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TUCoPS :: Radio :: septoct.txt

Free Radio Berkeley / Free Communications Coalition Newsletter for September/October 1994


Published by Free Radio Berkeley and the Free Communications 

September/October 1994
Copy left - permission to reprint given, please include contact info.


An appeal for funds.  In order to continue the work we are doing any 
donations to support the effort would be greatly appreciated.  This 
movement is becoming international in scope.  Special funding is needed 
to send a representative from Free Radio Berkeley to AMARC's world 
radio conference in Senegal which will be attended by community and 
native media activists from around the world.  Free Radio Berkeley has 
been asked to set up a 300 watt FM station for the duration of the 
conference.  It is extremely important that this occurs.  Expenses for the 
trip are projected to be around $1800-$2000.  Checks and such are to be 
made out to Free Radio Berkeley.

Thank you very much.

Stephen Dunifer
Free Radio Berkeley
1442 A Walnut St. #406
Berkeley, CA 94709
(510) 464-3041

Contents - page number approximate

Do It Now !								page 1
Court Nixes New FCC Fine Plan					page 3
Gerry Spence On the FCC and Corporate Media		page 4
A Brief History of Radio						page 7
Taiwan Fighting for Democratic Radio				page 9
Pirate Radio Taiwan						page 11
Kits & Equipment from Free Radio Berkeley			page 13
Radios in Haiti							page 19
SF Liberation Radio Expands Hours & Programs		page 20
William O'Douglas on Government Media Control		page 22
Committe on Democratic Communications			page 22
On the Air								page 24



	You have been reading and hearing about micro power 
broadcasting over the last year or so, now is the time to go out and do it !  
In this issue we are providing the inspiration.  People around the world are 
taking back the airwaves, from Taiwan, where it took 7000 police to shut 
down 14 stations with most going back on the air after the raids, to Haiti, 
where a broadcasting operation was temporarily shut down with automatic 
weapons fire resulting in the death of 12 people, a few were able to 
escape with the transmitter.  Here, in the Americas, transmitters are 
taking to the air in Chiapas and Mexico City.  San Francisco now has two 
stations, San Francisco Liberation Radio and Radio LIbre, on the air every 
night of the week.  Mabana Kantako (Black Liberation Radio), who is an 
inspiration to many,  has been on the air 24 hours a day for over three 
years in Springfield, Illinois.  Reports continue to come in of new 
operations going on the air.  We are riding the wave of a movement that 
will not be stopped.

	Rapid spreading of knowledge and inspiration is a critical aspect of 
this movement.  Further, it must be acted upon for it to have any impact.  
Such is the main purpose of this publication.   Empowerment is our 

	On the other side of this cover page you will be reading quite an 
amazing and diverse selection of articles.  In addition, our line of kits is 
continuing to expand.  A phase lock loop (PLL) controlled 1/2 watt 
transmitter kit  has been added.  It will drive the 6-8 watt, 10-15 watt and 
20-24 watt amplifiers directly.  With this type of digital control the 
frequency  will not drift.  Now, with this new kit along with proper output 
filtering, all the technical objections of the FCC  regarding drift and 
harmonic interference can be met.   By sometime in November AM and 
UHF TV transmitters will be introduced.

	Recognizing a good many people do not have the necessary 
technical skills to assemble the kits and put a station together, those of 
you who do have these skills are needed to act as technical mentors.  An 
entire grass roots infrastructure must be organized, collectives consisting 
of people with diverse interests and skills.  Knowledge and skill not shared 
with others is an anathema to creating any sort of grass roots community.  
Many inspired people really yearn to put a station on the air but lack the 
ability to do so.  It is our responsibility to help them realize their dream.  
By teaching and working with others your own base of knowledge and 
experience will grow as well.   Particular attention must be paid to youth in 
the inner cities.  

	When people develop their own collective community voice it is an 
extremely empowering act, one that threatens the status quo in a rather 
serious way since disenfranchisement and disempowerment are two 
majors ways of keeping people down in the dirt.  Lack of communication 
creates extremely negative situations where worst case assumptions are 
made and suspicion, mistrust, anger, and violence are a natural outgrowth 
of an alienated populace.  Micropower broadcasting has the power to 
break down these barriers and restore a sense of true community.

