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TUCoPS :: Antique Systems :: primos2.txt

Guide to hacking Primos

<$>    ----------------------    <$>
<$>   ! Hacking Primos Vol I !   <$>
<$>    ----------------------    <$>
<$>                              <$>
<$>   Written by: Codes Master   <$>
<$>           01/06/87           <$>
<$>                              <$>
<$>  For most versions of Primos <$>


  In this file we will go over getting an account, logging in, and the
of Primos such as mail, adding users, and access levels. We will discuss how
find your way around in the system and what you can do with what access youMore[n,Y,=]           
may have.Enjoy.


  This is the hard part mainly since there are very few default accounts on a
Prime and the company tells the system manager to change these passwords for
security once the system is put up.The two main default accounts are SYSTEM
DOS.The system account is the system administrators account while the DOS
account is built in for purposes of compiling the system when it first goes
Sometimes SYSTEM will have a password such as SYSTEM,MANAGER,OPERATOR,HEAD,
ADMINISTRATOR,or just the name of the operator of the system.DOS may have
a password such as DOS,BASIC,BUILD,COMPILE. I have noticed those to be the
most common passwords on the various Primes I have been on.If you cannot get
a password to one of those accounts you may try some of the more common
accounts listed below:

Account:      Password:
--------      ---------
TEST          TEST
DEMO          DEMO
GUEST         GUEST or VISITORMore[n,Y,=]           
STUDENT       STUDENT or SCHOOL (usually on schools only)
NEWS          NEWS

  If none of these passwords work for you, you may try other various usernames
and passwords with the schools name etc.If that does not work, you may as well
give up and try calling another system unless you know someone who is on the
system and can trash accounts and passwords.


  Once you have an account and password you may login, but some systems may
also request a project id.If so, the odds are very much against you getting in
but try pressing return first. If that does not work you might as well give
When you first call the system it is adivisable to press a few miscellaneous
keys and press return. Say you typed "hhjjj" you should get:

Invalid Command "hhjjj". (logo$cp)
Login please.More[n,Y,=]           

At that time you should type:


Then it will respond with:

Password? (TYPE PW)

Then if there's a project id it will respond with:

Project id? (TYPE IT IF YOU KNOW IT)

After all of that is done you are into the system. You should get something
that says something like this. Say the username is TEST.

TEST (user 18) logged in Sunday, 03 Jan 87 21:14:20.
Welcome to PRIMOS version 19.4.2. R3.
Last login Saturday, 02 Jan 87 11:17:28.

  After that you may or may not get a file written by the system with news and
small messages for the user.After that you press return and you should be
into primos.If not the system is running a login program which will beMore[n,Y,=]           
explained next.


  If you are not immediately dropped into Primos, the system is running a
program which is name LOGIN.CPL and is sometimes used to operate certain
functions when logging in such as a private password program or a program
which may just say Welcome back and the date and time. The login.cpl program
can do whatever the user who wrote it wants it to do and is written in the
language CPL. A way to break out of a login program is try typing control P.
If that does not work you can try passwords or just hang up. During all of
time ^S will pause the typing while ^Q will make it resume. If you type while
the pause is on, it WILL be done when the ^Q is depressed.


  Once you have gotten by the login and the login program (if there is one)
should be dropped into Primos. At times you will be dropped into other
due to the login.cpl program and you may have to break out of the program.
programs are like menu's with prompts. You know that you're in Primos if you
get the prompt "OK," or the prompt "ER!". It is possible for the user to
the prompt with this command:


  Those commands may be in a login program so that the prompts will not be OK,
and ER! but two other prompts. Once you are in Primos there are many things
that you may do.


  By typing MAIL you will get all mail that has been sent to you. (your id) At
the end it will ask if you'd like to delete it or not. It is advisable to keep
the mail there if you do not want to have the password changed by the user ho
see's that his mail is being deleted by someone else. If you'd like to send
mail to another user you just type "MAIL username" and if the user exists,
you will be able to type mail to the user. To delete your own mail without
reading it type "MAIL -DELETE".

