CONCLUSION
    A. Last words
    B. Recommended Reading
    C. BBSes
    D. References
    E. And finally..
    F. Disclaimer


INTRODUCTION:
============
------------

    Over four years ago the final version of the LOD/H's Novice's Guide to 
Hacking was created and distributed, and during the years since it has served 
as a much needed source of knowledge for the many hackers just beginning to
explore the wonders of system penetration and exploration.
    The guide was much needed by the throng of newbies who hadn't the 
slightest clue what a VAX was, but were eager to learn the arcane art of 
hacking. Many of today's greats and moderates alike relied the guide as a 
valuable reference during their tentative(or not) steps into the nets.
    However, time has taken it's toll on the silicon networks and the guide is
now a tad out of date. The basic manufacturer defaults are now usually secured
, and more operating systems have come on the scene to take a large chunk of 
the OS percentile. In over four years not one good attempt at a sequel has
been made, for reasons unbeknownst to me.
    So, I decided to take it upon myself to create my own guide to hacking..
the "Neophyte's Guide to Hacking" (hey..no laughing!) in the hopes that it 
might help others in furthering their explorations of the nets.
    This guide is modelled after the original, mainly due to the fact that the
original *was* good. New sections have been added, and old sections expanded
upon. However, this is in no means just an update, it is an entirely new guide
as you'll see by the difference in size. This guide turned out to be over 4 
times the size of The Mentor's guide. 
    Also, this guide is NOT an actual "sequel" to the original; it is not 
LOD/H sponsored or authorized or whatever, mainly because the LOD/H is now 
extinct. 
    One last thing.. this guide is in no way complete. There are many OS's I 
did not include, the main reasons being their rarity or my non-expertise with
them. All the major OS's are covered, but in future releases I wish to include
Wang, MVS, CICS, SimVTAM, Qinter, IMS, VOS, and many more. If you 
feel you could help, contact me by Internet email or on a board or net(if you
can find me). Same thing applies for further expansion of current topics and
operating systems, please contact me.
    Ok, a rather long intro, but fuck it.. enjoy as you wish..
        Deicide - deicide@west.darkside.com

ETHICS/SAFETY:
=============
-------------

    One of the most integral parts of a hacker's mindset is his set of ethics.
And ethics frequently go hand in hand with safety, which is obviously the most
critical part of the process of hacking and the system exploration, if you  
plan to spend your life outside of the gaol.
    A hacker's ethics are generally somewhat different from that of an average
joe. An average joe would be taught that it is bad to break laws, even though
most do anyways. I am encouraging you to break laws, but in the quest for 
knowledge. In my mind, if hacking is done with the right intentions it is not
all that criminal. The media likes to make us out to be psychotic sociopaths
bent on causing armageddon with our PCs. Not likely. I could probably turn the
tables on the fearmongering media by showing that the average joe who cheats
on his taxes is harming the system more than a curious interloper, but I 
refrain.. let them wallow..
    The one thing a hacker must never do is maliciously hack(also known 
as crash, trash, etc..) a system. Deleting and modifying files unnecessary is 
BAD. It serves no purpose but to send the sysadmins on a warhunt for your head
, and to take away your account. Lame. Don't do it.
    Anyways, if you don't understand all of these, just do your best to follow
them, and take my word for it. You'll understand the reasoning behind these
guidelines later.

I.    Don't ever maliciously hack a system. Do not delete or modify files
      unnecessarily, or intentionally slow down or crash a system.
      The lone exception to this rule is the modification of system logs and
      audit trails to hide your tracks. 

II.   Don't give your name or real phone number to ANYONE, it doesn't matter
      who they are. Some of the most famous phreaks have turned narcs because
      they've been busted, and they will turn you in if you give them a 
      chance. It's been said that one out of every three hackers is a fed, and
      while this is an exaggeration, use this as a rule and you should do 
      fine. Meet them on a loop, alliance, bbs, chat system, whatever, just
      don't give out your voice number.

III.  Stay away from government computers. You will find out very fast that
      attempting to hack a MilTac installation is next to impossible, and will
      get you arrested before you can say "oh shit". Big Brother has infinite
      resources to draw on, and has all the time it needs to hunt you down. 
      They will spend literally years tracking you down. As tempting as it may 
      be, don't rush into it, you'll regret it in the end. 

IV.   Don't use codes from your own home, ever! Period. This is the most 
      incredibly lame thing i've seen throughout my life in the 'underground'; 
      incredible abuse of codes, which has been the downfall of so many people. 
      Most PBX/950/800s have ANI, and using them will eventually get you 
      busted, without question. And calling cards are an even worse idea.
      Codes are a form of pseudo-phreaking which have nothing to do with the
      exploration of the telephone networks, which is what phreaking is about.
      If you are too lazy to field phreak or be inventive, then forget about 
      phreaking.

V.    Don't incriminate others, no matter how bad you hate them. Turning in 
      people over a dispute is a terrible way to solve things; kick their ass,
      shut off their phones/power/water, whatever, just don't bust them. 
      It will come back to you in the end..

VI.   Watch what you post. Don't post accounts or codes over open nets as a   
      rule. They will die within days, and you will lose your new treasure.
      And the posting of credit card numbers is indeed a criminal offense 
      under a law passed in the Reagan years.

VII.  Don't card items. This is actually a worse idea than using codes, the
      chances of getting busted are very high. 

VIII. If for some reason you have to use codes, use your own, and nothing 
      else. Never use a code you see on a board, because chances are it has
      been abused beyond belief and it is already being monitored. 

IX.   Feel free to ask questions, but keep them within reason. People won't
      always be willing to hand out rare accounts, and if this is the case 
      don't be surprised. Keep the questions technical as a rule. Try and 
      learn as much as you can from pure hands on experience

X.    And finally, be somewhat paranoid. Use PGP to encrypt your files, keep
      your notes/printouts stored secretly, whatever you can do to prolong 
      your stay in the h/p world.

XI.   If you get busted, don't tell the authorities ANYTHING. Refuse to speak
      to them without a lawyer present.

XII.  If police arrive at your residence to serve a search warrant, look it
      over carefully, it is your right. Know what they can and can't do, and
      if they can't do something, make sure they don't.

XIII. If at all possible, try not to hack off your own phoneline. Splice your 
      neighbour's line, call from a Fortress Fone, phreak off a junction box,
      whatever..  if you hack long enough, chances are one day you'll be
      traced or ANI'd. 
      Don't believe you are entirely safe on packet-switched networks either,
      it takes a while but if you scan/hack off your local access point they
      will put a trace on it.

XIV.  Make the tracking of yourself as difficult as possible for others. 
      Bounce the call off several outdials, or try to go through at least two 
      different telco companies when making a call to a dialup.
      When on a packet-switched network or a local or wide area network, 
      try and bounce the call off various pads or through other networks 
      before you reach your destination. The more bounces, the more red tape
      for the investigator and the easier it is for you to make a clean 
      getaway. 
      Try not to stay on any system for *too* long, and alternate your calling
      times and dates. 

XV.   Do not keep written notes! Keep all information on computer, encrypted 
      with PGP or another military-standard encryption program. 
      Written notes will only serve to incriminate you in a court of law.
      If you write something down originally, shred the paper.. itty bitty
      pieces is best, or even better, burn it! Feds DO trash, just like us, 
      and throwing out your notes complete will land in their hands, and 
      they'll use it against you. 

XVI.  Finally, the day/night calling controversy. Some folks think it is a
      better idea to call during the day(or whenever the user would normally
      use his account) as to not arouse the sysadmin's suspicion of abnormal
      calling times, while others think it is better to call when nobody is
      around. 
      This is a tough one, as there is no real answer. If the sysadmin keeps
      logs(and reads over them) he will definetly think it strange that a
      secretary calls in at 3 am.. he will probably then look closer and find
      it even stranger that the secretary then grabbed the password file and
      proceeded to set him/herself up with a root shell.
      On the other hand, if you call during the time the user would normally
      call, the real owner of the account may very well log in to see his 
      name already there, or even worse be denied access because his account
      is already in use.
      In the end, it is down to your opinion.
      And remember, when you make a decision stick to it; remember the time
      zone changes.

WHERE TO START
==============
--------------

    Probably the hardest period in hacking is that of when you are first 
starting. Finding and penetrating your first system is a major step, and can
be approached in many ways. The common ways to find a system to hack are;

    - UNIVERSITIES    : Universities commonly have hundreds of users, many of 
                        which aren't too computer literate, which makes 
                        hacking a relatively simple chore. And security is 
                        often poor, so if you don't abuse the system too much 
                        your stay could be a long one. 
                        On the other hand, for a nominal fee you can usually
                        pick up a cheap *legitimate* (now there's a concept)
                        account. Or you could enroll in the university for
                        a few credits, and just go until the accounts are 
                        handed out. Unfortunely, if you are caught hacking
                        off your own account it won't be hard to trace it
                        back to you. If you get a legimate account at first,
                        you might be best to hack a student's account for your
                        other-system hacking.
                        The other fun part about universities is often they 
                        will provide access to a number of nets, usually 
                        including the Internet. 
                        Occasionally you'll have access to a PSN as well.
    
    - CARRIER SCANNING: Carrier scanning in your LATA(Local Access Transport
                        Area), commonly known as wardialing, was popularized 
                        in the movie War Games.
                        Unfortunely, there are a few problems inherent in 
                        finding systems this way; you are limited to the 
                        systems in your area, so if you have a small town you
                        may find very little of interest, and secondly, 
                        ANI is a problem within your own LATA, and tracing is
                        simple, making security risks high. If you are going
                        to hack a system within your own lata, bounce it at
                        least once.
                        There are many programs, such as ToneLoc and CodeThief
                        (ToneLoc being superior to all in my humble opinion), 
                        which will automate this process.                

    - PACKET-SWITCHED : This is my favorite by far, as hacking on PSNs is how 
      NETWORKS          I learned nearly all I know. I've explored PSNs  
                        world-wide, and never ran out of systems to hack.
                        No matter what PSN you try you will find many 
                        different, hackable systems. I will go more indepth 
                        on PSNs in the next section.


PACKET-SWITCHED NETWORKS
========================
------------------------    

Intro to PSNs    
=============

    First off, PSNs are also known as PSDNs, PSDCNs, PSSs and VANs to name
a few. Look up the acronyms in the handy acronym reference chart<g>. 
    The X.25 PSNs you will hear about the most are; Sprintnet(formerly 
Telenet), BT Tymnet(the largest), and Datapac(Canada's largest).
    All these networks have advantages and disadvantages, but i'll say this;
if you are in the United States, start with Sprintnet. If you are in Canada,
Datapac is for you. 
    The reason PSNs are so popular for hackers are many. There are literally
thousands of systems on PSNs all around the world, all of which(if you have 
the right facilities) are free of charge for you to reach. And because of the
immense size of public PSNs, it is a rare thing to ever get caught for 
scanning. Tracing is also a complicated matter, especially with a small
amount of effort on your part to avoid a trace.

How packet-switching works
==========================

    The following explanation applies for the most part to all forms of
packet-switching, but is specifically about PSNs operating on the X series of 
protocols, such as Datapac & SprintNet, as opposed to the Internet which 
operates on TCP/IP. It is the same principle in essense, however.
    Packet-Switched Networks are kinda complicated, but I'll attempt to 
simplify the technology enough to make it easy to understand.
    You, the user, connect to the local public access port for your PSN, 
reachable via a phone dialup. You match communications parameters with the
network host and you are ready to go.
    From there, all the data you send across the network is first bundled into 
packets, usually of 128 or 256 bytes. These packets are assembled using 
Packet Assembly/Disassembly, performed by the public access port, also known 
as a public PAD(Packet Assembler/Disassembler), or a DCE(Data Communicating 
Equipment or Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment).
    The packets are sent along the network to their destination by means of 
the various X protocols, standardly X.25 with help from X.28, X.29 & X.3 
within your home network, and internationally using X.75/X.121. The X protocol 
series are the accepted CCITT standards. 
    The host system(DTE: Data Terminal Equipment, also a PAD) which you are 
calling then receives the packet and disassembles the packet using Packet 
Assembly/Disassembly once again into data the system understands. 
    The DTE then assembles it's data in response to your packet, and sends it 
back over the network to your PAD in packet form, which disassembles the 
packet into readable data for you, the user.
    And that is the simplified version! 

The Internet
============

Introduction
------------

    Contrary to popular belief, the Internet is a packet-switched network;
just not an X.25 packet-switched network. The Internet operates on the TCP/IP
protocols(as a rule), which is why it is sometimes disregarded as a
packet-switched network. In fact, the Internet's predecessor, the ARPAnet, 
was the first large-scale experiment in packet-switching technology. What was
then Telenet came later. 
    The confusion comes from peoples ignorance of the principles of 
packet-switching, which is simply a type of network, explained in technical
detail earlier. It doesn't matter what protocols the network may use, if 
packet-switching is in use it is obviously a packet-switched network.
    Ok, now you may have noticed that the Internet has a rather small section,
which is true. The reasons are many. This is a hacking guide, not an Internet
tutorial, so I didn't include the IRC or Archie or whatever. And the main
reason is I spent about 100% more time on X.25 nets than I did the Internet.
    Nonetheless, I decided to include the essential aspects of the Internet.
You should be able to take it from there.
    The following section is derived mostly from personal experience, but
the Gatsby's Internet file helped out somewhat, specifically in the classes
of IP addresses.

Getting Access
--------------

    Getting access is somewhere between easy and very difficult, depending
where you live and how good(or lucky!) a hacker you are.
    First of all, if you are going to hack on the Internet then you must be
on a system that has full Internet access, not just mail. That cuts Compuserve
and Prodigy out of the picture.
    Most universities and some high schools have Internet access, see what  
you can do to get yourself an account, legitimatly or not.
    Some BBSes offer full Internet access for a fairly reasonable price, and
that would be a good choice.
    If you are in an area with a FreeNet, then you get full Internet access..    
for free! Check around with local hackers or PD boards to inquire where the
nearest FreeNet is.
    Some businesses provide Internet access, for a price. Check with local
netters to see what local options there are.
    And lastly, you can try and hack your way on. When you hack a system, 
check and see if they are on the net. Usually this is accomplished by doing
a test call using telnet.. explained later.

FTP
---

    FTP is the acronym for File Transfer Protocol, and it is the primary means
of transporting remote files onto your own system(actually, usually the 
system which you are calling the Internet through).
    I will only provide a brief overview, as FTP is fairly easy to use, has
help files online and comprehensive documentation offline at your local h/p
BBS.
    First off, FTP can be initialized by typing 'ftp' at any system which 
has it. Most do, even if they don't have the Internet online. That a
frustrating lesson more than a few novices has learned.. if you hack into a 
system that has FTP or telnet on line, it does not necessarily(and usually
doesn't) have Internet access. Some SunOS's will have two sets of ftp and
telnet utilities. The standard ftp and telnet commands can be used for local
network connects, but not Internet. Another set of commands, itelnet, iftp
and ifinger (and occasionally iwhois) is used for the Internet. 
    When you enter the FTP utility, you'll usually find yourself at a 'ftp>'
prompt, and typing 'help' should bring up a small set of help files. The 
commands available, along with the help files, vary from system to system.
    Procedure is then defined by what type of system you are on, as again, 
it varies. But what you usually do next is open a connection to the system you
want to get a file off of. Type 'open' followed by the host name or IP 
address of the system you wish to connect to.. explained later.
    Next, you will usually find yourself at a sort of login prompt. If you
have a username on that system, then type it in. If not, try 'anonymous'. 
Anonymous is a great little guest account that is now being built in to some
OS's. Conscientious sysadmins may disable it, for obvious reasons. If however,
it is not, you will be asked for a password. Type anything, it doesn't matter
really. Type a few d's if you want, it really doesn't matter(as a rule don't
sit on your keyboard though.. it may not like it.. type something boring).
    Next you simply use the 'get' command to get the file you want. Usually
it is a good idea to not put the files in a directory that they will be 
noticed.. the sysadmin will suspect something is up if he runs into a few 
files that he supposedly copied into his own directory. Which brings us to
the next segment.. give your files benign names, especially if they are 
something like /etc/passwd files or issues of Phrack.
    A note about FTPing /etc/passwds. It rarely works. Oh yes, you will get
an /etc/passwd file, but rarely on the Internet will it be the real 
/etc/passwd. Check the size of the file first.. if it is 300 bytes or less,
then it will likely be a substitute. Telnet will, however, get the real
/etc/passwd on most occasions.
    Now quit the FTP utility and peruse your new files.. be sure to remove 
them when done.

Telnet
------

    While FTP has no real parallel in X.25 networks, you could equate telnet
to a private PAD. Telnet lets you connect to and operate on Internet systems
over the Internet as if you were connected locally.
    Telnet is initialized by typing 'telnet' at your shell. The operative
command is, again, 'open'. Again, type 'open' followed by the domain name
or the IP address. When connected, you will be at a login prompt of some 
kind(usually..). Enter a username if you have one, and if not you can either
attempt to hack one or see if the system accepts the 'anonymous' guest user,
explained in the FTP section.
    If all goes well, you should have a remote connection of some kind, and
what follows depends on the system you are connected to, just like in any
other network.
    