	Create, nurture and build community, share your skills and dreams 
and put your voice on the air.  Get an internet account so news, 
information and ideas can be rapidly spread amongst all of us.  Sometime 
soon our radio programs will be digitally recorded, compressed and put on 
the net for distribution.  Organize public forums and discussions on the 
democratization of all media.  If you want to distribute this newspaper and 
other materials in your area please let us know the quantity to send to 

	Enough words. DO IT NOW !



   A federal court has rejected the FCC's revised method of
assessing fines against broadcast, cable and telephone company
licensees who violate commission rules.  This legal finding could
also impact the agency's ability to enforce the Part 97 Amateur
Service Regulations.

   By way of background, in 1991, the FCC abandoned its long-
standing case-by-case approach to assessing fines against
licensees who violate the Communications Act.  In its place, the
agency agreed to set "Base Forfeiture Amounts" of fines for
offenses in most of the services that it oversees including those
encompassing personal communications activities.

   A telecommunications trade organization known as the United
States Telephone Association challenged the fine schedule on
grounds that the FCC adopted the new rules without notice and
without allowing interested parties to comment.  The U.S.T.A.
claimed the rule was unfair because the fines were higher than
those assessed against broadcasters and cablers.  For example, the
revised fine schedule called for broadcasters and cable operators
who make untruthful claims to the FCC to be fined $20,000, while
telephone companies would face a fine of $80,000.  Some "Base
Forfeitures" in the Amateur Radio Service were set at $8000.
According to news reports, on July 14, the Circuit Court of
Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in a 3-0 decision
turned down the new FCC rules.  In fact, the court went so far as
to say that the agency knowingly failed to give all interested
parties the opportunity to comment on the policy change before it
was adopted.

   The court's rejection of the fine schedule could even
jeopardize the governments new schedule of punitive forfeitures
against broadcasters who violate equal employment opportunity
rules.  This is because the FCC adopted new E.E.O. fines without
first allowing interested parties to comment on the regulations.
Already, the National Association of Broadcasters has already
sent a letter to the FCC asking that the E.E.O. fine schedule be
scrapped and all outstanding assessments be canceled.  Several hams
who are currently the target of FCC fines based on the  portion of
the new Base Forfeiture Schedule are already saying  that they too
will demand the actions against them be canceled as  well.

   And this gives the FCC has only three possible options.  It  can
appeal the Circuit Court findings to the United States Supreme
Court seeking a reversal of the lower court decision.  It can
revert to its pre-1991 monetary forfeiture schedule and issue a
Notice of Proposed Rule Making on a new schedule of fines.  Or it
can abandon all regulatory enforcement of the rules it creates and
place the burden for disciplining communications regulatory
violators on a government agency with investigatory and
prosecutorial power such as the Department of Justice.

   The bottom line appears to be this.  The FCC may now be
reluctant to assess fines for any but the most egregious
regulatory violations.  This is because court decisions in matters
of communications made on constitutional ground are normally
considered relevant and enforceable in all commission governed
services including Personal Communications.