More[n,Y,=]           MESSAGES:

  It is possible to send messages between users while in Primos.
To get a list of all users using the system at the present time you have to
type M -STAT. You should get something as below.

User                       No  State
SYSTEM                      1  Accept
IDIOT                      18  Accept
WHOEVER                    21  Accept
HACKER                     22  Accept
SYSTEM                    100  Accept

  Those are all of the users on the node at the present time. Some times the
State may be either Accept, or Defer or Reject. That depends on what state the
user wants to be in. To change the State of your terminal you use the MESSAGE
command. You type MESSAGE -REJECT or DEFER or ACCEPT. Listed below are what
each stands for.

Accept: Any user on the system may send you a message at any time and it will
        show up on your screen.
Defer : All messages sent to you will be withheld until you are done doing
        whatever you are doing at the present time.More[n,Y,=]           
Reject: No messages can be sent to you. (Best for the hacker)

  To send a message you must get the user # of the person you want to send and
you must be on message accept or defer. Then you type M -# -NOW or LATER.
Now will send it as fast as possible and you must be on message accept. Later
will send the message when the user is done doing whatever he is up to. You
only need to be on defer or accept for that. Users may chat with other users
using this facility.


  To get a catalog of the programs and files in your ufd type LD. This should
give you some sort of listing such as:


2 files


1 directory


 To attach the directory ARCHIVES you'd type: ATTACH *>ARCHIVES or A
This would then bring you into the directory archives where you'd see
like this when you type LD.There may or may not be sub-directories.


1 file


  There may also be something that says "1 segment directory" or more than
Segment directories are used by certain languages and are not directories that
you can attach to. To get back to your main ufd type ORIGON or type OR.


  When you list your directory it will say something like "(dalurw access)" in
the first line. If it says "(All access)" you have entire access to that
directory and all sub directories below it.Say you have all access to HACKERMore[n,Y,=]           
as above, you may not have all access to guest but you may. With all access
you may edit access to other directories to enter them and to give others
access but we will go over that later. With Owner access you may also gain
All access. At times, you may not even have enough access to list the
that you are in though.To list the access to a certain sub or directory type
LAC. To list access to a sub type LAC SUBNAME. When you do this you should get
something like this:

"SUBNAME" protected by default ACL (from "<SYS>GUEST>HACKER"):
          SYSTEM.ADMIN:     ALL
          HACKER:           DALURW
          SYSTEM:           ALL
          .SYSOPERS:        ALL
          $REST:            NONE

D= Delete  A= Add  L= List  U= Use  R= Read  W= Write for the above. If you
have the system account or the administrators account or even a sysops account
you should have all access to most or the entire system.$REST is all of the
other users that are not in those names. But, not just SYSTEM.ADMIN,HACKER,and
SYSTEM have access to that ufd, .SYSOPERS also do. A "." before a name is a
group that the user is assigned when first put on the system and it may be
editted if you have enough access. A person should be able to find out what
groups he is in by typing "LG" for list groups. Any user in the .SYSOPERSMore[n,Y,=]           
as above will have all access to SUBNAME as above. If you want to get the
access of the directory you are presently in, type LAC alone and you will see
a message somewhat like the above.


  Each Prime system is made up of large platters of hard magnetic diskettes.
Each of these diskettes holds two paritions where all of the files are held.
By typing "ATTACH <#>MFD" # = number of partition, you can attach to any
partition on the system.The name of each partition is different such as this
for a normal high school with six partitions.

  Normally all normal users will be on a student (STUDNT) partition while
teachers would be on school and system operators on COMAND. The systems will
differ between other systems but that is the most common type of setup I have
seen on systems. The files on each of these MFD's run the entire system and
also the sub directories hold the users of the system. If a user does a LAC in
a MFD, and the user or a group that he is in (i.e. .SYSOPERS) has All or
Owner access, the user has all access to the entire partition. If he has owner
access he must do this.