Domain Names and IP Addresses - Intro
-------------------------------------

    For those of you unfamiliar with those terms I will give a small, 
condensed explanation of what the two are.
    One or the other is needed for connecting to a remote system, either by
FTP or Telnet. The IP address could be equated to the X.25 net's Network User
Address. The Domain name is a mnemonic name, used for convience more than
anything, as it is generally easier to remember.
    If you wish to scan for systems on the Internet it is usually much easier
to scan by IP address, as you won't know the mnemonic for most systems.
    IP addresses are 4 digit-combinations separated by dots. Address examples
are 192.88.144.3(EFF) and 18.72.2.1(MIT).
    Addresses fall into three classes;
       Class A  -  0 to 127
       Class B  -  128 to 191
       Class C  -  192 to 223
    The earliest Internet systems are all in Class A, but it is more common
to find class B or C systems. Moreover, a lot of systems are placed 
specifically in the 128 or 192 address prefix, as opposed to 184 or 201 or
whatever. Scanning an IP address set can be accomplished in many fashions. 
One of which would be to pick a prefix, add two random one to two digit 
numbers, and scan the last portion. ie: take 192.15.43 and scan the last
digit from 0 to 255. 
    Unfortunely, the last portion (or last two portions in the case of Class 
C) are ports, meaning you may come up completely blank or you might hit the 
jack pot. 
    Experiment to your own liking, after a while you will fall into a 
comfortable groove.
    You can also connect to specific systems using the domain name, if you
know or can guess the domain name. To guess a domain name you will need to
know the company or organization's name, and the type of organization it is.
This is possible because host names must follow the Domain Name System, which
makes guessing a lot easier. Once you have both, you can usually take a few 
educated guesses at the domain name. Some are easier than others.
    First of all, you will need to understand the principle of top-level
domains. The top level is at the end of a domain name; in the case of eff.org,
the top-level is 'org'. In the case of mit.edu, the top-level is 'edu'.
    Top levels fall into a few categories;
        com - commercial institutions
        org - non-profit organizations
        edu - educational facilities   
        net - networks
        gov - government systems (non military)
        mil - non-classified military
    Along with various country codes. The country codes are two letters used
for international calls; the US's is 'US', Brazil's is 'BR'.
    Determine which top-level the system falls under, and then make a few
guesses. Examples are;
        compuserve.com  
        xerox.com
        mit.edu
        eff.org
    For further reading, I suggest picking up a few of the printed Internet
guides currently on the market, as well as the Gatsby's file on the Internet,
printed in Phrack 33.

X.25 Networks
=============

    From here on in the PSN section of this file is dedicated to X.25 
networks. I use the acronym PSN interchangably with X.25 networks, so don't
get PSN confused with all the other types of PSN networks. From here on in,
it is all X.25.

Network User Addresses
----------------------

    NUAs(Network User Addresses) are the PSNs equivalent of a phone number.
They are what you need to connect to systems on PSNs around the world, and 
thanks to the DNIC(Data Network Identifier Code), there are no two the same.
    The format for entering NUAs is different from PSN to PSN. For example, 
on Datapac you must include 0's, but on Sprintnet 0's are not necessary.  
Tymnet uses 6 digits NUAs rather than the standard 8.
But the standard NUA format is this;
        
        PDDDDXXXXXXXXSS,MMMMMMMMMM

Where; P is the pre-DNIC digit
       D is the DNIC
       X is the NUA 
       S is the LCN(Logical Channel Number, subaddressing) 
       M is the Mnemonic

Various segments may be omitted depending on your PSN and where you are 
calling. 
The P is commonly a 0, but is a 1 on Datapac. It is not usually even counted
as part of the NUA, but must be included(usage varying) when making calls 
to another PSN other than your own. Within your own PSN it is not necessary
to include the pre DNIC digit.
The D is the DNIC also known as the DCC(Data Country Code). The DNIC is the 
4 digit country code, which insures that each NUA worldwide is unique. The 
DNIC is only used in calling international NUAs. If you are in Datapac(DNIC 
3020) you do not have to include the DNIC for Datapac when making calls to 
NUAs within Datapac, but if you are in another PSN you must include the DNIC
for calls to Datapac.
The X symbolizes the actual NUA, which along with the optional S
(subaddressing) must always be included. You can simplify the NUA even greater 
using this format; 
       
       PPPXXXXX

Where P is the prefix of the NUA, and the X's are the suffix. The prefix 
corresponds to an Area Code in most cases in that the NUAs within that prefix
are in a certain part of the country the PSN serves. In the case of Sprintnet,
the prefix corresponds directly with the Area Code(ie: all NUAs in the 914
prefix on Sprintnet are in New York, and all phone numbers in the 914 Area
Code are in New York).
Subaddressing, S on the diagram, is a somewhat complicated thing to explain.
Subaddressing is used when desired by the owner of the DTE, and is used to 
connect to specified system on the same NUA. You may find more than one system
on the same NUA, and these can be reached using subaddresses.
ie:
           NUA                SYSTEM
        PPPXXXXXSS
        ==========      ===================
  Ex.1  12300456             Unix
  Ex.2  123004561            VMS
  Ex.3  1230045699           HP3000

In this example, the normal NUA is 12300456(assuming DNIC and pre-DNIC digit
are not used). This NUA takes you to a Unix system. But when the LCN(Logical
Channel Number, subaddress) of 1 is used, you are taken to a VMS. And the 
subaddress of 99 takes you to a HP3000. The systems on 12300456 are all owned 
by the same person/company, who wished to have one NUA only, but by using 
subaddresses he can give access to multiple systems on a lone NUA.
Subaddresses are also used occasionally as extra security. If you hit a system
that gives you an error message such as 'REMOTE PROCEDURE ERROR' or 'REMOTE
DIRECTIVE', you will either need a subaddress or a mnemonic. You may choose to
go through the entire possible subaddresses, 1 to 99, or if you are just 
scanning i would suggest these: 1,2,50,51,91,98,99
Mnemonics, M, are another tricky one to explain. They are not documented by
the PSNs, I discovered them on my own. Mnemonics are also used to select 
systems on a single NUA as a kind of port selector, but they are more commonly 
used as a kind of external password, which prevents you from even seeing the 
system in question.
The same error messages as in LCNs occur for mnemonics, but again, even if you
can reach a system with a standard NUA, there is a possibly a system only 
reachable by mnemonic exists. Here is a list of commonly used mnemonics;
    SYSTEM CONSOLE PAD DIAL MODEM X25 X28 X29 SYS HOST

Bypassing Reverse Charging Systems: Private PADs and NUIs
---------------------------------------------------------

    Occasionally on PSNs you will run into systems which give you the 
error message 'COLLECT CALL REFUSED'. This denotes a reverse-charging system.
When you make a call to a system on a PSN, the call is automatically collect.
But a lot of sysadmins do not want to pay for your connect charges, and if all
of their users have NUIs or private PADs, it is a good idea for them to make 
their system reverse-charging, which saves them money, but also acts as yet
another security barrier from casual snoopers.
    But again, this can be avoided by using a private PAD or a NUI.
Before we go into the details of these, remember that a private PAD is a 
different thing than your public access port PAD. A private PAD is a PAD which
automatically assumes all connect charges. So, the reverse charging systems 
will let you past the reverse charging, as you agree to accept the charges.
    NUI's(Network User Identifiers) work the same way. You can think of a NUI
as .. say a Calling Card. The Calling Card is billed for all the charges made
on it, regardless of who made them; the owner gets the bill. The NUI works the
same way. NUIs are used legitimatly by users willing to accept the connect 
charges. But, as hackers are known to do, these NUIs get stolen and used to 
call all NUAs all around the world, and the legitimate owner gets the bill.
But unlike CCs, you will usually get away with using a NUI.
    However, as you can guess, private PADs and NUIs are fairly hard to come 
by. If somebody manages to get ahold of one, they usually won't be willing to
share it. So, it comes down to you; you probably will have to find your own.
    PADs are only found by scanning on PSNs, and by hacking onto systems on
PSNs. There are programs on Unix and Primos systems,for example, that serve as
a private PAD. And there are some private PADs that are set up solely for the
purpose of being a private PAD. But, these are almost always passworded, so it
is up to you to get in.
    NUIs are somewhat the same thing. NUIs are different from PSN to PSN, some
will tell you if a NUI is wrong, letting you guess one, but others will not. 
And of course, you still have to guess the password. I've heard stories of 
people carding NUIs, but i'm not sure i quite believe it, and the safety of 
such a practice is questionable.

Closed User Groups
------------------

    One of the most effective security measures i've ever seen is the CUG
(Closed User Group). The CUG is what generates the 'CALL BLOCKED' message when 
scanning on PSNs. A CUG will only accept calls into the DTE from specified 
DCE NUAs. Meaning, if your NUA has not been entered into the list of 
acceptable NUAs, you won't be allowed to even see the system. However, CUGs 
aren't for everybody. If you have a system with many users that all call in
from different points, CUGs are unusable. And a good thing for us. I've never
heard of anyone finding a way past a CUG. I've got a few theories but..

Sprintnet
---------
    
    Now i'll go a bit more into the major US and Canadian PSNs, starting with
the most popular in the States, Sprintnet
    To find a public indial port for Sprintnet you may possibly be able to 
find it in your telefone book(look under Sprintnet) or by Directory Assistance.
If not, try Sprintnet Customer Service at 1-800-336-0437. This also will  
probably only function between 8:30 and 5:00 EST, maybe a bit different.
    Also, for a data number for in-dial look ups try 1-800-424-9494 at
communication parameters 7/E/1(or 8/N/1 also i believe). Type <CR> twice
or @D for 2400bps and press enter so Sprintnet can match your communications
parameters. It will display a short herald then a TERMINAL= prompt.
At the TERMINAL= prompt type VT100 for VT100 terminal emulation, if you are
using a personal computer i think D1 works, or just <CR> for dumb terminal. 
Then type "c mail", at the username prompt type "phones", and for password 
type "phones" again. It is menu driven from there on. 
    Now that you have your Sprintnet public dial port number, call it up like 
you would a BBS, then when it connnects type the two <CR>s for 300/1200bps 
or the @D for 2400bps, then it will display its herald, something like: 
        
        SPRINTNET(or in some cases TELENET)
        123 11A  (where 123 is your area code & Sprintnet's address prefix
                  and 11A is the port you are using)
        TERMINAL=(type what you did previously eg:VT100,D1,<ENTER>)

then when Sprintnet displays the @ prompt you know you are connected to
a Sprintnet public PAD and you are ready to enter NUAs. 
    As i mentioned before, Sprintnet NUA prefixes correspond directly with
Area Codes, so to scan Sprintnet simply take an AC and suffix it with the 
remaining digits, usually in sequence. Since Sprintnet ignores 0's, NUAs
can be as small as 4 digits. When scanning, go from lowest to highest, 
stopping as soon as it seems NUAs have run dry(take it a hundred NUAs further
to be sure..best to take it right to 2000, maybe higher if you have time).

BT Tymnet
---------
    
    BT Tymnet is owned by British Telecom, and is the biggest PSN by far, but
it does have some extra security.
    For finding Tymnet dial-ins the procedure is much the same, look in the 
phone book under Tymnet or BT Tymnet, or phone directory assistance and ask 
for BT Tymnet Public Dial Port numbers, or you can call Tymnet customer 
Service at 1-800-336-0149. Generally try between 8:30 and 5:00 EST. I don't 
have the Tymnet data number for finding in-dials, but once you are on Tymnet 
type INFORMATION for a complete list of in-dials as well as other things.
    Once you have your in-dial number set your communication parameters at 
either 8/N/1 or 7/E/1 then dial the number just like you would a BBS. At 
connect you will see a string of garbage characters or nothing at all. 
Press <CR> so Tymnet can match your communication parameters. You will then 
see the Tymnet herald which will look something like this:
        -2373-001-
        please type your terminal identifier
    If it wants a terminal identifier press A(if you want, you can press A 
instead of <CR> at connect so it can match your communication parameters and 
get your terminal identifer all at once).
    After this initial part you will see the prompt:
        please log in:
This shows Tymnet is ready for you to enter NUAs. A great deal of the NUAs on
Tymnet are in plain mnemonic format however. To reach these, just enter the
mnemonic you wish, nothing else(ie: CPU or SYSTEM). To enter digital NUAs you
need a NUI though. Tymnet will let you know when a NUI is wrong. Just keep
guessing NUIs and passwords until you find one. BUT, keep in mind, one of the
biggest security features Tymnet has is this: it will kick you off after three 
incorrect attempts at anything. Thus, you'll have to call again and again, and
if you are in a digital switching system such as ESS it is not a good idea to
call anywhere an excessive amount of time. So keep it in moderation if you 
choose to try Tymnet.

Datapac
-------

    I am the most fond of Datapac, because I grew up on it. Nearly all the
hacking i've done to this day was on Datapac or the international PSNs i've 
been able to reach through private PADs i've found on Datapac.    
    To connect to the Datapac network from Canada you will need to dial into 
your local Datapac node, which is accessible in most cities via your local 
Datapac dial-in number.  
    There are quite a few ways to find your local Datapac dial-in. It will  
usually be in your telephone book under "DATAPAC PUBLIC DIAL PORT". If 
not, you could try directory assistance for the same name. Alternatively,
there are a couple phone #'s for finding your dial port(these are also 
customer assistance):
 
 1-800-267-6574  (Within Canada)
 1-613-781-6798

    Also, these numbers function only from 8:30 to 5:00 EST(Eastern Standard 
Time).Also, the Datapac Information Service(DIS) at NUA 92100086 has a 
complete list of all public dial-ins. 
    I think you can use both communication parameter settings work, but 8/N/1
(8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit) is used most frequently, so set it 
initially at that. Some NUA's on Datapac use 7/E/1, change to it if needed 
after you are connected to a Datapac dial-in.
    Ok,if you have your Datapac 3000 Public Indial number, you've set your
communication parameters at 8/N/1, then you are now set to go. Dial your
indial just like a BBS(duh..) and once connnected:
You will have a blank screen;
Type 3 periods and press RETURN  (this is to tell Dpac to initialize itself)
The Datapac herald will flash up stating:
DATAPAC : XXXX XXXX (your in-dial's NUA)
You are now ready to enter commands to Datapac.

Example: 
(YOU ENTER)          atdt 16046627732
(YOU ENTER)          ...
(DATAPAC RESPONDS)   DATAPAC : 6710 1071

Now you are all set to enter the NUA for your destination.
NUAs on Datapac must be 8 to 10 digits(not including mnemonics). 
8 is standard, but 9 or 10 is possible depending on usage of subaddressing.
NUA prefixes on Datapac are handed out in blocks, meaning they do not 
correspond to Area Codes, but by looking at the surrounding prefixes, you can
tell where a prefix is located. When scanning on Datapac, keep in mind most of
the valid NUAs are found in the low numbers, so to sample a prefix go from
(example) 12300001 to 12300200. It is a good idea, however, to scan the prefix
right up until 2000, the choice is yours.

DNIC List
---------

    Here is a list of the previous PSN's DNICs, and most of the other DNICs 
for PSNs world wide. This was taken from the DIS, with a number of my own 
additions that were omitted(the DIS did not include other Canadian or 
American PSNs). The extras DNICs came from my own experience and various 
BBS lists.