An excerpt from his book - From Freedom to Slavery
 	Perhaps the most blatant betrayal of our freedom came during this 
century when the Federal Communications Commission, charged with 
regulating the use of our airways, instead delivered them to corporate 
America. What I am saying is simple and frightening: An agency of the 
United States government, the FCC, effectively transformed our airways 
into commodities and handed them over to the corporate entities that 
exploit us. Left with no means by which to engage in communication with 
each other, we became estranged, ineffective, and at last impotent. We 
became a people without thoughts of our own, without ideas, without 
values or viewpoints of our own to be shared with each other in the 
fullfillment of the democratic dream. Instead, we, ourselves, became 
commodities to be sold in the media's marketplace. 
	I say we, too, were marketed. When we sit down to watch what 
purports to be the evening news we are being sold. We are an audience 
with a high value. Every program, from football to MTV, gathers its 
specific audience in the same way that the fisherman nets perch or halibut 
or salmon, depending on the market's demand. As fish in the net, we are 
sold to the advertisers as so many hundreds of thousands of middle-aged 
persons, or kids, or teenagers, or the affluent. We no longer speak back. 
We no longer speak to each other. We no longer speak at all. We are only 
silent. Silent listeners. And as water washes the rocks smooth and at last 
wears them away, so, too, our brains are washed into intellectual oblivion. 
With an evil magic, the brain washing transforms our children from the 
bright, the inquiring and the creative to mindless consumers, to empty 
headed shoppers concerned chiefly with things, and the means by which 
to acquire things. The brain washing turns our children into things for sale, 
things in the pursuit of things, things chasing dollars and the things dollars 
will purchase. The brainwashing has dehumanized us. It has left us 
comporting ourselves like lurepen slobs drooling at the trough where we 
are slopped like anthropomorphic hogs with the vacuous fare corporate 
America throws at us. 
	The FCC could have, indeed, had the duty to make the airways 
available to a wide variety of interests that represent a free citizenry. The 
airways should have been assigned to television stations controlled by 
labor, by blacks, by women, by environmentalists, by small 
businesspeople, by educators, by farmers, by workers, in short, by the 
American people. Instead, without considerations--free--the FCC gave our 
airways to three mammoth corporations who now own them as their 
private property and, with other networks that have since come into 
existence, perfect the redesigning of our minds into those of the perfect 
consumer. Our minds have also been reformed to adopt a single virulent 
philosophy, a supposed wisdomsthat to prosper, Americans must support 
the dribble down theory of the New King, that to survive, Americans must 
abdicate their power to the corporate conglomerate.
    The FCC, itself a hopelessly entangled bureaucracy, one ultimately 
controlled by the gargantuan corporations it seeks to regulate, has 
repeatedly proven it can not exercise its power to preserve our rights. In 
fact, it no longer harbors any intent to do so. The corporations who own 
the networks are too large, too powerful, too entwined into the power 
structure to be controlled. ABC was swallowed up by Capital Cities 
Communications. NBC was scooped up by General Electric when it 
purchased NBC's parent, RCA. The FCC, itself, has become a part of the 
intimate corporate family. Its members and functionaries pass back and 
forth through the revolving door, today purportedly regulating the 
corporation, tomorrow, as their reward for good and faithful service, 
occupying a posh position in  the very corporations they regulated 
	Justice Brandeis in  Whitney v.California said, "Those who won our 
independence believed... that public discussion is a political duty," as, 
indeed, it is. Justice Brennan in New York Times v. Sullivan said, "thus we 
consider this case against the background of a profound national 
commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be 
uninhibited, robust, and wideopen  ....  "But how can we perform our 
public duty unless we control the means by which to communicate with 
each other? Worse, how can we be free when we are constantly reeling 
under the sedative of corporate propaganda? In retrospect, how could self 
government have been so easily destroyed by the simple devise of 
delivering our airways to the New King? 
	The First Amendment guarantees our free speech. By implication it 
also guarantees the people's right to own and control the means by which 
the people can speak to each other. One would not claim the ownership 
of a useful interest in a car unless one also owned the wheels. Further, 
the fact that our airways have been stolen from us these many years does 
not eliminate our ownership of them. Time does not create a cure for an 
original wrong. If we steal our neighbor's cow, we can not argue that 
although we stole her, we nevertheless fed her for fifteen years, and, 
therefore, she now belongs to us. 
	Equally Iamentable is the fact that that which has been stolen from 
us has been thereafter served back to us in the lowest form yet 
imaginable. It is as if our wheat has been stolen and we have been left to 
choke in the chaff. In their defense, advertisers and network executives 
contend that the American public is an unintelligent, unthinking, rustic 
conglomerate of doits. "Look," they argue, "at what the people choose to 
watch. "As one executive told me, "The viewers, themselves, demand the 
garbage we feed them. If they demanded a different cuisine we would 
feed that to them, as well." Another put it more succinctly: "We, in 
television, rise to the highest level of our audience. The highest level of 
our audience, unfortunately, is at the age of an average thirteen year old." 
	I do not dismiss so easily the intelligence, the taste, or the wisdom 
of the American people. It is not the level of the people's intelligence that 
limits us, but the constant barrage of insipid, tasteless rubbish that is 
relentlessly dumped on us as if we live in the bottom of an intellectual land 
fill. And how could it be otherwise for advertisers? Most of the products 
hawked on television are utterly irrelevant to the good life we seek. 
Madison Avenue knows, of course, that, in an intelligent environment, it 
cannot sell that which is patently worthless. One is not as likely to buy 
sugar corn pops as a result of watching a conference considering the 
health hazards of America's diet as one is likely to buy the same cereal as 
a result of watching some empty headed sit com.
    I have tried too many cases before ordinary people sitting as jurors 
without developing a profound respect for their inherent, collective 
wisdom, their ability to absorb complicated facts, and their capacity to 
there after come up with a just result. It is easy to put the American public 
down. But those who believe that intelligence and taste, indeed, wisdom, 
are traits reserved only for corporate moguls and Wall Street bankers are 
the fools. People know. The collective intelligence of the American 
citizenry is awesome if, after it is fully informed, it is given a chance to 
honestly express itself. On the other hand, there is little doubt that if our 
intellectual diet consists of that which is currently offered on television, the 
old saying has relevance: "Garbage in_garbage out." 
	Television producers argue that people want to be entertained. Of 
course. But that does not mean that people do not also want to be 
enlightened, delighted, and uplifted, and it does not mean that people do 
not want to be informed. Despite the myths of freedom that fog our clear 
vision, in the basement of their minds the people know they are trapped. 
They know they are rarely told the whole truth. They know their vote 
ultimately makes little difference. They know that they usually do not and 
cannot get justice. If one knows that one's fervent striving makes little 
difference and that the whole truth is a rarity, if one knows one is the 
object of continuous exploitation from every quarter and is helpless to do 
much about it, then entertainment is the answer, as escape and denial 
also become the answers. 
	I do not disrespect the intelligence of the people. I disrespect those 
who have, by their own deep scorn and arrogance, so demeaned the 
people for so long that the prophesy of the people's intellectual impotence 
has often been fulfilled. But when we have taken back our power, when 
we again control our airways and our voices can again be heard on every 
major issue that effects our freedom, when we know that we truly guide 
the ship of state, the character of the media will have also changed. Then 
truth, then indepth analysis, then the presentation of facts (no matter how 
complex), then responsibility, yes, then art, too, will take precedent over 
the silly, the mundane, the false and the empty. Then, with the 
repossession of our airways, the people will begin a new adventure_the 
quest for the long awaited American dream.