More[n,Y,=]           SAC MFD USERNAME:ALL

  That will give him all access to everything on the system. But, I would not
advise doing that right away for it will probably be detected as soon as a
user who knows what he's doing logs in. If you do have All access you can
enter all directories on that partition while also being able to do whatever
you wish to the system. If you have all access to a directory and you do not
have all access to a sub directory, you may gain access to it by typing:


With that you should be able to get into any directory if you have the right


  In any MFD there should be a directory called CMDNC0. This directory is
all of the commands are kept. You see, each command is actually a file such as
when you type 'MAIL' in Primos, the system goes to CMDNC0 and runs the file
named MAIL.CPL. This file may refer to any other file that it wishes to using
CPL. I will put out a file on the CPL language very soon to help you with
Well, even if you don't have all access to other parts of the system you can
create a user IF you have access to enough of the other files. In CMDNC0 there
are files which will add a user and remove users.The most useful file in the
system is called edit profile. To run it you just have to type R and the name.
You should do a LD before anything to get the correct filename. Once in
edit profile you have the power of adding,deleting,and editing users if you
know how. One of the best features of the Prime is that there are extensive
help files for every command on the system and by typing HELP COMMAND you will
get a file with information on that command. By just typing help you get a
of all commands. If you really want to add a user then you must use edit
profile or adduser. Below I will explain how to add,edit, and delete a user
using edit profile.


  Edit profile is a utility that allows you to list, add, edit, and delete
users on the system. To add a user onto the system, you must decide on a place
for the user to be (a directory somewhere) and must also get a project id for
the user. Usually the project id "DEFAULT" will work and you will not be
prompted for a project id when you log in. The way to add the user is so:

Profile editor [rev 19.4.11] in system administrator mode 06 Jan 87 17:20:56
> au hacker

Set system-wide attributes for user "HACKER":
    Password: (password)
    Groups: .sysopers .system (whatever highest ones from LAC's <are examples)
    Default login project: DEFAULT (or whatever you find)

User "HACKER" added to system.
Check entry? n
>quit (or q)

  Then you'll be back in Primos. If you cannot figure out a project id you can
make one yourself in the program or list all of them.

> Add_project whatever

Or you can:

> List_system -PROJ

That will list all projects.

  If you need any other help you may also type "help" within edit_profile forMore[n,Y,=]           
extensive help files on all commands. Also, if you cannot seem to add a user
you may edit your own user by typing:

> cu yourusername

  It will then ask for groups in which you may place the highest groups in as
your groups. All groups begin with a period. If this does not help you can
always change the system administrator this way:

> Change_System_Administrator yourusername

  That should take care of all access levels for you.You may still have to
may ACL access levels (LACs) but you should be able to access the entire
system.Now to delete a user is very much more simple.

> du username
*** User "USERNAME" deleted from system 06 Jan 87 17:21:20.

  That will delete a user. Also you may have to delete the user from a file
named something like account_list in LOGUFD in the <0>MFD. Also when you add
a user you must also add the name. At times you may also have to add the user
to a file called modem_users or something like that to gain modem access for
the user you create. From there on it's up to you what to do.More[n,Y,=]           


  Last but not least.Logging out is simple.From anywhere in the system such
as CMDNC0 or wherever you are, as long as you're in Primos, you can type
LOGOUT. If that doesn't work try LO'. If it still doesn't work you must not
be in Primos and must exit whatever you are in such as edit profile. You can
break out of most programs with QUIT or with a control P.

  In the next file of Hacking Primos, we will discuss the SYSTEM terminal and
what you may do with it. We will also review edit profile in great detail and
will discuss other commands including the compilation of an abbreviation file.
Also we will take a look at other languages in the systems and how they can be
used for your benefit. Please look for the Prime CPL file coming out as soon
as possible and look for the Hacking Primos II file coming soon.


o PDR 3621 Prime Subroutines Reference Guide Rev. 19.0
o Prime System Operators Reference Guide
o Prime User Reference GuideMore[n,Y,=]           

                    Written by Codes Master on 01/06/87

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