COUNTRY               NETWORK          DNIC       DIRECTION
-------               -------          ----       ---------

ANDORRA               ANDORPAC         2945       BI-DIR
ANTIGUA               AGANET           3443       INCOMING
ARGENTINA             ARPAC            7220       BI-DIR
                      ARPAC            7222       BI-DIR
AUSTRIA               DATEX-P          2322       BI-DIR
                      DATEX-P TTX      2323       BI-DIR
                      RA               2329       BI-DIR
AUSTRALIA             AUSTPAC          5052       BI-DIR
                      OTC DATA ACCESS  5053       BI-DIR
AZORES                TELEPAC          2680       BI-DIR
BAHAMAS               BATELCO          3640       BI-DIR
BAHRAIN               BAHNET           4263       BI-DIR
BARBADOS              IDAS             3423       BI-DIR
BELGIUM               DCS              2062       BI-DIR
                      DCS              2068       BI-DIR
                      DCS              2069       BI-DIR
BELIZE                BTLDATAPAC       7020       BI-DIR
BERMUDA               BERMUDANET       3503       BI-DIR
BRAZIL                INTERDATA        7240       BI-DIR
                      RENPAC           7241       BI-DIR
                      RENPAC           7248       INCOMING
                      RENPAC           7249       INCOMING
BULGARIA              BULPAC           2841       BI-DIR
BURKINA FASO          BURKIPAC         6132       BI-DIR
CAMEROON              CAMPAC           6242       BI-DIR
CANADA                DATAPAC          3020       BI-DIR
                      GLOBEDAT         3025       BI-DIR
                      CNCP PACKET NET  3028       BI-DIR
                      CNCP INFO SWITCH 3029       BI-DIR
CAYMAN ISLANDS        IDAS             3463       BI-DIR
CHAD                  CHADPAC          6222       BI-DIR
CHILE                 ENTEL            7302       BI-DIR
                      CHILE-PAC        7303       INCOMING
                      VTRNET           7305       BI-DIR
                      ENTEL            7300       INCOMING
CHINA                 PTELCOM          4600       BI-DIR
COLOMBIA              COLDAPAQ         7322       BI-DIR
COSTA RICA            RACSAPAC         7120       BI-DIR
                      RACSAPAC         7122       BI-DIR
                      RACSAPAC         7128       BI-DIR
                      RACSAPAC         7129       BI-DIR
CUBA                  CUBA             2329       BI-DIR
CURACAO               DATANET-1        3621       BI-DIR
CYPRUS                CYTAPAC          2802       BI-DIR
                      CYTAPAC          2807       BI-DIR
                      CYTAPAC          2808       BI-DIR
                      CYTAPAC          2809       BI-DIR
DENMARK               DATAPAK          2382       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK          2383       BI-DIR
DJIBOUTI              STIPAC           6382       BI-DIR
DOMINICAN REP.        UDTS-I           3701       INCOMING
EGYPT                 ARENTO           6020       BI-DIR
ESTONIA               ESTPAC           2506       BI-DIR
FIJI                  FIJIPAC          5420       BI-DIR
FINLAND               DATAPAK          2441       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK          2442       BI-DIR
                      DIGIPAK          2443       BI-DIR
FRANCE                TRANSPAC         2080       BI-DIR
                      NTI              2081       BI-DIR
                      TRANSPAC         2089       BI-DIR
                      TRANSPAC         9330       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9331       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9332       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9333       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9334       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9335       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9336       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9337       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9338       INCOMING
                      TRANSPAC         9339       INCOMING
FR ANTILLIES          TRANSPAC         2080       BI-DIR
FR GUIANA             TRANSPAC         2080       BI-DIR
FR POLYNESIA          TOMPAC           5470       BI-DIR
GABON                 GABONPAC         6282       BI-DIR
GERMANY F.R.          DATEX-P          2624       BI-DIR
                      DATEX-C          2627       BI-DIR
GREECE                HELPAK           2022       BI-DIR
                      HELLASPAC        2023       BI-DIR
GREENLAND             KANUPAX          2901       BI-DIR
GUAM                  LSDS-RCA         5350       BI-DIR
                      PACNET           5351       BI-DIR
GUATEMALA             GUATEL           7040       INCOMING
                      GUATEL           7043       INCOMING
HONDURAS              HONDUTEL         7080       INCOMING
                      HONDUTEL         7082       BI-DIR
                      HONDUTEL         7089       BI-DIR
HONG KONG             INTELPAK         4542       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK          4545       BI-DIR
                      INET HK          4546       BI-DIR
HUNGARY               DATEX-P          2160       BI-DIR
                      DATEX-P          2161       BI-DIR
ICELAND               ICEPAK           2740       BI-DIR
INDIA                 GPSS             4042       BI-DIR
                      RABMN            4041       BI-DIR
                      I-NET            4043       BI-DIR
INDONESIA             SKDP             5101       BI-DIR
IRELAND               EIRPAC           2721       BI-DIR
                      EIRPAC           2724       BI-DIR
ISRAEL                ISRANET          4251       BI-DIR
ITALY                 DARDO            2222       BI-DIR
                      ITAPAC           2227       BI-DIR
IVORY COAST           SYTRANPAC        6122       BI-DIR
JAMAICA               JAMINTEL         3380       INCOMING
JAPAN                 GLOBALNET        4400       BI-DIR
                      DDX              4401       BI-DIR
                      NIS-NET          4406       BI-DIR
                      VENUS-P          4408       BI-DIR
                      VENUS-P          9955       INCOMIMG
                      VENUS-C          4409       BI-DIR
                      NI+CI            4410       BI-DIR
KENYA                 KENPAC           6390       BI-DIR
KOREA REP             HINET-P          4500       BI-DIR
                      DACOM-NET        4501       BI-DIR
                      DNS              4503       BI-DIR
KUWAIT                BAHNET           4263       BI-DIR
LEBANON               SODETEL          4155       BI-DIR
LIECHTENSTEIN         TELEPAC          2284       BI-DIR
                      TELEPAC          2289       BI-DIR
LUXEMBOURG            LUXPAC           2704       BI-DIR
                      LUXPAC           2709       BI-DIR
MACAU                 MACAUPAC         4550       BI-DIR
MADAGASCAR            INFOPAC          6460       BI-DIR
MADEIRA               TELEPAC          2680       BI-DIR
MALAYSIA              MAYPAC           5021       BI-DIR
MAURITIUS             MAURIDATA        6170       BI-DIR
MEXICO                TELEPAC          3340       BI-DIR
MOROCCO               MOROCCO          6040       BI-DIR
MOZAMBIQUE            COMPAC           6435       BI-DIR
NETHERLANDS           DATANET-1        2040       BI-DIR
                      DATANET-1        2041       BI-DIR
                      DABAS            2044       BI-DIR
                      DATANET-1        2049       BI-DIR
N. MARIANAS           PACNET           5351       BI-DIR
NEW CALEDONIA         TOMPAC           5460       BI-DIR
NEW ZEALAND           PACNET           5301       BI-DIR
NIGER                 NIGERPAC         6142       BI-DIR
NORWAY                DATAPAC TTX      2421       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK          2422       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAC          2423       BI-DIR
PAKISTAN              PSDS             4100       BI-DIR
PANAMA                INTELPAQ         7141       BI-DIR
                      INTELPAQ         7142       BI-DIR
PAPUA-NEW GUINEA      PANGPAC          5053       BI-DIR
PARAGUAY              ANTELPAC         7447       BI-DIR
PERU                  DICOTEL          7160       BI-DIR
PHILIPPINES           CAPWIRE          5150       INCOMING
                      CAPWIRE          5151       BI-DIR
                      PGC              5152       BI-DIR
                      GLOBENET         5154       BI-DIR
                      ETPI             5156       BI-DIR
POLAND                POLAK            2601       BI-DIR
PORTUGAL              TELEPAC          2680       BI-DIR
                      SABD             2682       BI-DIR
PUERTO RICO           UDTS             3300       BI-DIR
                      UDTS             3301       BI-DIR
QATAR                 DOHPAC           4271       BI-DIR
REUNION (FR)          TRANSPAC         2080       BI-DIR
RWANDA                RWANDA           6352       BI-DIR
SAN MARINO            X-NET            2922       BI-DIR
SAUDI ARABIA          ALWASEED         4201       BI-DIR
SENEGAL               SENPAC           6081       BI-DIR
SEYCHELLES            INFOLINK         6331       BI-DIR
SINGAPORE             TELEPAC          5252       BI-DIR
                      TELEPAC          5258       BI-DIR
SOLOMON ISLANDS       DATANET          5400       BI-DIR
SOUTH AFRICA          SAPONET          6550       BI-DIR
                      SAPONET          6551       BI-DIR
                      SAPONET          6559       BI-DIR
SPAIN                 TIDA             2141       BI-DIR
                      IBERPAC          2145       BI-DIR
SRI-LANKA             DATANET          4132       BI-DIR
SWEDEN                DATAPAK TTX      2401       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK-2        2403       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK-2        2407       BI-DIR
SWITZERLAND           TELEPAC          2284       BI-DIR
                      TELEPAC          2285       BI-DIR
                      TELEPAC          2289       BI-DIR
TAIWAN                PACNET           4872       BI-DIR
                      PACNET           4873       BI-DIR
                      UDAS             4877       BI-DIR
TCHECOSLOVAKA         DATEX-P          2301       BI-DIR
THAILAND              THAIPAC          5200       BI-DIR
                      IDAR             5201       BI-DIR
TONGA                 DATAPAK          5390       BI-DIR
TOGOLESE REP.         TOGOPAC          6152       BI-DIR
TORTOLA               IDAS             3483       INCOMING
TRINIDAD              DATANETT         3745       BI-DIR
                      TEXTET           3740       BI-DIR
TUNISIA               RED25            6050       BI-DIR
TURKEY                TURPAC           2862       BI-DIR
                      TURPAC           2863       BI-DIR
TURKS&CAICOS          IDAS             3763       INCOMING
U ARAB EMIRATES       EMDAN            4241       BI-DIR
                      EMDAN            4243       BI-DIR
                      TEDAS            4310       INCOMING
URUGUAY               URUPAC           7482       BI-DIR
                      URUPAC           7489       BI-DIR
USSR                  IASNET           2502       BI-DIR
U.S.A.                WESTERN UNION    3101       BI-DIR
                      MCI              3102       BI-DIR
                      ITT/UDTS         3103       BI-DIR
                      WUI              3104       BI-DIR
                      BT-TYMNET        3106       BI-DIR
                      SPRINTNET        3110       BI-DIR
                      RCA              3113       BI-DIR
                      WESTERN UNION    3114       BI-DIR
                      DATAPAK          3119       BI-DIR
                      PSTS             3124       BI-DIR 
                      UNINET           3125       BI-DIR
                      ADP AUTONET      3126       BI-DIR
                      COMPUSERVE       3132       BI-DIR 
                      AT&T ACCUNET     3134       BI-DIR
                      FEDEX            3138       BI-DIR
                      NET EXPRESS      3139       BI-DIR
                      SNET             3140       BI-DIR
                      BELL SOUTH       3142       BI-DIR
                      BELL SOUTH       3143       BI-DIR
                      NYNEX            3144       BI-DIR
                      PACIFIC BELL     3145       BI-DIR
                      SWEST BELL       3146       BI-DIR
                      U.S. WEST        3147       BI-DIR
                      CENTEL           3148       BI-DIR 
                      FEDEX            3150       BI-DIR 
U.S. VIRGIN I         UDTS             3320       BI-DIR
U. KINGDOM            IPSS-BTI         2341       BI-DIR
                      PSS-BT           2342       BI-DIR
                      GNS-BT           2343       BI-DIR
                      MERCURY          2350       BI-DIR
                      MERCURY          2351       BI-DIR
                      HULL             2352       BI-DIR
VANUATU               VIAPAC           5410       BI-DIR
VENEZUELA             VENEXPAQ         7342       BI-DIR
YUGOSLAVIA            YUGOPAC          2201       BI-DIR
ZIMBABWE              ZIMNET           6484       BI-DIR


SYSTEM PENETRATION
==================
------------------

    Ok, now that you've hopefully found some systems, you are going to need to
know how to identify and, with any luck, get in these newfound delights. 
    What follows is a list of as many common systems as i could find. The 
accounts listed along with it are not, per say, 'defaults'. There are very
few actual defaults. These are 'common accounts', in that it is likely that 
many of these will be present. So, try them all, you might get lucky.
    The list of common accounts will never be complete, but mine is fairly
close. I've hacked into an incredible amount of systems, and because of this
I've been able to gather a fairly extensive list of common accounts.
    Where I left the password space blank, just try the username(and anything
else you want), as there are no common passwords other than the username 
itself.
    And also, in the password space I never included the username as a 
password, as it is a given in every case that you will try it.
    And remember, passwords given are just guidelines, try what you want.

UNIX-            Unix is one of the most widespread Operating Systems in the
                 world; if you scan a PSN, chances are you'll find a number of
                 Unixes, doesn't matter where in the world the PSN resides.
                 The default login prompt for a unix system is 'login', and
                 while that cannot be changed, additional characters might
                 be added to preface 'login', such as 'rsflogin:'. Hit <CR> a
                 few times and it should disappear.
                 Because UNIX is a non-proprietary software, there are many
                 variants of it, such as Xenix, SCO, SunOS, BSD, etc.., but
                 the OS stays pretty much the same.
                 As a rule, usernames are in lowercase only, as are passwords,
                 but Unix is case sensitive so you might want to experiment if
                 you aren't getting any luck.
                 You are generally allowed 4 attempts at a login/password, but
                 this can be increased or decreased at the sysadmins whim.
                 Unfortunely, UNIX does not let you know when the username
                 you have entered is incorrect.
                 UNIX informs the user of when the last bad login attempt was
                 made, but nothing more. However, the sysadmin can keep logs 
                 and audit trails if he so wishes, so watch out.
                 When inside a UNIX, type 'cat /etc/passwd'. This will give 
                 you the list of usernames, and the encrypted passwords.
                 The command 'who' gives a list of users online.
                 'Learn' and 'man' bring up help facilities.
                 Once inside, you will standardly receive the prompt $ or % 
                 for regular users, or # for superusers.
                 The root account is the superuser, and thus the password 
                 could be anything, and is probably well protected. I left 
                 this blank, it is up to you. There won't be any common 
                 passwords for root.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS:
                 
                 Username          Password
                 --------          --------
                 root              
                 daemon 
                 adm               admin, sysadm, sysadmin, operator, manager
                 uucp 
                 bin
                 sys
                 123               lotus, lotus123
                 adduser
                 admin             adm,sysadm,sysadmin,operator,manager
                 anon              anonymous
                 anonuucp          anon, uucp, nuucp
                 anonymous         anon
                 asg               device devadmin 
                 audit 
                 auth 
                 backappl
                 backup            save, tar 
                 batch
                 bbx
                 blast
                 bupsched
                 cbm
                 cbmtest
                 checkfsys
                 control
                 cron 
                 csr               support, custsup 
                 dbcat             database, catalog 
                 default           user, guest  
                 demo              tour, guest
                 dev
                 devel
                 devshp
                 diag              sysdiag, sysdiags, diags, test 
                 diags             diag, sysdiag, sysdiags
                 dialup
                 dos
                 fax
                 field             fld, service, support, test 
                 filepro
                 finger
                 fms
                 friend            guest, visitor 
                 games
                 general
                 gp
                 gsa 
                 guest             visitor, demo, friend, tour
                 help
                 host
                 hpdb 
                 info
                 informix          database
                 ingres            database
                 inquiry 
                 install
                 journal 
                 journals 
                 kcml
                 learn
                 lib               library, syslib 
                 link
                 listen 
                 lp                print spooler lpadmin
                 lpadmin           lp, adm, admin 
                 lpd
                 ls
                 mail 
                 maint             sysmaint, service
                 makefsys
                 man
                 manager           mgr, man, sysmgr, sysman, operator
                 mdf
                 menu
                 mountfsys
                 ncrm              ncr
                 net               network 
                 netinst           inst, install, net, network
                 netman            net, man, manager, mgr, netmgr, network
                 netmgr            net, man, manager, mgr, netmgr, network
                 network           net 
                 newconv
                 news 
                 nobody            anon 
                 nuucp             anon 
                 oasys             oa  
                 odt               opendesktop
                 online
                 openmail          mail
                 oper              operator,manager,adm,admin,sysadmin,mgr  
                 operator          sysop, oper, manager 
                 opp
                 oracle            database
                 oraclev5          oracle, database
                 oradev            oracle
                 pcs
                 pcsloc
                 pctest
                 postmaster        mail
                 powerdown         shutdown 
                 priv              private
                 prod
                 pub               public
                 public            pub
                 reboot
                 remote
                 report 
                 rha
                 rje                 
                 rsm
                 rsmadm            rsm, adm, admin
                 rusr
                 sales
                 sas
                 save              backup
                 savep
                 service           field, support
                 setup
                 shutdown 
                 smtp              mail 
                 softwork
                 space 
                 startup 
                 su
                 sundiag           sysdiag, diag, diags, sysdiags
                 suoper            su, oper, operator
                 super             supervisor, manager, operator
                 support           field, service
                 sync
                 sysadm            adm, admin, operator, manager
                 sysdiag           diag, diags, sysdiags
                 sysinfo           info
                 sysmaint          maint, service 
                 sysman            manager,mgr,man,admin,operator,sysadmin
                 sysmgr            manager,mgr,man,admin,operator,sysadmin
                 system            sys, unix, shell, syslib, lib, operator
                 systest           test, tester, testuser, user 
                 test              tester, testuser, systest, user   
                 tester            test, user, testuser  
                 testuser          test, tester, user, systest
                 tftp
                 tour              demo, guest, user, visitor
                 transfer
                 tty
                 tutor
                 tutorial 
                 umountfsys 
                 unix 
                 unixmail          mail, unix
                 user              guest, demo
                 userp             user
                 usr               user   
                 usrlimit
                 utest
                 uucpadm           adm, admin, uucp
                 uuadm             uucp, adm
                 uuadmin           uucp, admin
                 uuhost            uucp, host
                 uulog             uucp, log
                 uunx              uucp
                 uupick            uucp, pick
                 uustat            uucp, stat
                 uuto              uucp, to
                 uux               uucp
                 va 
                 vashell 
                 vax
                 visitor           guest, friend, demo, tour
                 vlsi
                 vmsys             vm, face 
                 vsifax
                 who 
                 wp
                 wp51
                 x25               pad
                 x25test           test
                 x400 
                 
VMS-             DEC's Virtual Memory System commonly runs on VAX computers. 
                 It is another very widespread system, with many users world 
                 wide.
                 VMS will have a 'Username:' prompt, and to be sure just type
                 in a ',' for a username. A VMS will throw back an error 
                 message on special delimeters.
                 You will standardly get 3 and only three login attempts, and
                 VMS is not kind enough to let you know when you have entered
                 an incorrect username.
                 Once inside you will find yourself at a $ prompt.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS:
                 
                 Username            Password
                 --------            --------
                 backup
                 batch
                 dcl
                 dec
                 decmail             mail
                 decnet
                 default             default, user
                 dialup
                 demo                guest
                 dsmmanager          dsm, manager
                 dsmuser             dsm, user
                 field               field, service, support, test, digital
                 games
                 guest               visitor, demo
                 help
                 helpdesk
                 help_desk           helpdesk
                 host
                 info 
                 ingres              database
                 interactive
                 link
                 local
                 mail 
                 mailer              mail
                 mbmanager           mb, manager, mgr, man
                 mbwatch             watch, mb
                 mpdbadmin           mpdb, admin
                 netcon              net, network
                 netmgr              net, manager, mgr, operator
                 netpriv             network, private, priv, net
                 netserver
                 network             net
                 newingres           ingres
                 news
                 operations          operations
                 operator            oper, manager, mgr, admin, 
                 opervax             operator, vax
                 ops
                 oracle
                 pcsdba
                 pfmuser             pfm, user
                 postmaster          mail
                 priv                private         
                 remote
                 report
                 rje                 remote, job, entry
                 student
                 suggest             suggest
                 sys
                 sysmaint            sysmaint, maint, service, digital
                 system              manager,operator,sys,syslib
                 systest             uetp,test
                 systest_clig        systest, test
                 tapelib
                 teledemo            demo
                 test                testuser, tester
                 uetp
                 user                test, guest, demo
                 userp               user
                 vax
                 vms
                 visitor             guest, demo
                 wpusers

HP3000-          HP3000 mainframes run the MPE series of operating systems, 
                 such as MPE, V, ix, X, and XL. 
                 The default login prompt is ':', but this can be prefaced 
                 with characters(ie: 'mentor:') and in some cases the ':' may 
                 be taken completely away (ie: 'mentor'). To check for a 
                 HP3000, hit a <CR>, you will get an error message such as this;
                 EXPECTED HELLO, :JOB, :DATA, OR (CMD) AS LOGON.  (CIERR 1402) 
                 To login type 'hello', followed by the login information, 
                 which is in this format:   USER.ACCOUNT,GROUP.
                 The group is optional, but may be needed in some cases, and
                 can give you different file sets and the sort.
                 A great thing about HP3000's is they tell you exactly what
                 is incorrect about the login name you've supplied them, 
                 be it the account is valid but the username is wrong, or the
                 other way around. 
                 But unfortunely, if the system operators choose, they may
                 password ALL of the login name segments; username, account
                 and group.
                 The internal prompt for MPE's is, again, :.
                 'Help' will give you help when inside a HP3000. 
                 When entering accounts, i'd suggest not to use a group at
                 first. If you receive the error message 'not in home group',
                 then try the group PUB, then if even that fails, move on to
                 the common group list.
                 I didn't list passwords along with the accounts, as it would
                 be a bit of an awkward format, because of MPE's awkward
                 format. The only manufacturer default passwords I am aware 
                 of are 'hponly', for mgr.telesup, 'lotus', for mgr.sys, and
                 'hpword' for field.support.
                 Just remember to try the various parts of the account as a 
                 password, and anything else along those lines.
                 If you need a password for the following user.accounts & 
                 groups, try the various parts of the name plus any
                 combinations of it or names with obvious links to it(ie: 
                 field=service).
                 