	Radio was discovered some 50 years ago by a dog named RCA 
Victor.  RCA Victor discovered radio accidently by looking into a horn, and 
discerning the voice of his master. Ever since then, RCA Victor has been 
a tradition, and many have capitalized on his cocked ear and puzzled 
	In the early days of radio, there were many exciting inventions. The 
Father of The Tube was Lee deforest. He evacuated a bulb left by the 
Gardener (coincidentally, a friend of RCA Victor) and stuck his in his 
thumb and pulled out some mysterious little bugs called electrons. When 
he put the whole thing in a wall-socket, he said "Yreka." And he heard the 
voice of London Calling. The voice said, "This is London Calling!"
	Radio grew apace after that. There were modifications of 
DeForest's evacuated tube. One of them was put together with some 
verve by Maj.-Gen. Edw. Armstrong.  He called it the Heartstrong 
receiver. He was able to hear Trenton on his receiver. He also said 
'Yreka!' which was a favorite quote of radio inventors.
	Television also grew apace.  The first signal was a picture of 
Howdy-Doody sent from Seacaucus N.J. to Weehawken, N.J. The effect 
was electrifying. Howdy-Doody was seen from as far away as Bayonne. 
CBS then was invented to steal patents from RCA Victor and his friends. 
There were many suits.
	The transmission of radio signals is amazingly simple. A voice 
makes the diaphram (later called the 'IUD') tremble because of a basic 
flow of electrons. Electrons are also fondly called 'Little Boogers' by 
inventors who Couldn't find them too easily.
	This amplified signal flows through a series of coils and feeders 
(The Islets of Langerhans) in the first stage of amplification. The first 
stage leads to the second stage, which in turn leads to the third, and so 
forth. Finally the last stage is reached, and everyone goes out for tea.
	Radio developed apace with the coming of singing commercials. 
RCA Victor and CBS bought up everyone and their grandmother, 
including Saul and Roweena Triode who helped to found the Heaviside 
Layer, the Aether, and the tube which ultimately became their namesake: 
The Pentode.
	An unsung hero of these days was Senator Wheatstone, builder of 
the Wheatstone Bridge connecting Biloxi and W. Biloxi. He stated on the 
floor of the U.S. Senate that he would die content if he had his rye, Don 
Ameche, and The Breakfast Club. He was buried with honors in Athens, 
	After the war, radio went into its infancy. The continent was leaped 
in a single span, and a mother in Regina could hear the same Drano 
commercials as a truckdriver in Omaha.
	Familiar to broadcasters is "The First Time on the Air" also known 
as "Beginning Stomach". This quickly changes with experience to "The 
Oriental Clam".
	With the advent of Television (also called "The Third Eye"), radio 
came to be transformed into something else again. No longer would 
listeners depend upon the laughter and songs of G.J. Told of WOOD. No, 
soon the eyeball had replaced the ear; the cathode tube had put a single 
white dot on the sentence called radio. Instead of being an instrument for 
information and commercials, with brief sieges of entertainment, or top 
pops. New engineering techniques made possible the arousal of HiFi, 
which in turn led to Quadraportographic Sounds and Stereomagick 
Musics. The new horizon of radio is cloudy but bright.
	And so it is with a friendly wave that we say 'Goodbye' and 
'Godspeed' and 'Godamercy' to our old furry friend, Radio. From RCA 
Victor, through Roweena Triode and The Joy Boys, it has been a fun-filled 
adventure into the electronic tingling of a whole continent. The Future of 
Radio is no larger nor smaller than we can imagine. Long may she wave.

