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TUCoPS :: Wetware Hacking :: Others :: ciamanul.txt

CIA Manual on propaganda and mass manipulation in guerilla operations

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*                                   FM 95-1A                                 *
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*                        Guerrilla War Manual (Part I)                       *
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*                            Typed by: Samurai Cat                           *
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         What appears in this file has become virtually a public document.  I
have taken this opportunity to give you full access to the infamous CIA
document titled "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare" -- despite the
fact that I believe that some minor portions have been deleted by government
sources, this is supposed to be the unedited version of the manual that
raised such a scandal when the press brought it to the surface in '84.  Due to
its length, it will not appear in a single file, but rather in seven files.
The actual manual is divided into seven sections, so each file will contain
one section (simple enough?).  Anyway, here it is:


         Guerrilla warfare is essentially a political war.  Therefore, its
area of operations exceeds the territorial limits of conventional warfare, to
penetrate the political entity itself: the "political animal" that Aristotle
         In effect, the human being should be considered the priority
objective in a political war.  And conceived as the military target of
guerrilla war, the human being has his most critical point in his mind.  Once
his mind has been reached, the "political animal" has been defeated, without
necessarily receiving bullets.
         Guerrilla warfare is born and grows in the political environment; in
the constant combat to dominate that area of political mentality that is
inherent to all human beings and which collectively constitutes the
"environment" in which guerrilla warfare moves, and which is precisely where
its victory or failure is defined.  
         This conception of guerrilla warfare as political war turns
psychological operations into the decisive factor of the results.  The target,
then, is the minds of the population, all the population: our troops, the
enemy troops and the civilian population.
         This book is a manual for the training of guerrillas in psychological
operations, and its application to the concrete case of the Christian and
democratic crusade being waged in Nicaragua by the Freedom Commandoes.


1 - Generalities

         The purpose of this book is to introduce the guerrilla student to the
psychological operations techniques that will be of immediate and practical
value to him in guerrilla warfare.  This section is introductory and general;
subsequent sections will cover each point set forth here in more detail.
         The nature of the environment of guerrilla warfare does not permit
sophisticated psychological operations, and it becomes necessary for the
chiefs of groups, chiefs of detachments and squadron leaders to have the
ability to carry out, with minimal instructions from the higher levels,
psychological action operations with the contacts that are thoroughly aware of
the situation, i.e. the foundations.

2 - Combatant, Propagandist Guerrillas

         In order to obtain the maximum results from the psychological
operations in guerrilla warfare, every combatant should be as highly motivated
to carry out propaganda face to face as he is as a combatant.  This means that
the individual political awareness of the guerrilla of the reason for his
struggle will be as acute as his ability to fight.
         Such a political awareness and motivation is obtained through the
dynamic of groups and self-criticism as a standard method of instruction for
the guerrilla training and operations.  Group discussions raise the spirit and
improve the unity of thought of the guerrilla squads and exercise social
pressure on the weak members to carry out a better role in future training or
in combative action.  Self-criticism is in terms of one's contribution or
defects in his contribution to the cause, to the movement, the struggle, etc.,
and gives a positive individual commitment to the mission of the group.
         The desired result is a guerrilla who can persuasively justify his
actions when he comes into contact with any member of the people of Nicaragua,
and especially with himself and his fellow guerrillas in dealing with the
vicissitudes of guerrilla warfare.  This means that every guerrilla will be
pursuasive in his face-to-face communication -- propagandist -- combatant --
in his contact with the people.  He should be able to give five or ten logical
reasons why, for example, a peasant should give him cloth, needle and thread
to mend his clothes.  When the guerrilla behaves in this manner, enemy
propaganda will never succeed in making him an enemy in the eyes of the
people.  It also means that hunger, cold, fatigue and insecurity will have a
psychological meaning in the cause of the struggle due to his constant

3 - Armed Propaganda

         Armed propaganda includes every act carried out and the good
impression that this armed force cause will result in positive attitudes in
the population toward that force; it does not include forced indoctrination.
Armed propaganda improves the behavior of the population toward them, and it
is not achieved by force.
         This means that a guerrilla armed unit in a rural town will not give
the impression that arms are their strength over the peasants, but rather that
they are the strength of the peasants against the Sandinista government of
repression.  This is achieved through a close identification with the people,
as follows: hanging up weapons and working together with them on their crops,
in construction, in the harvesting of grains, in fishing, etc.  Explanations
to young men about basic weapons, e.g. giving them an unloaded weapon and
letting them touch it, see it, etc.  Describing in a rudimentary manner its
operation, describing with simple slogans how weapons will serve the people to
win their freedom, demanding the requests by the people for hospitals and
education, reducing taxes, etc.
         All these acts have as their goal the creation of an identification
of the people with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them, so that the
population feels that the weapons are, indirectly, their protection in the
struggle against a regime of oppression.  Implicit terror always accomplanies
weapons since the people are internally "aware" that they can be used against
them, but as long as explicit coersion is avoided, positive attitudes can be
achieved with respect to the presence of armed guerrillas within the