                 COMMON ACCOUNTS:

                 Username.Account    
                 ----------------    
                 mgr.3000devs
                 mgr.acct
                 mgr.backup
                 manager.blast
                 manager.blast1
                 mgr.ccc
                 spool.ccc
                 mgr.cnas
                 manager.cognos
                 mgr.cognos 
                 operator.cognos
                 mgr.common
                 mgr.company
                 mgr.conv
                 mgr.corp
                 mgr.cslxl
                 mgr.demo
                 operator.disc
                 mgr.easy
                 mgr.easydev
                 mgr.extend
                 mgr.hpdesk
                 mgr.hplanmgr
                 field.hpncs
                 mgr.hpncs
                 advmail.hpoffice
                 deskmon.hpoffice
                 mail.hpoffice 
                 mailman.hpoffice
                 mailroom.hpoffice
                 mailtrck.hpoffice
                 manager.hpoffice
                 mgr.hpoffice
                 openmail.hpoffice
                 pcuser.hpoffice
                 spoolman.hpoffice
                 x400fer.hpoffice
                 x400xfer.hpoffice
                 wp.hpoffice
                 mgr.hponly
                 mgr.hpoptmgt
                 field.hpp187 
                 mgr.hpp187
                 mgr.hpp189
                 mgr.hpp196
                 mgr.hppl85
                 mgr.hppl87
                 mgr.hppl89
                 mgr.hppl96
                 mgr.hpskts
                 mgr.hpspool
                 mgr.hpword
                 mgr.hpx11
                 dpcont.hq
                 mgr.hq
                 mgr.indhpe
                 mgr.infosys
                 mgr.intx3 
                 manager.itf3000
                 mail.mail
                 mgr.netbase
                 mgr.netware
                 operator.netware
                 mgr.orbit
                 mgr.prod
                 mgr.rego
                 mgr.remacct
                 mgr.rje
                 manager.security
                 mgr.security
                 mgr.sldemo
                 mgr.snads
                 mgr.softrep
                 mgr.speedwre
                 mgr.spool
                 manager.starbase
                 field.support
                 mgr.support
                 operator.support
                 exploit.sys
                 manager.sys
                 mgr.sys
                 operator.sys         
                 pcuser.sys
                 rsbcmon.sys
                 operator.syslib
                 sysrpt.syslib
                 mgr.sysmgr
                 operator.system
                 mgr.tech
                 mgr.techxl  
                 mgr.telamon
                 field.hpword
                 mgr.opt
                 manager.tch 
                 field.telesup
                 mgr.telesup
                 sys.telesup
                 mgr.tellx
                 monitor.tellx
                 mgr.utility
                 mgr.vecsl
                 manager.vesoft
                 mgr.vesoft
                 mgr.word 
                 field.xlserver
                 mgr.xlserver
                 mgr.xpress
                 
                 COMMON GROUPS:

                 admin
                 advmail 
                 ask
                 brwexec
                 brwonlne
                 brwspec
                 bspadmin
                 bspdata
                 bspinstx
                 bsptools
                 catbin1  
                 catbin2
                 catlib
                 classes
                 config
                 console 
                 convert
                 creator 
                 curator 
                 currarc
                 current
                 dat
                 data
                 database 
                 delivery
                 deskmon
                 devices
                 diadb
                 diag
                 diafile 
                 diaipc 
                 doc
                 docxl
                 document  
                 dsg
                 easy
                 ems
                 emskit
                 etdaemon
                 example
                 examples
                 ezchart 
                 galpics
                 graphics
                 hold
                 hpaccss
                 hpadvlk
                 hpadvml
                 hpdesk
                 hpdraw
                 hpecm
                 hpemm
                 hpenv
                 hpgal 
                 hphpbkp
                 hplibry
                 hplist
                 hplt123
                 hpmail
                 hpmap 
                 hpmenu
                 hpprofs 
                 hpsw
                 hptelex
                 ibmpam 
                 idl
                 idlc
                 idpxl
                 include
                 infoxl
                 instx 
                 internal
                 itpxl
                 job
                 lib  
                 libipc 
                 library
                 mailconf
                 maildb
                 mailhelp
                 mailjob
                 maillib 
                 mailserv 
                 mailstat
                 mailtell 
                 mailxeq
                 mediamgr
                 memo
                 memory
                 mgr
                 mmgrdata
                 mmgrxfer
                 mmordata
                 mmorxfer 
                 monitor
                 mpexl
                 ndfiles
                 ndports
                 net
                 network
                 nwoconf 
                 office
                 oldmail
                 oper
                 operator
                 out
                 pascalc
                 patchxl
                 pcbkp
                 ppcdict 
                 ppcsave 
                 ppcutil  
                 prntmate 
                 prog
                 prvxl
                 pub
                 pubxl
                 qedit
                 ref
                 request
                 restore
                 sample
                 sbase
                 sfiles
                 signal
                 sleeper
                 snax25
                 sql 
                 sruntime 
                 subfile
                 suprvisr
                 sx
                 sys
                 sysmgr
                 sysvol
                 tdpdata 
                 telex
                 telexjob
                 text
                 tfm
                 ti 
                 tools
                 transmit
                 user
                 users
                 validate
                 viewlib
                 visicalc
                 wp
                 wp3
                 x400data
                 x400db
                 x400fer 
                 x400file
                 xspool 

VM/CMS-          The VM/CMS Operating System is found on IBM mainframes, and
                 while there are quite a few out there, they are commonly left
                 alone by hackers who prefer Unix or VMS. 
                 VM/CMS systems are commonly found gated off Sim3278 VTAMs and 
                 ISM systems as well.
                 The login prompt for CMS is '.', but additional information
                 might be given before the prompt, such as;
                      Virtual Machine/System Product
                      !
                      .
                 or;
                      VM/370
                      !
                      .
                 and frequently over to the side;
                      LOGON userid                   
                      DIAL userid                    
                      MSG userid message              
                      LOGOFF
                 but they all represent a VM/CMS system. 
                 To logon, type 'logon' followed by the username, which is 
                 usually 1 to 8 characters in length. 
                 To be sure it is a CMS, type 'logon' followed by some random
                 garbage. If it is a VM/CMS, it will reply;
                       Userid not in CP directory
                 This is one of the great things about CMS, it tells you if 
                 the login ID you entered is incorrect, thus making the 
                 finding of valid ones fairly easy.
                 One thing to watch out for.. if you attempt brute forcing 
                 some systems will simply shut the account or even the login 
                 facility for some time. If that is the case, find out the 
                 limit and stay just underneath it.. drop carrier or clear the
                 circuit if necessary, but if you continually shut down the 
                 login facilities you will raise a few eyebrows before you 
                 even make it inside.
                 Once inside, typing 'help' will get you a moderate online
                 manual.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS
                 
                 Username         Password
                 --------         --------
                 $aloc$
                 admin            operator, manager, adm, sysadmin, sysadm
                 alertvm          alert
                 ap2svp
                 apl2pp
                 autolog1         autolog
                 autolog2         autolog
                 batch 
                 batch1           batch
                 batch2           batch
                 botinstl
                 ccc
                 cms
                 cmsbatch         cms, batch, batch1
                 cmsuser          cms, user
                 cpms
                 cpnuc
                 cprm
                 cspuser          user, csp
                 cview
                 datamove
                 demo1            demo
                 demo2            demo
                 direct 
                 dirmaint         dirmaint1
                 diskcnt
                 entty
                 erep
                 formplus
                 fsfadmin         fsf, adm, sysadmin, sysadm, admin, fsfadm
                 fsftask1
                 fsftask2
                 gcs
                 gcsrecon
                 idms 
                 idmsse
                 iips
                 infm-mgr         infm, man, manager, mgr
                 inoutmgr         mgr, manager
                 ipfappl
                 ipfserv
                 ispvm
                 ivpm1
                 ivpm2
                 maildel
                 mailman          
                 maint            service
                 moeserv
                 netview          network, view, net, monitor
                 oltsep
                 op1
                 opbackup         backup
                 operatns         op, operator, manager, admin
                 operator         op, operatns, manager, admin
                 opserver
                 pdm470  
                 pdmremi
                 peng
                 presdbm          dbm
                 procal
                 prodbm           prod
                 promail
                 psfmaint         maint
                 pssnews          news
                 pvm
                 router
                 rscs
                 rscsv2
                 savsys
                 sfcm1            sfcm
                 sfcntrl
                 sim3278
                 smart
                 sna
                 sqldba           database
                 sqluser          user, sql
                 syncrony
                 sysadmin         admin, adm, sysadm, manager, operator
                 sysckp
                 sysdump1         sysdump
                 syserr
                 syswrm
                 tdisk            disk, temp
                 temp
                 tsafvm
                 vastest          test
                 vm3812  
                 vmarch
                 vmasmon
                 vmassys
                 vmbackup         backup
                 vmbsysad
                 vmmap            map
                 vmtape           tape
                 vmtest           test, testuser
                 vmtlibr
                 vmutil           util, utils
                 vseipo
                 vsemaint         maint
                 vseman
                 vsm
                 vtam
                 vtamuser         user, vtam
                 x400x25

PRIMOS-          Run on the Prime company's mainframes, the Primos Operating 
                 System is in fairly wide use, and is commonly found on 
                 Packet-Switched Networks worldwide.
                 Upon connect you will get a header somewhat like 
                      PRIMENET 23.3.0 INTENG  
                 This informs you that it is indeed a Primos computer, the
                 version number, and the system identifier the owner picked,
                 which is usually the company name or the city the Primos is
                 located in. If you find a Primos on a network, you will 
                 receive the Primenet header, but if it is outside of a 
                 network, the header may be different(ie:Primecon).
                 Hit a number of <CR>'s, and Primos will throw you the login
                 prompt 'ER!'. 
                 At this point, type 'login' followed by your
                 username. 
                 If hitting <CR>'s did not provoke an 'ER!', then type 'login'
                 followed by your username.
                 If you are blessed and you find some stone age company 
                 running 18.0.0 or below, you are guaranteed access.
                 Just find a username and there will be no password prompt. 
                 If for some reason passwording exists, a a few control-C's 
                 should drop you in.
                 Unfortunely, Primos almost always allows one and one attempt
                 only at a username/password combination before it kicks you
                 off, and Primos will not tell you if the ID you've entered is
                 invalid.
                 Once you are inside, you will find yourself at the prompt
                 'OK'.
                 'help' brings up a so-so online help guide.
                 
                 COMMON ACCOUNTS

                 Username           Password
                 --------           --------
                 backup
                 backup_terminal
                 batch_service
                 batch             
                 bootrun
                 cmdnc0
                 demo  
                 diag
                 dos      
                 dsmsr              dsm
                 dsm_logger         dsm
                 fam                
                 games
                 guest
                 guest1             guest
                 lib
                 libraries
                 login_server
                 mail 
                 mailer
                 netlink            net, primenet 
                 netman             manager, man, mgr, netmgr
                 network_mgt        netmgt
                 network_server     server
                 prime              primos, system
                 primenet           net, netlink  
                 primos             prime, system    
                 primos_cs          primos, prime, system
                 regist
                 rje                 
                 spool
                 spoolbin           spool
                 syscol
                 sysovl
                 system             prime, primos, sys1, operator
                 system_debug
                 system_manager
                 tcpip_manager
                 tele
                 test
                 timer_progress
                 tools

TOPS-10/20-      An older and somewhat rare operating system, TOPS-10 ran on                
                 the DEC-10/20 machines. You can usually recognize a TOPS-10 by 
                 its' prompt, a lone period '.', while a TOPS-20 will have a 
                 '@' in its place. Most systems allow you to enter the commands 
                 'SYSTAT' or 'FINGER' from the login prompt, before logging in. 
                 This command will let you see the users online, a valuable aide 
                 in hacking.
                 To login, type 'login xxx,yyy', where the x and y's are 
                 digits. 
                 TOPS-10 does let you know when your username is incorrect.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS
                 
                 User ID Code       Password
                 ------------       --------
                 1,2                OPERATOR, MANAGER, ADMIN, SYSLIB, LIB
                 2,7                MAINT, MAINTAIN, SYSMAINT
                 5,30               GAMES

IRIS-            Unfortunely, i have no experience with IRIS whatsoever. To
                 this day i haven't even seen one. So with regret i must 
                 present old material, the following info comes entirely from
                 the LOD/H Technical Journal #3. Hopefully it will still be
                 applicable.
                 The IRIS Operating System used to run soley on PDP systems,
                 but now runs on many various machines. 
                 IRIS will commonly present itself with a herald such as;
                    "Welcome to IRIS R9.1.4 timesharing"
                 And then an "ACCOUNT ID?" prompt.
                 IRIS is kind enough to tell you when you enter an incorrect
                 ID, it won't kick you off after too many attempts, and no
                 logs are kept. And strangely enough, passwords are not used!
                 So if you can find yourself an IRIS OS, try the following
                 defaults and you should drop in..

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS

                 Username
                 --------
                 accounting
                 boss
                 demo
                 manager
                 noname
                 pdp8
                 pdp11
                 software
                 tcl

NOS-             The NOS(Network Operating System) is found on Cyber 
                 mainframes made by CDC(the Control Data Corporation).
                 Cyber machines are commonly run by institutions such as
                 universities and atomic research facilities. 
                 Cybers will usually give a herald of some sort, such as
                    Sheridan Park Cyber 180-830 Computer System
                                or
                    Sacremento Cyber 180-830 CSUS NOS Software System
                 The first login prompt will be 'FAMILY:', just hit <CR>.
                 The next prompt is 'USER NAME:'. This is more difficult,
                 usually 7 characters. The password is even worse, 
                 commonly 7 random letters. Sound bad? It is. Brute forcing
                 an account is next to impossible.
                 I've never seen these defaults work, but they are better than
                 nothing. I got them out of the LOD/H Novice's Guide to 
                 Hacking, written by the Mentor. There are no known passwords
                 for these usernames.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS
                 
                 Username
                 --------
                 $SYSTEM
                 SYSTEMV

DECSERVER-       The Decserver, is as the name implies, a server made by the
                 Digital Equipment Corporation, the same company that makes
                 the VAX machines. 
                 It is possible the owner of the server put a password on it,
                 if this is the case you will hit a # prompt. If the server
                 has PADs or outdials on it, you can bet this is the case. 
                 You don't need a username, just the password. You will 
                 commonly get 3 tries, but it can be modified.
                 The default password is 'access', but other good things to 
                 try are ; server, dec, network, net, system (and whatever 
                 else goes along with that).
                 If you get past the #, or there isn't one, you will hit the
                 prompt 'Enter Username>'. What you put really doesn't matter,
                 it is just an identifier. Put something normal sounding, and
                 not your hacker alias. It is actually interesting to look at 
                 the users online at a Decserver, as commonly there will be a few users
                 with the username C or CCC or the like, usually meaning 
                 they are probably a fellow hacker.
                 Also, at the Enter Username> prompt you are able to ask for
                 help with the 'help' command, which spews out fairly lengthly
                 logon help file.
                 If all went well you should end up at a 'Local>' prompt.
                 Decservers have a fairly nice set of help files, simply type
                 'help' and read all you want.
                 It is a good idea to do a 'show users' when you first logon,
                 and next do a 'show services' and 'show nodes'. The services
                 are computers hooked up to the Decserver, which you can 
                 access. For obvious reasons you will often find many VAX/VMS
                 systems on Decservers, but pretty much anything can be found
                 Look for services titled Dial, Modem, PAD, X25, 
                 Network, or anthing like that. Try pretty much everything
                 you see. Remember to try the usernames you see when you do
                 a 'show users' as users for the systems online.
                 Also, you will sometimes find your Decserver has Internet
                 (Telnet, SLIP or FTP) access, make sure you make full use of 
                 this.
                 To connect to the services you see, use 'c XXXX', where the
                 X's represent the service name.
                 Once inside, the manufacturer's default for privs is 'system'
                 and it is rarely changed. 
                 The maintenance password changes from version to version.
                 With the Decserver 200 & 500 it is 0000000000000000 (16 0's),
                 but with 300 it is simply 0.