From Sex and Broadcasting by Lorenzo Milam



by Winter Chiang

In 1947, the ruling party in Taiwan, KMT, imposed martial law on
the island. Newspaper, radio and television were firmly controlled
thereafter by the government. Even though martial law was finally
lifted in 1987, the three existing television stations are still
run by various arms of the state apparatus. TTV is owned by the
Taiwan Provincial Government. CTV is run by KMT; and CTS takes its
orders from the military. Through its direct or indirect control
over the two major newspapers and three television stations, the
ruling party has been able to effectively manipulate public
opinion and greatly restrict freedom of speech.

In the eighties, demand for democracy swept over Taiwan; and
martial law was increasingly challenged by voices from the
opposition movement. Farmers, workers, environmentalists and human
rights activists took their causes to the streets to demand
legalised protection of their rights. To suppress the waves of
social protests that were pushing Taiwan toward democratization,
the KMT relied on the use of force by the military and the police.
Mainstream media portrayed the protests as street violence and
public opinion continued to be  manipulated by the government. In
the meantime, political magazines that were sharply critical of
the government became popular.

In 1986, the Green Team, an underground video group began to
record faithfully social protest events and produced and
distributed video tapes. Their work caused people to understand
the opposition movement in a different light. Between 1987 and
1988, home videos produced by the Green Team and The 3rd Vision
bore witness to major protest events in a social movement that
marked the turning point of Taiwan's development toward

In 1990, the Green Team established an underground television
station to counter the pro-government election campaign invariably
staged by the three TV stations. Others attempted to interrupt
official television broadcast. Mobile underground television
stations also joined in the movement against KMT control over mass

By 1991, there were 300 cable TV stations in Taiwan, all of them
illegal because cable was banned. In 1991, the opposition party,
DPP, began to broadcast political speeches, reports of social
unrest and political discussion programs on cable TV channels.
Such channels were called " Democracy CTV". They began to produce
news reports on local events to counter centralized control over
news by the 3 televisions stations. This marked the beginning of
community TV news in Taiwan. However, such efforts were still
short of the spirit of a true community TV because they lacked
community participation in program production. In 1993, the
government was finally forced to legalize cable TV.