4 - Armed Propaganda Teams 

         Armed Propaganda Teams (EPA) are formed through a careful selection
of persuasive and highly motivated guerrillas who move about within the
population encouraging the people to support the guerrillas and put up
resistance against the enemy.  It combines a high degree of political
awareness and the 'armed' propaganda ability of the guerrillas toward a
planned, programmed and controlled effort.
         The careful selection of the staff, based on their persuasiveness in
informal discussions and their ability in combat, is more important than
their degree of education or the training program.  The tactics of the Armed
Propaganda Teams are carried out covertly and should be parallel to the
tactical effort in guerrilla warfare.  The knowledge of the psychology of the
population is primary for the Armed Propaganda Teams but much more
intelligence data will be obtained from an EPA program in the area of

5 - Development and Control of the "Front" Organizations 

         The development and control of "front" (or facade) organizations is
carried out through subjective internal control at group meetings of "inside
cadres" and the calculations of the time for the fusion of these combined
efforts to be applied to the masses.
         Established citizens -- doctors, lawyers, businessmen, teachers, etc.
-- will be recruited initially as "Social Crusaders" in typically "innocuous"
movements in the area of operations.  When their "involvement" with the
clandestine organization is revealed to them, this supplies the psychological
pressure to use them as "inside cadres" in groups to which they already belong
or of which they can be members.
         Then they will receive instruction in techniques of persuasion over
control of target groups to support our democratic revolution through a
gradual and skillful process.  A cell control system isolates individuals from
one another and at the appropiate moment, their influence is used for the
fusion of groups in a United National Front.

6 - Control of Meetings and Mass Assemblies

         The control of mass meetings in support of guerrilla warfare is
carried out internally through a covert commando element, bodyguards,
messengers, shock forces (initiators of incidents), placard carriers (also
used for making signals), shouters of slogans, everything under the control of
the outside commando element.
         When the cadres are placed or recruited in organizatons such as labor
unions, youth groups, agrarian organizations, or professional associations,
they will begin to manipulate the objectives of the groups.  The psychological
apparatus of our movement through the inside cadres prepares a mental attitude
which at the crucial moment can be turned into a fury of justified violence.
         Through a small group of guerrillas infiltrated within the masses
this can be carried out; they will have the mission of agitating by giving the
impression that there are many of them and that they have a large popular
backing. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300 agitators, a demonstration
can be created in which 10,000 - 20,000 persons take part. 

7 - Support of Contacts with their Roots in Reality

         The support of local contacts who are familiar with the deep reality
is achieved through the exploitation of the social and political weaknesses of
the target society, with propagandist-combatant guerrillas, armed propaganda,
armed propaganda teams, cover organizations and mass meetings.
         The combatant propagandist guerrilla is the result of a continuous
program of indoctrination and motivation.  They will have the mission of
showing the people how great and fair our movement is in the eyes of all
Nicaraguans and the world.  Identifying themselves with our people, they will
increase sympathy toward our movement resulting in greater support by the
population for the freedom commandos, taking away support for the regime in
         Armed propaganda will extend this identification process of the
people with the Christian guerrillas, providing converging points against the
Sandinista regime.
         The Armed Propaganda Teams provide a several-stage program of
persuasive planning in guerrilla warfare in all areas of the country.  Also,
these teams are the "eyes and ears" of our movement.
         The development and control of the cover organizations in guerrilla
warfare will give our movement the ability to create a "whiplash" effect
within the population when the order for fusion is given.  When the
infiltration and internal subjective control have been developed in a manner
parallel to other guerrilla activities, a commandante of ours will literally
be able to shake up the Sandinista structure and replace it.
         The mass assemblies and meetings are the culmination of a wide base
of support among the populatoin and it comes about in the later phases of the
operation.  This is the moment in which the overthrow can be achieved and our
revolution can become an open one requiring the close collaboration of the
entire popoulation of the country and of contacts with their roots in reality.
         The tactical effort in guerrilla warfare is directed at the
weaknesses of the enemy and at destroying their military resistance capacity
and should be parallel to a psychological effort to weaken and destroy their
socio-political capacity at the same time.  In guerrilla warfare, more than in
any other type of military effort, the psychological activities should be
simultaneous with the military ones, in order to achieve the objectives


         This concludes the first of seven files.  As you can see, the entire
manual is basically on psychological warfare.  If you were expecting a book on
how to kill 100,000 people in a day... TOUGH!  Anyway, be on the lookout for
other files by Samurai Cat.  I can be reached through DSF Devestator AE/BBS.

*    Call:   DSF Devestator  (214) 581-7565  Apple // and //gs wares.        *
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*                   A member of the Deep Space Fleet.                        *


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