GS/1-            GS/1's are another server type system, but they are less      
                 common than the Decservers. The default prompt is 'GS/1>', 
                 but this can be changed to the sysadmins liking.
                 To check for a GS/1, do a 'sh d', which will print out some
                 statistics.
                 To find what systems are available from the server, type 
                 'sh n' or a 'sh c', and a 'sh m' for the system macros.

XMUX-            The XMUX is a multiplexing system that provides remote 
                 access, made by Gandalf Technologies, Inc., Gandalf of Canada 
                 Ltd. in Canada. As far as I can tell, the XMUX is used only on 
                 Packet-Switched Networks, Datapac in particular but with usage
                 on PSNs world wide.   
                 The XMUX is not usually thought of as a stand alone system,
                 but as a supportive system for multi-user networked systems,
                 having a bit to do with system monitoring, channel control, 
                 and some of the features of multiplexing.
                 Thus, you'll commonly find a XMUX on a mnemonic or a 
                 subaddress of another system, although you will find them
                 alone on their own NUA frequently as well.
                 To find the systems on a subaddress or a mnemonic, your best
                 bet is to go with mnemonics, as the LOGGER mnemonic cannot be
                 removed, while subaddressing is optional. 
                 You won't always want to check every single system, so i'll
                 give a guideline of where to check;
                 (REMINDER: this is only for systems on PSNs, and may not
                  apply to your PSN)   
                 
                    - PACX/         : The PACX/Starmaster is also made by 
                      Starmaster      Gandalf, and the two are tightly 
                      Systems         interwoven. If mnemonics don't work, be
                                      sure to try LCNs, as the CONSOLE on a
                                      PACX/Starmaster is an entirely different
                                      thing, and frequently using the mnemonic
                                      CONSOLE will bring you to the PACX 
                                      console, not the XMUX console.
                    - BBS Systems   : BBS Systems on PSNs frequently need some
                                      help, and XMUXs are fairly commonly
                                      found with them.
                    - Other misc.   : Many of the other operating systems, 
                      systems         such as Unix, AOS/VS, Pick and HP3000
                                      have the occasional XMUX along with it.
                    - Networked     : A good portion of networked systems have
                      systems         XMUXs. 
                      
                 If a system does have a XMUX also, you can reach it almost
                 always by the mnemonic CONSOLE, and if not, the node name of
                 the XMUX. If that doesn't work, try LCNs up to and including
                 15.
                 Occasionally the console of the XMUX will be unpassworded, in
                 which case you will drop straight into the console. The XMUX
                 console is self-explanatory and menued, so i will leave you
                 to explore it.
                 However, in all likeliness you will find yourself at the 
                 password prompt, 'Password >'. This can not be modified, but
                 a one-line herald may be put above it.
                 To check for a XMUX, simply hit <CR>. It will tell you that
                 the password was invalid, and it must be 1 to 8 alphanumeric
                 characters.
                 As you can see, you do not need a username for the remote 
                 console of a XMUX. UIDs are used, but internally within the
                 workstation.
                 As it says, the password format is 1 to 8 alphanumeric 
                 characters. There is no default password, the console is left
                 unprotected unless the owner decides to password it.
                 However, there are common passwords. They are;
                    console, gandalf, xmux, system, password, sys, mux xmux1
                 I'll repeat them in the common passwords again later.
                 But these will not always work, as it is up to the owner to
                 pick the password(although they do like those). 
                 Your next best bet is to find out the node name of the XMUX
                 (XMUXs are polling systems as well, usually hooked up somehow
                 to one of the regional hubs).
                 To do this, you must understand the parts of the XMUX. 
                 The XMUX has 4 default parts; the CONSOLE, the FOX, the 
                 LOGGER, and the MACHINE.
                 I'll try and define the usage of them a bit more;
                 CONSOLE- the main remote part of the XMUX, which performs all
                          the maintenance functions and system maintenance.
                          the actual system.
                          reachable usually on the LCN(subaddress) of 0 or 
                          4/5, and the default mnemonic CONSOLE, which can be
                          changed.
                 FOX    - a test system, which runs through never ending lines
                          of the alphabet and digits 0-9.
                          reachable on the LCN of 1, mnemonic FOX.
                 LOGGER - a device which displays log information, usually
                          one or two lines, including the node name.
                          reachable on the LCN of 2, mnemonic LOGGER.
                 MACHINE- a system which i do not yet understand fully. 
                          performs some interesting functions.
                          the prompt is '#'.
                          type 'S' and you will(always) receive a short/long
                          (depending on how much the system is used) system
                          status report, containing among other things the 
                          system node name.
                          if active, typing 'L' will bring up a more complete
                          system log. This is VERY useful. It contains the
                          NUAs of the systems which called the XMUX, and it
                          contains the UIDs if used. 
                 As you can see, the XMUX is rather complicated upon 
                 first look, but it is actually fairly simple. The easiest
                 way to grab the node name is to call the LOGGER. 
                 The logger MUST be present, always. It is a non-removable
                 default. The LCN may be removed, but the mnemonic must stay.
                 I explained mnemonics earlier, but i'll refresh your memory.
                 To use the mnemonic, simply type the NUA, followed by a comma
                 and then the mnemonic, ie;
                                12300456,LOGGER
                 The very first thing in the data string you see is the node
                 name. If it is a blank space, you have run across a rarity,
                 a XMUX without a node name. 
                 The node name is THE most popular thing other than the other
                 common passwords.
                 Try combinations of it, and combinations of it along with
                 the words XMUX and MUX.
                 And of course, if a herald is used, use whatever you can find
                 in the herald.
                 But again, if it is a company, they love to use the company
                 name or acronym as a password, and that acronym or name will
                 often be the node name.
                 Ok, have fun..

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS

                 Console Passwords
                 -----------------
                 CONSOLE
                 XMUX
                 GANDALF
                 SYSTEM
                 PASSWORD
                 MUX
                 XMUX1
                 SYS
                 (node name)

                 One other thing. I did not include the profile or remote 
                 profile names, or the UIDs, as they are as far as i know 
                 inapplicable from remote.  
                 And a final comment. XMUXs are powerful and potentially
                 extremely harmful to a network. DO NOT DELETE ANYTHING. The
                 only submenus you will have reason to access are 'DEFINE' and
                 'DISPLAY'. Don't boot people off channels or add console
                 passwording or remove profiles..you will end up with your ass
                 in jail. Taking down a network is less than funny to the 
                 people that run it. Explore, don't harm. 

STARMASTER-      The Starmaster/PACX 2000 is still a somewhat mysterious 
/PACX            system, but i have now explored all the security barriers as
                 well as the network and the internal functions, so i feel 
                 this is fairly complete.
                 The Starmaster/PACX system is a networking/server system made
                 by, again, Gandalf Technologies Inc., Gandalf of Canada Ltd.,
                 in Canada, and is also known informally (and some what 
                 incorrectly) as the 'Gandalf Access Server.' The Access is
                 similar, but different, as described later.
                 It is a fairly popular system on Datapac, and has some usage
                 in other regions of the world. Again, it is used mainly 
                 on Packet-Switched Networks, although, thanks to the dialing
                 directory of a Sam24V outdial on a Starmaster, I have  
                 discovered that Starmasters do indeed have dialin access.
                 The first possible security barrier is the dialin password,
                 which is rarely used, but you should know about.
                 The prompt is usually ;
                    DIALIN PASSWORD?
                 But can be changed, although it should remain similar.
                 Dialin passwords are 1 to 8 characters, and are usually
                 one of the following defaults;
                    GANDALF SERVER PACX NET NETWORK STARMAST DIALIN PASSWORD 
                    ACCESS 
                 If the Starmaster has a XMUX resident(explained in previous
                 system definition; XMUXs), find out the node name and try it.
                 The next possible security barrier is that the sysadmin 
                 desires the users to enter a username/password before 
                 entering the server.
                 You will find yourself at a prompt such as;
                    USERNAME?
                 This is the most common prompt.       
                 Usernames are 1 to 8 characters, and the Starmaster will let
                 you know if it is wrong or not with an error message such as;
                    INCORRECT USERNAME
                         or
                    INVALID RESPONSE
                 This, like the username prompt, can be changed, but it will
                 usually be in all-caps.
                 You are allowed between 1 and 10 attempts at either a valid
                 username or a valid password, depending on the owners 
                 preference.
                 This means(if it is set to ten tries) you can enter 9 invalid
                 usernames, and on the tenth enter a valid username, then have
                 10 attempts at a valid password.
                 The defaults for this(which i will list later also) prompt
                 are;    TEST, TESTUSER, TESTER, GANDALF, SYSTEM, GUEST
                         USER, HP, CONSOLE, and finally OPERATOR.
                 Also, first names will work usually.
                 The next prompt you will face, or the first one if usernames
                 are not implemented, is the server prompt. This is the main
                 user prompt for a Starmaster, all major user commands are 
                 used from here.
                 But as you can guess, commands aren't used really, it is 
                 service names you desire.
                 Sometimes you will get a list upon entering the server, but
                 other times you will just hit the server prompt, which 
                 usually looks something like;
                      SERVICE?
                         or
                       CLASS?
                         or even
                       service?
                         or
                       class?
                         or
                       service
                 Or whatever the sysadmin feels like. 'SERVICE?' is the 
                 default, and the most common.
                 Keep in mind that the services CAN be passworded, but 
                 rarely are. In the case of passwording, use your imagination.
                 Another thing; from the PACX console, where the services are
                 defined, there is an option which decides whether the service
                 is allowed for remote users. If this is set to NO, then you 
                 are out of luck, you have to be in the workstation to use the
                 command. This is common for the CONSOLE and the MAIL, and 
                 occasionally modems and PADs. You will get an error message 
                 something like 'SERVICE NOT ALLOWED'.
                 I will give a more complete list of common services, but
                 I will list the defaults and the major ones now.

                 PAD, X25, X28-   Will commonly take you to a Gandalf PAD,
                 (or name of      for which the default prompt is '*'.
                 your PSN)        'HELP' will bring up a list of commands.
                 MAIL         -   A non-removable default, but i've never 
                                  seen it with the remote access flag in the
                                  ON position.
                 CONNECT      -   Another non-removable default which i have
                                  never seen with the remote access flag in 
                                  the on position.
                 MODEM, DIAL  -   And variations therof. The common outdial
                                  is the Gandalf made Sam24V, which comes with
                                  a great set of help files.
                 CONSOLE      -   The motherlode. The system controller,
                                  maintenance computer, test machine, and
                                  all of that. DON'T confuse the PACX console
                                  with the XMUX console, they are two very 
                                  different things.
                                  The console should be protected by the 
                                  sysadmin with his/her life, as every faction
                                  of the Starmaster is controlled from within
                                  the Console. 
                                  The CONSOLE is a non-removable service from
                                  the server, BUT remote access can be removed
                                  thus cutting off our means of getting to it.
                                  Try it first, if it works the screen will
                                  scroll down a number of lines and give this
                                  herald/prompt;
                            GANDALF TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED, COPYRIGHT 1990
                            OPERATOR NAME? 
                                  This is not changable, it will remain the
                                  same except for possibly the copyright date.
                                  There can be 8 operators at the most, and
                                  they will have 1 to 8 characters in their
                                  name and password. And again, the PACX will
                                  tell you if your operator name is incorrect.
                                  You will be allowed 1 to 10 attempts at the
                                  login name and then it resets to 0 for the
                                  password attempt when you've found an 
                                  operator name, but same limit.
                                  The same defaults for the usernames work
                                  here, if you are lucky, with the exception
                                  of HP. I'll list them again at the end.
                                  Once you get in, it is all menued and 
                                  explanatory. DON'T FUCK THINGS UP. By that 
                                  I mean deleting or modifying. Look. There 
                                  is MUCH to see. The PACX console is 
                                  incredibly powerful, and you will have much 
                                  more fun exploring it.
                                  Besides, once you are in the console, the 
                                  game is over. You have control over all the
                                  services, users, and all security barriers.
                                  If you get a high level console account,
                                  you are the God of the PACX, no joke.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS

                 Usernames        Passwords
                 ---------        ---------
                 CONSOLE          CONSOLE, PACX, GANDALF, OPERATOR, SYSTEM
                 GAND             GAND
                 GANDALF          GANDALF, SYSTEM, PACX, STARMAST, SYS
                 GUEST            GUEST, VISITOR, USER
                 HP               HP
                 OPERATOR         OPERATOR, SYSTEM, SYSLIB, LIB, GANDALF
                 SYSTEM           SYSTEM, SYS, OPERATOR, PACX, SYS, GANDALF
                 TEST             TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
                 TESTUSER         TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
                 TESTER           TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
                 USER             USER, GUEST, TEST, VISITOR, GANDALF
                 (i've never seen an account such as MAINT, but i would guess
                  one exists, along with standard system defaults. Try 
                  anything outside these lines)

                 Services
                 --------
                 1 (if it works; higher)
                 A (through Z)
                 10 (if it works; higher in sequence of tens) 
                 BBS
                 CLUSTER
                 CONNECT
                 CONSOLE
                 DATABASE
                 DATAPAC
                 DEC
                 DIAL
                 DIALOUT
                 FILES
                 FTP
                 GATEWAY
                 GEAC
                 HELP
                 HP
                 INTERNET
                 LIB
                 LIBRARY
                 LOOP
                 MAIL
                 MENU
                 MODEM
                 MUX
                 NET
                 NETWORK
                 OUT
                 OUTDIAL
                 PACX12
                 PACX24
                 PACX96
                 PAD
                 PRIME
                 PRIMOS
                 PROD
                 SALES
                 SERVER
                 SUN
                 SUNOS
                 SYS
                 SYSTEM
                 TELNET
                 TYMNET
                 UNIX
                 VAX
                 VMS
                 X25
                 X28
                 XCON
                 XGATE
                 XMUX
                 
                 And anything else you can think of.
                 First names are also fairly common.

                 Operator Name     Password
                 -------------     --------
                 TEST             TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
                 TESTUSER         TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
                 TESTER           TEST, TESTUSER, USER, TESTER
                 GANDALF          GANDALF, SYSTEM, PACX, CONSOLE, SYS
                 GUEST            GUEST, VISITOR, USER
                 SYSTEM           SYSTEM, SYS, OPERATOR, PACX, SYS, GANDALF
                                  CONSOLE
                 USER             USER, GUEST, TEST, VISITOR, GANDALF
                 OPERATOR         OPERATOR, SYSTEM, CONSOLE, GANDALF
                 CONSOLE          CONSOLE, PACX, GANDALF, OPERATOR, SYSTEM
                 SYS              SYS, SYSTEM, GANDALF, PACX, CONSOLE


                 And again, try first names and ANYTHING you can think of.
                 Getting into the console should be your main objective.

ACCESS2590-      The Access2590 is another Gandalf creation. While it is a
                 server system, it is different in some respects to a PACX.
                 The Starmaster generally only connects computers on a local
                 or wide area network(they do connect to X.25 & IP addresses,
                 but they *usually* don't), while the Access 2590 connects
                 to local & wide area network services, X.25 address, and IP
                 addresses with suprising versatility. The PACX is, however,
                 in much wider distribution.
                 It will usually have an initial herald screen, often letting
                 you know that it is indeed an Access server made by Gandalf. 
                 If the operator wishes he can include a menu of services 
                 with their respective descriptions in this provided space.
                 Then you will find yourself at a prompt, the default being
                 "Access 2590 >". I haven't seen any sort of initial 
                 protection before you hit that prompt, but i'm betting it
                 does exist, and it probably goes along the lines of the PACX.
                 Follow the trend I set with the PACX and you should do fine.
                 Anyways, the one thing I like so much more about the Access
                 2590 compared to the Starmaster is the command "show symbols"
                 . That was one of the big problems from a hacking point of
                 view with the PACX; it doesn't have a command available to
                 show you the services. If you get console access on the PACX 
                 you can get a listing of services that way, but you simply
                 cannot hack a console account everytime, and besides that
                 often the owner will have turned the remote console access
                 flag off.
                 If the operator wanted to give you help with services he had 
                 to take the initiative himself and design a herald screen or 
                 implement a help service, and few do. But the "show symbols" 
                 on an Access will give you a listing of all the available 
                 "symbols", which is Gandalf's term for services. Connect to 
                 them with "c xxx" where "xxx" is of course the service.
                 And yes, to you eager folks who have tasted the PACX 
                 console's power, the Access does have a console. Type "c 
                 console" to get to it. 
                 Follow the PACX's guidelines, and you'll do fine.