Also, in 1994, underground radio stations sprang up and became the
focus of attention. These stations opened hot lines for call-ins,
enabling taxi drivers, home makers and other listeners to become
street commentators on political events and social issues. The
immediacy of call-in dialogues inspired popular participation and
brought forth opinions that had been systematically silenced by
radio stations that receive official blessing. More importantly,
underground radio became a means of mass mobilization and a point
of conflict that sharpened people's awareness of the inseparable
ties between free speech and democracy. On August 1, 1994, the KMT
government used helicopters and a police force of six thousand to
crack down simultaneously on all 14 underground radio stations in
Taiwan. The early morning attack provoked mass protests and a riot
in the capital city of Taipei. Some stations resumed broadcast
almost instantly and received large sums of money from supportive
listeners. The crackdown only confirmed the martial law mentality
of the KMT and its fear of free speech.

Since 1986, people who pursue freedom of speech have waged a
continous war against government control over the media. Their
protests have been carried out in the margins of society, in the
form of distribution of underground video tapes, TV broadcast
interference, opposition cable TV or underground radio broadcast.
The war has been waged against centralized control by KMT over the
mass media, against official suppression of the people's will to
free expression. Such is the scene in which the electronic media
in Taiwan moves slowly but surely towards democratization.

Winter Chiang works for The Taiwan Report

The preceeding article is from the upcoming issue of Videazimut's
newsletter Clips.  The upcoming issue will be available in
separate English, French and Spanish editions at the end of
September.  Clips is published three times a year.

Subscriptions are $10 US per year in countries of the North and $%
US per year in countries of the south.  For a sample copy, please

Videazimut  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
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Canada H2X 2K5  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .




An Inter Press Service Feature

By Pamposh Dhar

HONG KONG, Aug 11 (IPS) - Students shouting slogans and punching 
air with their fists are the staple image of protests almost anywhere
in the world. In Taiwan, however, security authorities start to
fidget whenever they see taxi drivers listening intently to their

Most of the island's tens of thousands of taxi drivers are avid
fans of Taiwan's underground radio stations, many of which are run by
opposition parties or individuals opposed to the ruling Kuomintang
(KMT) party.

Not only do the illegal stations criticise the KMT -- which has
only lately relaxed its iron grip on the island since it was pushed
off mainland China by the communists in 1949 -- they also encourage
listeners to call in their views, an 'unthinkable' in Taiwan's state-
dominated media.

In addition, Taipei says the stations encourage listeners to take
part in anti-government demonstrations, a charge that some of the
illegal operators have denied.

But then police descended on 14 of the stations two weeks ago and
dismantled transmitters and confiscated equipment. As soon as the
illegal operators managed to resume broadcast using stockpiled radio
hardware, calls to hit back at the government dominated the airwaves.

Scores of taxi drivers were among the demonstrators who vented
their fury on police and journalists last week with stones and
sticks. A few days later, an official of the government information
agency was stabbed as he left the office.

Bedlam had reigned on the morning of Jul. 30, the day authorities
cracked down on the stations. Roadblocks had to be set to prevent
taxi drivers from coming to the aid of their favourite stations.

Reports reaching here say it also took nearly 7,000 policemen to
battle operators and their supporters and dismantle 11 of the 14

The following day, hundreds of demonstrators attacked government
offices and burnt police cars in protest against the clampdown.
Eleven people were arrested and 18 injured, including a policeman and
at least one photographer beaten up by demonstrators.

Opposition leaders charged the crackdown on the illegal stations
was politically motivated since it came one day after members of
mainland China's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Strait
(ARATS) arrived in Taipei for talks with Taiwan's Strait Exchange
Foundation (SEF).

