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TUCoPS :: Wetware Hacking :: Others :: mind13.txt

Mind Machines








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                                  January 8, 1992

                                    MIND13.ASC
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             This file originally named FFR.TXT, shared with KeelyNet
                  courtesy of Double Helix BBS at (212) 956-8076.
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                          SOUND AND LIGHT BRAIN MACHINES
                                By David C. Freeman
                                 12 September 1991

           It has been noted that if one were to strike two tuning forks of
       slightly different tone  pitch at the same time, one would find that
       there were three distinct tones rather  than  two. The third tone is
       the difference in frequency of the two tones. For  example,  if  one
       fork resonated at  a  frequency of 202Hz,(cycles per second) and the
       other resonated at a frequency of  200Hz  the  resulting  third tone
       would be the difference of the original tone, and would  modulate at
       2Hz.  These modulations are know as beats.

            A phenomena  was discovered by Dr. Gerald Oster in 1973, at the
       Mount Sinai school of Medicine in  New  York.  Dr.  Oster  had  been
       investigating the effects   of  sound  waves  on  the   brain.    He
       discovered that when   he   introduced,   through   headphones,  two
       different tones separately to each ear that the brain would resonate
       at  a frequency that was the difference  of the two tones, ie. 400Hz
       introduced to the  left ear and 406Hz introduced to  the  right  ear
       would result in  the  a  solid EEG (electroencephalagram) reading of
       6Hz. He dubbed this phenomena binaural beats.

           Before the binaural beat phenomena  was discovered, there was no
       way to entrain or synchronize brain waves.  Studies  of  brain waves
       were limited to  the mental state of the test subject, and the waves
       that were produced as a result of that state rather than what states
       could be produced as a result of altering brain wave frequencies.

            Robert Monroe,  founder of the   Monroe  Institute  of  Applied
       Sciences in Virginia, conducted further studies of the binaural beat
       phenomena and discovered  particular  combinations   of   tones  and
       frequencies that produce  particular  effects  in humans. Out of the
       thousands of possible combinations  of  frequencies  that  could  be
       produced, Monroe and  his  team  settled  on fifty  three  that  had
       positive strong effects  on  the brain. Monroe patented this process
       in 1975, calling it Frequency Following Response or FFR. Monroe also
       developed a tape   series  designed   to   utilize   the   frequency
       combinations that he and his team discovered. He called  the  series
       HemiSync, short for Hemisphere Synchronization.

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            Scientist have generalized the different brain wave frequencies
       to indicate what  sort  of  activity  the  brain  is engaged in. The
       generalized frequencies are

                      Beta(13-30Hz);
                      Alpha(8-13Hz);
                      Theta(4-7Hz);
                      Delta(0.5-4Hz).

       Beta waves are associated with a  "normal"  level  of  arousal  with
       attention directed externally.  High Beta waves are  associated with
       heavy stress.

       Alpha waves are   associated   with   relaxation.  Theta  waves  are
       associated with deep reverie, mental  imagery,  and  access  to deep
       rooted memories. Delta is associated with deep sleep.

          Many products  have entered the market place utilizing  not  only
       audio FFR, but  combining  the  photic  driving  response with audio
       FFR,(photic driving entails  lights   flashing   at   a   particular
       frequency in the  eyes  to  produce  the FFR) to achieve  particular
       brain states. The  majority  of  the products now on the market have
       been approved by the Food and Drug  administration  (FDA),  but what
       are the benefits of using one of these devices.

           Scientist have   discovered   that   at   certain    frequencies
       (particularly in Alpha and Theta range), the majority of the devices
       have been found to:

                - alleviate stress

                - promote long lasting and substantial reductions in
                  subjects experiencing anxiety

                - facilitate deep physical relaxation and mental clarity

                - increase verbal ability and verbal performance IQ

                - synchronize both hemispheres of the brain

                - invoke vivid spontaneous mental imagery and imaginative
                  creative thinking

                - reduce  pain,  promote euphoria, and stimulate endorphine
                  release

            Some of the devices that have been tested are:

             * DAVID  (Digital Audiovisual  Integration  Device),  invented
               David Siever

             * The Synchro Energizer, invented by Dennis Gorges

             * The Relaxman

             * Inner Quest and Inner Quest Pro I

             * MCı


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           It is obvious that this technology is in it's fledgling stage of
       development and has  the  propensity  to aid many, but where is this
       technology going? Will these machines become an industry to parallel
       or even surpass the effects that  the  personal  computer has had on
       our lives or will future, more powerful advances be  put  on hold by
       the FDA?  Only time will tell.

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       Sources:

       Hutchinson, Michael. Mega Brain, 1986, Balentine Books.

       Oster, Gerald. "Auditory Beats in the Brain." Scientific American,
       September 1973.

       Davis, Joel. Endorphines: New waves in Brain Chemistry. Garden City,
       N.Y.: dial Press, 1984.

       Warner, R.D. "Build A Synergy Card For Your PC, Parts l,ll,lll."
       Radio Electronics, September 1988, October 1988, November
       1988

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         If you  have comments or other information relating to such topics
         as  this paper covers,  please   upload to KeelyNet or send to the
           Vangard  Sciences  address  as  listed  on the  first  page.
              Thank you for your consideration, interest and support.

           Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
                             Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

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