PICK-            The PICK system was created by Dick Pick(no joke), and is
                 a fairly widespread system, there are a few of them out there
                 on the major PSNs. I really dislike PICK, but for those of 
                 you wishing to try it yourself, it is a fairly easy hack.
                 A normal PICK login prompt looks somewhat like;
                      07 JUN 1993 04:00:21 Logon please:
                 Additional data can be entered in that line, and a header
                 may be used above that. However, PICKs are usually 
                 recognizable by that logon prompt which will normally 
                 contain the date and time, as well as the 'Logon please:'.
                 If you aren't sure, enter the username 'SYSPROG', in ALL CAPS
                 , as PICK is case sensitive and SYSPROG will be in capitals.
                 SYSPROG is the superuser(or as PICK calls it the 'Ultimate
                 User') and is similar to root on a Unix; it must be present.
                 PICK lets you know when you've entered an invalid Username,
                 which is helpful when finding valid accounts.
                 Experiment with the upper and lower case if you wish, but
                 upper case is the norm.
                 The people who make PICK like to think of PICK as more a
                 DBMS than an OS, and it is often sold just as that. Because
                 of that, you may find it on Unix, MPE, and Primos based
                 systems among others.
                 One last note, internal passwording is possible on the PICK,
                 so don't be too suprised if you think you've found an 
                 unpassworded system only to be hit by a password before the
                 internal prompt.

                 COMMON ACCOUNTS

                 Usernames          Passwords
                 ---------          ---------
                 1
                 ACC
                 ACCT
                 ACCTNAME
                 ACCUMATH 
                 ACCUPLOT
                 ACCUPLOT-DEMO      ACCUPLOT, DEMO
                 ARCHIVE
                 AUDITOR
                 AUDITORS
                 BACKUP
                 BATCH
                 BLOCK-CONVERT 
                 BLOCK-PRINT
                 COLDSTART
                 COMBINATION
                 COMM
                 COMTEST
                 CPA 
                 CPA.DOC            CPA, DOC
                 CPA.PROD           CPA, PROD
                 CTRL.GROUP         CTRL, CONTROL
                 DEMO 
                 DA
                 DCG
                 DEV
                 DM                 DATA, MANAGER, MAN, MGR, DATAMGR, DATAMAN
                 DOS
                 ERRMSG 
                 EXCEPTIONAL
                 EXECUTE-CONTROL
                 EXPRESS.BATCH      EXPRESS, BATCH
                 FILE-SAVE          FILESAVE, SAVE
                 FILE-TRANSFER
                 FINANCE 
                 FLUSHER
                 FMS
                 FMS.PROD           FMS, PROD
                 GAMES 
                 GAMES.DOS          GAMES
                 GENERAL
                 INSTANT
                 INSTANT.DOS        INSTANT
                 JOB 
                 KILL
                 LEARN
                 LEARN.DLR          LEARN, DLR, LEARNDLR
                 LOGON
                 LOTUS
                 LOTUS.DOS          LOTUS
                 MAIL.BOX           MAIL 
                 MINDER
                 MODEM-SECURITY
                 MOTD.DATA          MOTD
                 NETCOM
                 NET.OFF
                 NETOFF
                 NETUSER 
                 NETWORK
                 NEWAC
                 NOLOG
                 OLD.USER
                 ON-LINE-DIAGS      DIAGS 
                 PERFECT-BKGRND
                 POINTER-FILE
                 PRICE.DOS          PRICE
                 PRICES.DOS         PRICES
                 PROCLIB            PROC, LIBRARY, LIB
                 PROD
                 PROMCOR
                 PROMIS-ARCHIVE     PROMIS, ARCHIVE
                 PROMIS-BKGRND      PROMIS, BKGRND
                 PROMO
                 PWP 
                 QA                 QUALITY, CONTROL
                 SCC.SYSPROG        SCC, SYSPROG
                 SCREENLIB
                 SECURITY
                 SET.PLF            SET, PLF, PLFSET
                 SL
                 SPSYM
                 STUDENT
                 SUPPORT
                 SYM.DOS            SYM
                 SYS
                 SYS.DOC            SYS
                 SYSLIB             SYSTEM, LIBRARY, SYS, LIB
                 SYSPROG            SYSTEM, PROGRAM, SYS, PROG, OPERATOR, DM
                 SYSPROG-PL         SYSPROG, PL
                 SYSTEM-ERRORS
                 TCL
                 TEMP
                 TEMP-SYSPROG       TEMP, SYSPROG
                 TEST
                 TEST-BKGRND        TEST
                 TRAINING
                 TRY.DOS            TRY
                 ULTICALC
                 ULTILINK
                 ULTIMATION 
                 UNIMAX
                 WORDS
                 WP
                 WP.DOS             WP
                 WP42.DOS           WP, WP42
                 WP50.DOS           WP, WP50
                 WP51               WP, WP51
                 WP51.DOS           WP, WP51
                 XES

AOS/VS-          AOS/VS is made by Data General Corporation(DGC), and is in
                 my opinion the worst operating system i've seen yet.
                 But, in the quest of knowledge, and to broaden your computer
                 horizons, i suggest that you try to hack even this system, 
                 for what it's worth.
                 The AOS/VS will usually readily identify itself with a 
                 banner such as;
                 (yes, i'm overstepping my margin, i apologize)
            
       **** AOS/VS Rev 7.62.00.00 / Press NEW-LINE to begin logging on ****

       AOS/VS 7.62.00.00 / EXEC-32 7.62.00.00  11-Jun-93  0:27:31      @VCON1

                Username: 
            
                The username prompt looks deceivingly like a VMS, but it is
                not, and you can be sure by entering garbage for the username
                and password. The AOS/VS will reply;
                      Invalid username - password pair
                AOS/VS will not let you know when you've entered an incorrect
                username.
                And a standard system will let you have 5 tries at a username/
                password combination, but after that it gives this annoying
                message;
                    Too many attempts, console locking for 10 seconds
                Having the system lock for 10 seconds does really nothing to 
                the hacker, except slow brute forcing down a small bit(10 
                seconds).
                Anyways, once inside 'HELP' will give you a set of help files
                which i didn't enjoy too much, and 'WHO' will list the users
                online.

                COMMON ACCOUNTS

                Username        Password
                --------        --------
                guest
                op              operator, op
                sysmgt          sys, mgt, system, man, mgr, manager
                test
                user

RSTS-           Probably the oldest OS that is still out there is RSTS. RSTS
                was a very common OS a decade or so ago, but is now nearing
                extinction. However, there are still a few out there on PSNs,
                and thus you might want to attempt to hack in.
                The RSTS will usually identify itself like;
                    RSTS V9.7-08    93.06.10    02:36   
                    User: 
                Before attempting to hack, try the SYSTAT command. It is 
                likely it will be disabled, but it is worth a try.
                RSTS will tell you if the ID you've entered is incorrect with
                the error message;
                    ?Invalid entry - try again
                The UIDs are in the format xxx,yyy , where x and y are digits.
                Just guess at UIDs until you hit one with a password.
                Also, the IDs will generally not go above 255 in both the x 
                and y spots(ie: 255,255 is generally the highest ID).

                COMMON ACCOUNTS

                User ID    Password
                -------    --------
                1,2        SYSLIB

WNT-            I really don't know much about Windows NT, mostly having to
                do with the fact that it was just released a little while ago
                and I have not seen it in action to this date. I don't know
                at what time in the future it will become widespread, but for
                you future hackers I did a little research and came up with 
                the two manufacturer defaults; administrator and guest. Both
                come unpassworded.. administrator is the equivalent to root
                on a Unix, and guest is just as you'd expect .. a low level
                guest account. Interestingly enough, in the manuals I saw WNT
                sysadmins were encouraged to keep the guest account...
                unpassworded at that! Highly amusing.. let's see how long that
                lasts! Anyways..
                Oh yeah.. case sensitive, too.. I'm pretty sure it is 
                lowercase, but it is possible that the first letter is 
                capitalized. Remember that when attempting to brute force new
                accounts. Oh, and keep in mind possible accounts such as 
                "test" and "field" and the such.

                COMMON ACCOUNTS

                Username
                --------

                administrator
                guest

NETWARE-        Novell Netware is the most common PC LAN software and is a 
                popular among high-schools. The internal (and external for
                that matter) security is poor.

                COMMON ACCOUNTS

                Username        Password 
                --------        --------
                admin           operator, supervisor, sysadm
                backup
                guest           visitor, user
                netware
                novell          netware
                public
                remote
                server
                staff
                supervisor      admin, operator, sysadm, supervis, manager
                system1
                tape            backup
                test            testuser
                user
                visitor         guest

Sys75/85-       AT&T's System75/85 have made a big splash in recent months
                despite their being around for years previous.. mostly due
                to codez kids discovering the PBX functions. 
                Anyways, the hype has pretty much died down so it is probably
                safe to post the defaults. If you don't like my doing this, 
                suck yourself. Anyone with access to this file probably has
                them by now anyways. And if not, all the better. Free 
                information has always been one of our primary goals, and I
                don't intend to change that for some insecure pseudo-hackers.

                COMMON ACCOUNTS

                Username    Password
                --------    --------
                browse      looker
                craft       crftpw, craftpw
                cust        custpw
                field       support
                inads       indspw, inadspw
                init        initpw
                rcust       rcustpw

AS400-          Another OS that was only really in use before my time, AS-400
                is IBM made. I pulled this from the old UPT messages, thanks
                to anybody who contributed.
                It should in fact identify itself as an AS-400 at login time.
                I'm unsure of the case-sensativity of the characters.. i'll
                enter them as lowercase, but if unsuccessful use caps.

                COMMON ACCOUNTS

                Username    
                --------    
                qsecofr     
                qsysopr
                quser
                sedacm
                sysopr
                user

TSO-            An IBM product, TSO can be found stand alone, but is commonly
                found off an ISM.
                Upon connect you should see a login prompt that looks like:
                    IKJ56700A   ENTER USERID-
                Or something close.
                It will tell you if the username entered is incorrect:
                    IKJ5642OI   USERID xxx NOT AUTHORIZED TO USE TSO
                    IKJ56429A   REENTER-
                Occasionally some of the accounts will have the STC attribute
                and can not be used for remote login.

                COMMON ACCOUNTS
                
                Username    Password
                --------    --------
                admin       adm, sysadm, op 
                guest       
                init
                maint
                systest     test
                test1       test
                tso


BRUTE FORCE
===========
-----------

Passwords
=========

    Occasionally you will find yourself in a position where you wish to 
penetrate a system, but defaults are taken off and social engineering is not
possible. 
    The dedicated hacker then begins the tedious process of trying password
after password, hoping to crowbar his way into the system. Thus the term 
'Brute Force' was born, aptly describing this process.
    Brute force is the absolute ugliest way of obtaining an account, but is
is often effective. It is ugly for a number of reasons, having to do with the
fact that you will have to call the system hundreds of times if the account is
not easily brute forced.
    However, first i will explain a modified form of brute force; intelligent
brute force. In this process, the hacker tries the users first name, as that
is the most common password of all, and a database of 20-100 common passwords.
    The difference between this and the normal brute forcing is you cut your
time down considerably, but your chances of getting in go down as well. 
    Normal brute forcing is rarely done nowadays; the greats of yesterday 
would spend 6 hours at a sitting trying passwords, but people nowadays seem to
think 5 minutes is sufficient. Ugh. 
    If standard brute forcing is done, it is accomplished with automation, 
usually. Meaning the hacker will set up a program or a script file to spew out 
dictionary passwords for him, then go to the movies or whatever. Obviously, 
any way you do it, standard brute forcing is fairly dangerous. A sysadmin is 
more likely to notice you trying a username/password 2000 times than 50. If
you choose to do automated brute forcing, it might be a good idea to set up
a hacked system to do it for you, such as a procured Unix. I would not, 
however, suggest wasting the powers of a Cray on such a menial task as brute
force. You can only go as fast as the host system will let you. The danger 
in this is obvious, you will have to be connected to the remote system for
a long time, leaving you wide open for a trace. It is up to you.
    And, of course, brute forcing requires a username. If you don't have a 
username, you are probably out of luck.
    One thing you should definetly do is make a list of first names, and make
it fairly complete. Buy/steal a baby names book or look inside your phone 
book and copy down the more commmon names on to a piece of paper or into a 
file. Other than first names, husband/wife, boyfriend/girlfriend and 
childs names are the most common passwords.
    Ok, here are the basics to intelligent brute force hacking;
        1. try the users first name
        2. try your list of first names, male and female
        2. try the users first name, with a lone digit(1 to 9) after the 
           username
        3. try the users first name, with a lone digit(1 to 9) after the
           username
        4. try the users first name, with a letter appended to the end(A to Z)
        5. try anything related to the system you are on. If you are on a 
           VAX running VMS on the Datapac PSN, try VAX, VMS, Datapac, X25, etc
        6. try anything related to the company/service the system is owned by.
           if the user is on a system owned by the Pepsi Cola company, try
           Pepsi, Cola, Pepsico, etc. 
        7. finally, try passwords from your list of common passwords. your 
           list of common passwords should not be above 200 words.
           The most popular passwords are;
                password secret money sex smoke beer x25 system 
                hello cpu aaa abc fuck shit 
           Add on popular passwords to that as you see fit.
           Remember; most passwords are picked spontaneously, on whatever 
           enters the users mind at that time(you know the feeling, i bet).
           Attempt to get into the users mind and environment, to think what
           he would think. If you can't do that, just try whatever comes to 
           your mind, you'll get the hang of it.

Brute Forcing User Names
========================

    A different form of brute force is that when you need a username to 
hack passwords from. In order to guess a valid username, you must be on a 
system that informs you when your username is invalid; thus VMS and Unix are
out of the question.
    There are two types of usernames(by my definition); user and system.
    The user usernames are the standard user's usernames. Examples would be 
John, Smith, JMS, JSmith, and JohnS.
    The system usernames are special usernames used by the system operators 
to perform various functions, such as maintenance and testing. Since these 
usernames are not owned by actual people(usually), they are given a name which
corresponds to their function.
    Guessing either type is usually fairly easy.
    User usernames are standardly in one of 2 formats; first name or last name
the more common format being first name. Less common formats are initials, 
first initial/last name, and first name/last initial. Occasionally the 
username formats will have nothing to do with names at all, and will instead
be 6 or 8 digit numbers. Have fun.
    The users of a system will almost always have the same format as
each other. When you guess one, guessing more shouldn't be too hard. 
    For first names, again consult the list you made from the baby names book.
    For last names, construct a list of the most common last names, ideally
out of the phone book, but if you are too lazy your mind will do fine. SMITH
and JONES are the most common non-foreign names.
    For initials, use common sense. Guess at 3 letter combinations, and use
sensible formats. Meaning don't use XYZ as a rule, go for JMS, PSJ, etc, to
follow along with common first names and last names.
    If you are getting no luck whatsoever, try switching your case(ie: from
all lower case to all upper case), the system might be case sensitive.
    Usually guessing system names shouldn't be necessary; I gave a default
list for all the major systems. But if you run across a system not listed, you
will want to discover defaults of your own. Use common sense, follow along 
with the name of the new OS and utilities that would fit with that name. 
Attempt to find out the username restrictions for that system, if usernames
have to be 6 characters long, try only 6 character user names.
And finally, here is a list of common defaults(they are capitalized for
convienience, but as a rule use lower case);
        OPERATOR SYSOP OP OPER MANAGER SYSMAN SYSMGR MGR MAN ADMIN
        SYSADMIN ADM SYSADM BOSS MAIL SYSTEM SYS SYS1 MAINT SYSMAINT
        TEST TESTER TESTUSER USER USR REMOTE PUB PUBLIC GUEST VISITOR
        STUDENT DEMO TOUR NEWS HELP MGT SYSMGT SYSPROG PROD SALES
        MARKET LIB LIBRARY FILES FILEMAN NET NETWORK NETMAN NETMGR
        RJE DOS GAMES INFO SETUP STARTUP CONTROL CONFIG DIAG SYSDIAG
        STAT SYSDIAGS DIAGS BATCH SUPRVISR SYSLIB MONITOR UTILITY
        UTILS OFFICE CORP SUPPORT SERVICE FIELD CUST SECURITY WORD
        DATABASE BACKUP FRIEND DEFAULT FINANCE ACCOUNT HOST ANON
        SYSTEST FAX INIT INADS SETUP

Brute Forcing Services
======================

    There is also the time when you are on a server system, and you need 
places to go. You will surely be told if the service you've entered is 
incorrect, so just try things that come to mind, and the following list;
(the server may be case sensitive..use upper or lower case as you wish)
(NOTE: Try digits(1 +) and letters(A-Z) also)
        SERVER NETWORK NET LINK LAN WAN MAN CONNECT LOG LOGIN HELP DIAL 
        OUT OUTDIAL DIALOUT MODEM MODEMOUT INTERNET TELNET PAD X25 X28 FTP 
        SYSTEM SYS SYS1 SYSTEM1 UNIX VAX VMS HP CONSOLE INFO CMDS LIST 
        SERVICES SERVICE SERVICE1 COMP COMPUTER CPU CHANNEL CHANNEL1 CH1 
        CH01 GO DO ? LOG ID USERS SHOW WHO PORT1 PORT NODE1 NODE LINK1 
        DISPLAY CONFIG CONTROL DIAGS SYSDIAGS DIAG SYSDIAG HELLO EMAIL 
        MAIL SET DEFINE PARAMS PRINT PHONE PHONES SESSION SESSION1 BEGIN 
        INIT CUST SERVICE SUPPORT BUSINESS ACCT ACCOUNT FINANCE SALES 
        BUFFER QUEUE STAT STATS SYSINFO SYSTAT FTP ACCESS DISK LIB SYSLIB
        LIBRARY FILES BBS LOOP TEST SEARCH MACRO CALL COMMANDS TYPE FIND
        ASK QUERY JOIN ATTACH JOB REMOTE COM1 COM CALLER LOGGER MACHINE
        BULLITEN CLUSTER RUN HELLO PAYROLL DEC 

SOCIAL ENGINEERING
==================
------------------

    While I am in no way going to go indepth on SE(social engineering) at this
point, i will explain the premise of SE to those new to it.
    Social engineering can be defined any number of ways, but my definition
goes along the lines of; "Misrepresentation of oneself in a verbal manner to
another person in order to obtain knowledge that is otherwise unattainable." 
Which in itself is a nice way of putting "manipulation, lying and general 
bullshitting".
    Social engineering is almost always done over the phone. 
    I'll give an example. The hacker needs information, such as an account, 
which he cannot get by simple hacking. He calls up the company that owns the
system he wishes to penetrate, and tells them he is Joe Blow of the Computer
Fixing Company, and he is supposed to fix their computers, or test them 
remotely. But gosh, somebody screwed up and he doesn't have an account. Could
the nice lady give him one so he can do his job and make everybody happy?
    See the idea? Misrepresentation of the truth; pretending to be someone you
aren't.
    If you are skeptical, you shouldn't be. SE is tried and true, due to the
fact that any company's biggest security leak is their employees. A company
can design a system with 20 passwords, but if an uncaring employee unwittingly
supplies a hacker with all of these passwords, the game is over.
    You *must* have the voice for it. If you sound like a 12 year old, you
aren't going to get shit. If you can't help it, there are telephone-voice 
changers(which any SE practicer should have anyways) that will do it for you.
    If the person wishes to contact higher authority(who will probably suspect
somethings up), get mad. Don't go into a rage, but do get angry. Explain that
you have a job to do, and be persuasive. 
    I won't go more into SE, there are tons of text files out there on it 
already. Just remember to keep calm, have a back up plan, and it is a good 
idea to have the script on paper, and practice it a bit before hand. If you 
sound natural and authorative, you will get whatever you want.
    And practice makes perfect.
   
TRASHING
========
--------

    Trashing is another thing i will not go too indepth on, but i will provide
a very quick overview.
    Trashing is the name given to the process of stealing a companies trash,
then rooting through it and saving the valuable information.
    Trashing is practiced most often on the various RBOCs, but if you are 
attempting to hack a system local to you, it might be a good idea to go 
trashing for a few weeks, you might find a printout or a scrap of paper with
a dialup or username and password written on it.

ACRONYMS
========
--------
                                                             
    This is a basic list of H/P acronyms I've compiled from various sources.. 
it should be big enough to serve as an easy reference without being incredibly
cumbersome

ABSBH:    Average Busy Season Busy Hour
AC:       Area code
ACC:      Automatic Communications Control
ACC:      Asynchronous Communications Center
ACD:      Automatic Call Distributor
ACE:      Automatic Calling Equipment
ACF:      Advanced Communications Functions
ACN:      Area Code + Number
ADPCM:    Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
AIS:      Automatic Intercept System
ALFE:     Analog Line Front End
ALRU:     Automatic Line Record Update
AM:       Account Manager
AM:       Access Module
AM:       Amplitude Modulation
AMA:      Automatic Message Accounting
AMSAT:    American Satellite
AN:       Associated Number
ANI:      Automatic Number Identification
ANXUR:    Analyzer for Networks with Extended Routing
AOSS:     Auxiliary Operator Services System
AP:       Attached Processor
ARC:      Automatic Response Control
ARP:      Address Resolution Protocol
ARPA:     Advanced Reasearch Projects Agency
ARS:      Automatic Response System
ARSB:     Automated Repair Service Bureau
AT:       Access Tandem
ATB:      All Trunks Busy
ATH:      Abbreviated Trouble History
ATM:      Automated Teller Machine
ATM:      Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AT&T:     American Telegraph and Telephone Company
AVD:      Alternate Voice Data
BCD:      Binary Coded Decimal
BCUG:     Bilateral CUG
BELLCORE: Bell Communications Research
BGP:      Border Gateway Protocol
BHC:      Busy Hour Calls
BLV:      Busy Line Verification
BOC:      Bell Operating Company
BOR:      Basic Output Report
BOS:      Business Office Supervisor
BSC:      Binary Synchronous Module
BSCM:     Bisynchronous Communications Module
BSOC:     Bell Systems Operating Company
CA:       Cable
CADV:     Combined Alternate Data/Voice
CAMA:     Centralized Automatic Message Accounting
CATLAS    Centralized Automatic Trouble Locating & Analysis System
CAU:      Controlled Access Unit
CAVD:     Combined Alternated Voice/Data
CBC       Cipher Block Chaining
CBS:      Cross Bar Switching
CBX:      Computerized Branch Exchange
CBX:      Computerized Business Exchange
CC:       Calling Card
CC:       Common Control
CC:       Central Control
CC:       Country Code
CCC:      Central Control Complex
CCC:      Clear Channel Capability
CCC:      Central Control Computer  
CCIS:     Common Channel Interoffice Signalling
CCITT:    International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee
CCM:      Customer Control Management
CCNC:     Common Channel Network Controller
CCNC:     Computer Communications Network Center
CCS:      Common Channel Signalling
CCSA:     Common Control Switching Arrangement
CCSA:     Common Central Switching Arrangement
CCSS:     Common Channel Signalling System
CCT:      Central Control Terminal
CCTAC:    Computer Communications Trouble Analysis Center
CDA:      Call Data Accumulator
CDA:      Crash Dump Analyzer
CDA:      Coin Detection and Announcement
CDAR:     Customer Dialed Account Recording
CDC:      Control Data Corporation
CDI:      Circle Digit Identification
CDO:      Community Dial Office
CDPR:     Customer Dial Pulse Receiver
CDR:      Call Dial Recording
CDS:      Cicuit Design System
CEF:      Cable Entrance Facility 
CERT:     Computer Emergency Response Team
CF:       Coin First
CGN:      Concentrator Group Number
CI:       Cluster Interconnect 
CIC:      Carrier Identification Codes
CICS:     Customer Information Control System
CID:      Caller ID
CII:      Call Identity Index
CIS:      Customer Intercept Service
CISC:     Complex Instruction Set Computing
CLASS:    Custom Local Area Signalling Service
CLASS:    Centralized Local Area Selective Signalling
CLDN:     Calling Line Directory Number
CLEI:     Common Language Equipment Identification
CLI:      Calling Line Identification
CLID:     Calling Line Identification
CLLI:     Common Language Location Indentifier
CLNP:     Connectionless Network Protocol
CMAC:     Centralized Maintenance and Administration Center
CMC:      Construction Maintenance Center
CMDF:     Combined Main Distributing Frame
CMDS:     Centralized Message Data System
CMIP:     Common Management Information Protocol
CMS:      Call Management System
CMS:      Conversational Monitoring System
CMS:      Circuit Maintenance System
CMS:      Communications Management Subsystem
CN/A:     Customer Name/Address
CNA:      Communications Network Application
CNAB:     Customer Name Address Bureau
CNCC:     Customer Network Control Center
CNI:      Common Network Interface
CNS:      Complimentary Network Service
CO:       Central Office
COC:      Central Office Code
COCOT:    Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
CODCF:    Central Office Data Connecting Facility
COE:      Central Office Equipment
COEES:    Central Office Equipmet Engineering System
COER:     Centarl Office Equipment Reports
COLT:     Central Office Line Tester
COMSAT:   Communications Satellite
COMSEC:   Communications Security
COMSTAR:  Common System for Technical Analysis & Reporting
CONS:     Connection-Oriented Network Service
CONTAC:   Central Office Network Access
COS:      Class of Service
COSMIC:   Common Systems Main Inter-Connection
COR:      Class Of Restriction
COSMOS:   Computerized System For Mainframe Operations
COT       Central Office Terminal
CP:       Control Program
CPBXI:    Computer Private Branch Exchange Interface
CPC:      Circuit Provisioning Center
CPD:      Central Pulse Distributor
CPMP:     Carrier Performance Measurement Plan
CRAS:     Cable Repair Administrative System
CRC:      Customer Record Center
CRC:      Customer Return Center
CREG:     Concentrated Range Extension & Gain
CRG:      Central Resource Group
CRIS:     Customer Record Information System
CRS:      Centralized Results System
CRSAB:    Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
CRT:      Cathode Ray Tube
CRTC:     Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
CSA:      Carrier Servicing Area
CSAR:     Centralized System for Analysis and Reporting
CSC:      Cell Site Controller
CSC:      Customer Support Center
CSDC:     Circuit Switch Digital Capability
CSP:      Coin Sent Paid
CSMA/CD:  Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collission Detection
CSR:      Customer Service Records
CSS:      Computer Special Systems
CSS:      Computer Sub-System
CSU:      Channel Service Unit
CT:       Current Transformer
CTC:      Channel Termination Charge
CTC:      Central Test Center
CTM:      Contac Trunk Module
CTMS:     Carrier Transmission Measuring System
CTO:      Call Transfer Outside
CTSS:     Compatible Time Sharing System
CTSS:     Cray Time Sharing System
CTTN:     Cable Trunk Ticket Number
CTTY:     Console TeleType
CU:       Control Unit
CU:       Customer Unit
CUG:      Closed User Group
CWC:      City-Wide Centrex
DA:       Directory Assistance
DACC:     Directort Assistance Call Completion
DAA:      Digital Access Arrangements
DACS:     Digital Access and Cross-connect System
DACS:     Directory Assistance Charging System
DAIS:     Distributed Automatic Intercept System
DAL:      Dedicated Access Line
DAO:      Directory Assistance Operator
DAP:      Data Access Protocol 
DARC:     Division Alarm Recording Center
DARPA:    Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DARU:     Distributed Automatic Response Unit
DAS:      Device Access Software
DAS:      Directory Assistance System
DAS:      Distributor And Scanner
DAS:      Dual Attachment Station
DASD:     Direct Access Storage Device
DBA:      Data Base Administrator
DBA:      Digital Business Architecture
DBAC:     Data Base Administration Center
DBAS:     Data Base Administration System
DBC:      Digital Business Center
DBM:      Database Manager
DBMS:     Data Base Management System
DBS:      Duplex Bus Selector
DCA:      Defense Communications Agency
DCC:      Data Country Code
DCC:      Data Collection Computer
DCE:      Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment
DCE:      Data Communicating Equipment
DCL:      Digital Computer Language
DCLU:     Digital Carrier Line Unit
DCM:      Digital Carrier Module
DCMS:     Distributed Call Measurement System
DCMU:     Digital Concentrator Measurement Unit
DCO-CS:   Digital Central Office-Carrier Switch
DCP:      Duplex Central Processor
DCS:      Digital Cross-Connect System
DCSS:     Discontiguous Shared Segments
DCSS:     Digital Customized Support Services
DCT:      Digital Carrier Trunk
DDCMP:    Digital Data Communications Message Protocol
DDD:      Direct Distance Dialing
DDN:      Defense Data Network
DDR:      Datapac Design Request
DDS:      Digital Data Service
DDS:      Digital Data System
DDS:      Dataphone Digital Service
DEC:      Digital Equipment Corporation
DES:      Data Encryption Standard
DF:       Distributing Frame
DGC:      Data General Corporation
DH:       Distant Host
DID:      Direct Inward Dialing
DIMA:     Data Information Management Architecture
DINS:     Digital Information Network Service
DIS:      Datapac Information Service
DISA:     Direct Inward System Access
DLC:      Digital Loop Carrier
DLS:      Dial Line Service
DM:       Demultiplexer
DMA:      Direct Memory Access
DN:       Directory Numbers
DNA:      Datapac Network Address
DNA:      Digital Named Accounts
DNA:      Digital Network Architecture
DNIC:     Data Network Identifier Code
DNR:      Dialed Number Recorder
DNS:      Domain Name Service
DNS:      Domain Name System
DOCS:     Display Operator Console System
DOD:      Department Of Defense
DOM:      District Operations Manager
DPSA:     Datapac Serving Areas
DPTX:     Distributed Processing Terminal Executive
DSC:      Data Stream Compatibility
DSI:      Data Subscriber Interface
DSL:      Digital Subscriber Line
DSN:      Digital Services Network
DSU:      Data Service Unit
DSU:      Digital Service Unit
DSX:      Digital Signal Cross-Connect
DTC:      Digital Trunk Controller
DTE:      Data Terminal Equipment
DTF:      Dial Tone First
DTG:      Direct Trunk Group
DTI:      Digital Trunk Interface
DTIF:     Digital Tabular Interchange Format
DTMF:     Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
DTN:      Digital Telephone Network
DTST:     Dial Tone Speed Test
DVM:      Data Voice Multiplexor
EAEO:     Equal Access End Office
EA-MF:    Equal Access-Multi Frequency
EBDI:     Electronic Business Data Interchange
EC:       Exchange Carrier
ECC:      Enter Cable Change
EDC:      Engineering Data Center
EDI:      Electronic Data Interchange
EE:        End to End Signaling
EEDP:     Expanded Electronic Tandem Switching Dialing Plan
EGP:      Exterior Gateway Protocol
EIES:     Electronic Information Exchange System
EIU:      Extended Interface Unit
EKTS:     Electonic Key Telephone Service
ELDS:     Exchange Line Data Service
EMA:      Enterprise Management Architecture
EO:       End Office
EOTT:     End Office Toll Trunking
EREP:     Environmental Recording Editing and Printing
ESA:      Emergency Stand Alone
ESB:      Emergency Service Bureau
ESN:      Electronic Serial Number
ESP:      Enhanced Service Providers
ESS:      Electronic Switching System
ESVN:     Executive Secure Voice Network
ETS:      Electronic Tandem Switching
EWS:      Early Warning System
FAC:      Feature Access Code
FAM:      File Access Manager
FCC:      Federal Communications Commission
FCO:      Field Change Order                     
FDDI:     Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM:      Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDP:      Field Development Program
FEP:      Front-End Processor
FEV:      Far End Voice
FIFO:     First In First Out
FIPS:     Federal Information Procedure Standard
FM:       Frequency Modulation
FMAP:     Field Manufacturing Automated Process
FMIC:     Field Manufacturing Information Center
FOA:      First Office Application
FOIMS:    Field Office Information Management System
FPB:      Fast Packet Bus
FRL:      Facilities Restriction Level
FRS:      Flexible Route Selection
FRU:      Field Replaceable Unit
FS:       Field Service
FSK:      Frequency Shift Keying
FT:       Field Test
FTG:      Final Trunk Group
FTP:      File Transfer Protocol
FTPD:     File Transfer Protocol Daemon
FX:       Foreign Exchange
GAB:      Group Access Bridging
GCS:      Group Control System
GECOS:    General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
GGP:      Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
GOD:      Global Out Dial
GPS:      Global Positioning System
GRINDER:  Graphical Interactive Network Designer
GSA:      General Services Administration
GSB:      General Systems Business
GTE:      General Telephone
HCDS:     High Capacity Digital Service
HDLC:     High Level Data Link Control
HLI:      High-speed LAN Interconnect
HDSC:     High-density Signal Carrier
HPO:      High Performance Option
HUTG:     High Usage Trunk Group
HZ:       Hertz
IBM:      International Business Machines
IBN:      Integrated Business Network
IC:       Intercity Carrier
IC:       InterLATA Carrier
IC:       Interexchange Carrier
ICAN:     Individual Circuit Analysis Plan
ICH:      International Call Handling
ICM:      Integrated Call Management
ICMP:     Internet Control Message Protocol
ICN:      Interconnecting Network
ICPOT:    Interexchange Carrier-Point of Termination
ICUG:     International Closed User Group
ICVT:     Incoming Verification Trunk
IDA:      Integrated Digital Access
IDCI:     Interim Defined Central Office Interface
IDDD:     International Direct Distance Dialing
IDLC:     Integrated Digital Loop Carrier
IDN:      Integrated Digital Networks
IEC:      Interexchange Carrier
IMP:      Internet Message Processor
IMS:      Information Management Systems
IMS:      Integrated Management Systems
IMTS:     Improved Mobile Telephone Service
INAP:     Intelligent Network Access Point
INS:      Information Network System
INTT:     Incoming No Test Trunks
INWATS:   Inward Wide Area Telecommunications Service
IOC:      Interoffice Channel
IOC:      Input/Output Controller
IOCC:     International Overseas Completion Center
IP:       Intermediate Point
IP:       Internet Protocol
IPCF:     Inter-Program Communication Facility
IPCH:     Initial Paging Channel
IPCS:     Interactive Problem Control System
IPL:      Initial Program Load
IPLI:     Internet Private Line Interface
IPLS:     InterLATA Private Line Services
IPSS:     International Packet-Switched Service
IRC:      Internet Relay Chat
IRC:      International Record Carrier
ISC:      Inter-Nation Switching Center
ISDN:     Integrated Services Digital Network
ISIS:     Investigative Support Information System
ISO:      International Standards Organization
ISSN:     Integrated Special Services Network
ISU:      Integrated Service Unit
ISWS:     Internal Software Services
ITDM:     Intelligent Time Division Multiplexer
ITI:      Interactive Terminal Interface
ITS:      Interactive Terminal Support
ITS:      Incompatible Time-Sharing System
ITT:      International Telephone and Telegraph
IVP:      Installation Verification Program
IX:       Interactive Executive
IXC:      Interexchange Carrier
JCL:      Job Control Language
JES:      Job Entry System
KP:       Key Pulse
LAC:      Loop Assignment Office
LADS:     Local Area Data Service
LADT:     Local Area Data Transport
LAM:      Lobe Access Module
LAN:      Local Area Network
LAP:      Link Access Protocol
LAPB:     Link Access Protocol Balanced
LAPS:     Link Access Procedure
LASS:     Local Area Signalling Service
LASS:     Local Area Switching Service
LAST:     Local Area System Transport
LAT:      Local Area Transport
LATA:     Local Access Transport Area
LAVC:     Local Area VAX Cluster
LBS:      Load Balance System
LCDN:     Last Call Directory Number
LCM:      Line Concentrating Module
LCN:      Logical Channel 
LD:       Long Distance
LDEV:     Logical Device
LDM:      Limited Distance Modem
LDS:      Local Digital Switch
LEBC:     Low End Business Center
LEC:      Local Exchange Carrier
LEN:      Low End Networks
LENCL:    Line Equipment Number Class
LGC:      Line Group Controller
LH:       Local Host
LIFO:     Last In First Out
LIP:      Large Internet Protocol
LLC:      Logical Link Control
LM:       Line Module
LMOS:     Loop Maintenance and Operations System
LSI:      Large Scale Integration
LTC:      Line Trunk Controller
LU:       Local Use
LVM:      Line Verification Module
MAC:      Media Access Control
MAC:      Message Authentication
MAN:      Metropolitan Area Network
MAP:      Maintenance and Administration Position
MAP:      Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAT:      Multi-Access Trunk
MAU:      Multistation Access Unit
MBU:      Manufacturing Business Unit
MCA:      Micro Channel Architecture
MCI:      Microwave Communications, Inc.
MCP:      Master Control Program
MCT:      Manufacturing Cycle Time
MCU:      Multi Chip Unit
MDR:      Message Detail Record
MDS:      Message Design Systems                                              
MDU:      Marker Decoder Unit
MF:       Multi-Frequency
MFD:      Main Distributing Frame
MFR:      Mult-Frequency Receivers
MFT:      Metallic Facility Terminal
MHZ:      Mega-Hertz
MIB:      Management Information Base
MIC:      Management Information Center
MIF:      Master Item File
MIS:      Management Information Systems
MJU:      MultiPoint Junction Unit
MLHG:     Multiline Hunt Group
MLT:      Mechanized Loop Testing
MNS:      Message Network Basis
MOP:      Maintenance Operation Protocol
MP:       Multi-Processor  
MPL:      Multischedule Private Line
MPPD:     Multi-Purpose Peripheral Device
MRAA:     Meter Reading Access Arrangement
MSCP:     Mass Storage Control Protocol
MSI:      Medium Scale Integration
MTBF:     Mean Time Between Failure
MTS:      Message Telecommunication Service
MTS:      Message Telephone Service
MTS:      Message Transport Service
MTS:      Mobile Telephone Service
MTSO:     Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office
MTU:      Maintenence Termination Unit
MUX:      Multiplexer
MVS:      Multiple Virutal Storage
MWI:      Message Waiting Indicator
NAM:      Number Assignment Module
NAS:      Network Application Support
NC:       Network Channel
NCCF:     Network Communications Control Facility
NCI:      Network Channel Interface
NCIC:     National Crime Information Computer
NCP:      Network Control Program
NCS:      Network Computing System
NCTE:     Network Channel Terminating Equipment
NDA:      Network Delivery Access
NDC:      Network Data Collection
NDIS:     Network Device Interface Specification
NDNC:     National Data Network Centre
NDS:      Network Data System
NDU:      Network Device Utility
NEBS:     Network Equipment Building System
NECA:     National Exchange Carriers Association
NFS:      Network File Sharing
NFS:      Network File System
NFT:      Network File Transfer
NI:       Network Interconnect
NI:       Network Interface
NIC:      Network Information Center
NIC:      Network Interface Card
NJE:      Network Job Entry
NLM:      Netware Loadable Modules
NLM:      Network Loadable Modules
NM:       Network Module
NMR:      Normal Mode Rejection
NOS:      Network Operating System 
NPA:      Numbering Plan Area
NPA:      Network Performance Analyzer
NSF:      National Science Foundation
NSP:      Network Services Protocol
NTE:      Network Terminal Equipment
NUA:      Network User Address
NUI:      Network User Identifier
OC:       Operator Centralization
OCC:      Other Common Carrier
OD:       Out Dial
ODA:      Office Document Architecture
ODDB:     Office Dependent Data Base
ODI:      Open Data Interface
OGT:      Out-Going Trunk
OGVT:     Out-Going Verification Trunk
OIS:      Office Information Systems
OLTP:     On-Line Transaction Processing
ONI:      Operator Number Identification
OPCR:     Operator Actions Program
OPM:      Outside Plant Module
OPM:      Outage Performance Monitoring
OR:       Originating Register
OS:       Operating System
OSI:      Open Systems Interconnection
OSL:      Open System Location
OSS:      Operator Services System
OST:      Originating Station Treatment
OTC:      Operating Telephone Company
OTR:      Operational Trouble Report
OUTWATS:  Outward Wide Area Telecommunications Service
PABX:     Private Automated Branch Exchange
PACT:     Prefix Access Code Translator
PAD:      Packet Assembler/Disassembler
PADSX:    Partially Automated Digital Signal Cross-Connect
PAM:      Pulse Amplitude Modulation
PAX:      Private Automatic Exchange
PBU:      Product Business Unit
PBX:      Private Branch Exchange
PC:       Primary Center
PCM:      Pulse Code Modulation
PCP:      PC Pursuit
PFM:      Pulse Frequency Modulation
PGA:      Pin Grid Array
PIN:      Personal Identification Number
PLA:      Programmable Logic Array
PLD:      Programmable Logic Device
PLS:      Programmable Logic Sequencer
PM:       Phase Modulation
PM:       Peripheral Module
PMAC:     Peripheral Module Access Controller
PMR:      Poor Mans Routing
PNC:      Primenet Node Controller
POC:      Point of Contact
POF:      Programmable Operator Facility
POP:      Point of Presence
POS:      Point Of Sale
POT:      Point of Termination
POTS:     Plain Old Telephone Service
PPN:      Project Program Number
PPP:      Point to Point Protocol
PPS:      Public Packet Switching
PPSN:     Public Packet Switched Network
PSAP:     Public Safety Answering Point 
PSDC:     Public Switched Digital Capability
PSDCN:    Packet-Switched Data Communication Network 
PSDN:     Packet-Switched Data Network
PSDS:     Public Switched Digital Service
PSN:      Packet-Switched Network
PSS:      Packet-Switched Service
PSW:      Program Status Word
PTE:      Packet Transport Equipment
PTS:      Position and Trunk Scanner 
PTT:      Postal Telephone & Telegraph
PVC:      Permanent Virtual Call
PVN:      Private Virtual Network
PWC:      Primary Wiring Center
QPSK:     Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
RACF:     Resource Access Control Facility
RAO:      Revenue Accounting Office
RARP:     Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RBG:      Realtime Business Group
RBOC:     Regional Bell Operating Company
RC:       Rate Center
RC:       Regional Center
RDB:      Relational Database
RDSN:     Region Digital Switched Network
RDT:      Restricted Data Transmissions
RDT:      Remote Digital Terminal
REP:      Reperatory Dialing
REXX:     Restructured Extended Executer Language
RFC:      Request For Comments
RIP:      Routing Information Protocol
RIS:      Remote Installation Service
RISC:     Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RISD:     Reference Information Systems Development
RJE:      Remote Job Entry
RLCM:     Remote Line Concentrating Module
RNOC:     Regional Network Operations Center
ROTL:     Remote Office Test Line
RPC:      Remote Procedure Call
RPE:      Remote Peripheral Equipment
RSA:      Reference System Architecture
RSB:      Repair Service Bureau
RSC:      Remote Switching Center
RSCS:     Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem
RSS:      Remote Switching System
RSU:      Remote Switching Unit
RTA:      Remote Trunk Arrangement
RTG:      Routing Generator
R/W:      Read/Write
RX:       Remote Exchange
SA:       Storage Array
SABB:     Storage Array Building Block
SAM:      Secure Access Multiport
SARTS:    Switched Access Remote Test System
SAS:      Switched Access Services
SAS:      Single Attachment System
SBB:      System Building Block
SABM:     Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
SAC:      Special Area Code
SBS:      Satellite Business Systems
SC:       Sectional Center
SCC:      Specialized Common Carrier
SCC:      Switching Control Center
SCCP:     Signaling Connection Control Part
SCCS:     Switching Control Center System
SCF:      Selective Call Forwarding
SCF:      Supervision Control Frequency
SCM:      Station Class Mark
SCM:      Subscriber Carrier Module
SCP:      Signal Conversion Point
SCP:      System Control Program
SCP:      Service Control Point
SCR:      Selective Call Rejection
SDLC:     Synchronous Data Link Control
SF:       Single-Frequency
SFE:      Secure Front End
SIDH:     System Identification Home
SIT:      Special Information Tones
SLIC:     Subscriber Line Interface Card
SLIM:     Subscriber Line Interface Module
SLIP:     Serial Line Internet Protocol
SLS:      Storage Library System
SLU:      Serial Line Unit
SM:       System Manager
SMDI:     Storage Module Disk Interconnect
SMDR:     Station Manager Detail Recording
SMI:      System Management Interrupt
SMP:      Symmetrical Multi-Processing
SMS:      Self-Maintenance Services
SMS:      Station Management System
SMTP:     Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNA:      Systems Network Architecture
SNMP:     Simple Network Management Protocol
SONDS:    Small Office Network Data System
SOST:     Special Operator Service Treatment
SP:       Service Processor
SPC:      Stored Program Control
SPCS:     Stored Program Control System
SPCSS:    Stored Program Control Switching System
SPM:      Software Performance Montior
SQL/DS:   Structured Query Language/Data System
SRC:      System Resource Center
SS:       Signaling System
SSAS:     Station Signaling and Announcement System 
SSCP:     Systems Service Control Point
SSCP:     Subsystem Services Control Point
SSP:      Switching Service Points
SSS:      Strowger Switching System
ST:       Start
STC:      Service Termination Charge
STD:      Subscriber Trunk Dialing
STP:      Signal Transfer Point
STS:      Synchronous Transport Signal
SVC:      Switched Virtual Call
SWG:      Sub Working Group
SxS:      Step-by-Step Switching
T-1:      Terrestrial Digital Service
TAC:      Trunk Access Code
TAC:      Terminal Access Circuit
TAC:      Terminal Access Center
TAS:      Telephone Answering Service
TASI:     Time Assignment Speech Interpolation
TBU:      Terminals Business Unit
TC:       Toll Center
TCAP:     Transaction Capabilities ApplicationPart
TCC:      Technical Consulting Center
TCC:      Telecommunications Control Computer
TCF:      Transparent Connect Facility
TCM:      Time Compression Multiplexing
TCP:      Transmission Control Protocol
TDAS:     Traffic Data Administration System
TDCC:     Transport Data Coordinating Committee
TDM:      Time Division Multiplexer
TDMS:     Terminal Data Management System
TDS:      Terrestrial Digital Service
TH:       Trouble History
TIDE:     Traffic Information Distributor & Editor
TIS:      Technical Information Systems
TLB:      TransLAN Bridge
TM:       Trunk Module
TMSCP:    Tape Mass Storage Control Protocol
TNDS:     Total Network Data System
TNPS:     Traffic Network Planning Center
TO:       Toll Office
TOP:      Technical Office Protocol  
TOPS:     Traffic Operator Position System
TP:       Transport Protocol
TP:       Toll Point
TP:       Transaction Processing
TPC:      Transaction Processiong Performance Council
TREAT:    Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool
TRIB:     Throughput Rate in Information Bits
TRT:      Tropical Radio and Telephone
TSB:      Time Shared Basic Environment
TSG:      Timing Signal Generator
TSN:      Terminal Switching Network
TSO:      Time Sharing Option
TSPS:     Traffice Service Position System
TTL:      Transistor-to-Transistor Logic
TTS:      Trunk Time Switch
TWX:      Type Writer Exchange
UA:       Unnumbered Acknowledgement
UAE:      Unrecoverable Application Error
UART:     Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UCS:      Uniform Communication Standard
UDC:      Universal Digital Channel
UDP:      User Datagram Protocol
UDVM:     Universal Data Voice Multiplexer
UID:      User Identifier
UPC:      Utility Port Conditioner
USC:      Usage Surcharge
USDN:     United States Digital Network
USTS:     United States Transmission Systems
UUCP:     Unix to Unix Copy Program
VAN:      Value Added Networks
VAX:      Virtual Address Extention
VCPI:     Virtual Control Program Interface
VDU:      Visual Display Unit
VF:       Voice Frequency
VFU:      Vertical Forms Unit
VFY:      Verify
VIA:      Vax Information Architecture
VLM:      Virtual Loadable Module
VLSI:     Very Large Scale Integration
VMB:      Voice Mail Box
VMCF:     Virtual Machine Communications Facility
VMS:      Virtual Memory System
VMS:      Voice Mail System
VM/SP:    Virtual Machine/System Product
VPA:      VAX Performance Advisor
VPS:      Voice Processing System
VSAM:     Virtual Storage Access Method
VSE:      Virtual Storage Extended
VTAM:     Virtual Telecommunications Access Method
VTOC:     Volume Table Of Contents
VUIT:     Visual User Interface Tool
VUP:      Vax Unit of Processsing
WAN:      Wide Area Network
WATS:     Wide Area Telecommunications System
WATS:     Wide Area Telephone Service
WC:       Wiring Center
WCPC:     Wire Center Planning Center
WDCS:     Wideband Digital Cross-Connect System
WDM:      Wavelength Division MultiPlexing
WES:      Western Electronics Switching
WUI:      Western Union International
XB:       Crossbar Switching 
XBAR:     Crossbar Switching
XBT:      Crossbar Tandem
XNS       Xerox Network Systems
XSV       Transfer Cost System Value
XTC       Extended Test Controller


CONCLUSION
==========
----------

Last words
==========

    Well, i sincerely hope that this file was of some use to you, and i would
encourage you to distribute it as far as you can. If you enjoyed it, hated it,
have suggestions, or whatever, feel free to email me at my Internet address(my
only permanent one for now) or at a BBS, if you can find me.
    Have phun...
        
        - Deicide -
        
Recommended Reading
===================
Neuromancer, Mona Lisa Overdrive, Count Zero and all the rest, by William
Gibson
The Hacker Crackdown, by Bruce Sterling
Cyberpunk, by Katie Hafner and John Markoff 
The Cuckoo's Egg, by Cliff Stoll
2600: The best h/p printed zine. $21 in American funds, U.S. & Canada.
      2600 Subscription Dept., P.O. Box 752, Middle Island NY 11953-0752
      Office: 516-751-2600   Fax: 516-751-2608
The issues of CUD, cDc, & Phrack electronic newsletters, and the LOD/H TJs, 
all of which can be found on the Internet and any good h/p oriented BBS. 

BBSes
=====

    Although most boards have a lifespan equivalent to that of a fruitfly,
I finally have a list which is somewhat stable.. getting on them is your 
problem.. just be yourself and be willing to learn. 
        - Unphamiliar Territories
        - Demon Roach Underground
        - Temple of the Screaming Electron
        - Burn This Flag
        - Dark Side of the Moon
        and Phrozen Realm if it returns..

References
==========

    All the material used in this publication is original unless specifically
stated otherwise.
    However, i'd like to thank Phrack and the LOD/H for their textfiles
which gave me a valuable push in the right direction..
    And of course all the great h/p folks who have helped me along the way..
          
And finally          
===========
Thanks to the EFF, for their continued support of all of the world's rights
in this technological era.
Thanks to all the folks running the FreeNets who continue to support the 
right to free access to information in this world of cynicism.
Thanks to cDc, for not selling out after all these years...
Musical inspirations: Primus, Rage Against the Machine, Jimi Hendrix, Led
Zeppelin, Dead Kennedys, White Zombie, the Beastie Boys, etc, etc.

"Yes I know my enemies. They're the teachers who taught me to fight me. 
 Compromise, conformity, assimilation, submission, ignorance, hypocrisy,
 brutality, the elite"
 - /Know Your Enemy/ (c) Rage Against the Machine

          - Deicide - 
    deicide@west.darkside.com

DISCLAIMER
==========
This file was provided for informational purposes only. 
The author assumes no responsibilities for any individual's actions after
reading this file.



TUCoPS is optimized to look best in Firefox® on a widescreen monitor (1440x900 or better).
Site design & layout copyright © 1986-2014 AOH