Indeed, Taipei watchers here say the initial protests that greeted
the ARATS team on its arrival were not followed by a similar
demonstration at the talks venue. They say the opposition Democratic
Progressive Party (DPP) may have been preoccupied with responding to
police raids on the radio stations.

DPP secretary general Su Chen-chang also said the authorities went
after the illegal broadcasters because the stations were informing
people about the corruption in government and other wrongdoings of
Taipei officials.

The government retorted that there was no link at all between its
actions against the illegal stations and the Sino-Taiwanese talks.
Wu Chung-li, deputy director of the Taiwanese Information Office,
said the raids were carried out simply to maintain broadcasting
standards and protect the rights of legal radio stations.

In 1993, the Taiwanese government ended 40 years of media monopoly
by allowing new radio stations. But many operators refrained from
registering their stations under the stringent licencing laws,
including strict capital and equipment requirements.

At least of the illegal stations have applied for registration
since, but their applications are still pending.

Tensions have eased somewhat following last week's violent
protests. But Taipei analysts here say there the island's taxi
drivers may be sidetracked from seeking fares again in the coming
months, when voters troop to the polls to elect Taiwan's governor and
two of Taiwan's biggest cities.

With most of Taiwan's electronic media still controlled by the
KMT, the popularity of the illegal radio stations usually peak during
election periods, when voters seek relief from the official rhetoric.

The island's newspapers, which have benefitted the most from the
government's relaxing of its hold on media, are increasingly becoming
more critical of the ruling party. But many Taiwanese seem to prefer
listening to the booming voices of the illegal radio stations.

Some broadcast analysts attribute this partly to the stations' use
of the Taiwanese dialect instead of Mandarin, the island's official
language that dominates the media there.

The analysts say the use of the local dialect appeals to the
growing nationalist sentiment among the Taiwanese, who want to have
their own identity apart from those in the mainland.



First, a word from our legal department:
For educational purposes only.  These kits are offered for the furtherance 
of one's knowledge regarding radio frequency design and principles.  At 
all times during operation the assembled unit must be connected to a 
dummy load.  Part 15 of the FCC rules prohibits an antenna being used 
with these units.  All responsibilities for the ultimate use of these kits are 
born solely by the builder and/or operator.

	All kits are complete and come with professionally manufactured, 
drilled and tinned PC boards.  All coils are pre-wound.  Each unit, unless 
specified, requires 12 volts for proper operation.  Full instructions and 
diagrams included.  Required tools include a  25-30 watt soldering iron 
with a fine tip, diagonal cutters, needle nose pliers, assorted screwdrivers 
and other small hand tools.  Full assembly diagrams and instructions are 
included with each kit.  Antenna construction diagrams are provided with 
each transmitter or amplifier order.
	Certain kits are designed to work with each other.  For those 
whose wish to boost the output of their Ramsey FM-10 the 1/2-1 watt amp 
will work very well for this purpose.  The 30 watt amp is designed to be 
driven by 3-5 watts and works extremely well with the 5 watt transmitter.  
The 15 watt amplifier is designed to be driven to full power with about 1/2 
watt of input power, hence it works very well with the 1/2 watt stereo 
transmitter or PLL transmitter.  If you wish to only boost a 1/2 watt signal 
to 5-7 watts then choose the 6 watt amplifier kit.  An amplifier only 
increases the output power of a given input signal, it can not produce an 
FM signal whereas a transmitter or an exciter creates the FM signal at a 
suitable power level for possible further amplification by an RF amplifier.
1/2-1 Watt PLL Transmitter - $95
Our newest kit.  Full digital PLL control locks the frequency and prevents 
any drift from happening.  Will easily drive the 6-8, 10-15, and 20-24 watt 
amplifier kits.  Easy to assemble and a major improvement over the 
Panaxis PLL kit.  If you have one of our 5 watt transmitter kits, they can 
be modified to be driven by the PLL transmitter.  Full instructions are 
provided for this modification.
1/2 - 1 watt Stereo Broadcast Transmitter - $50
     	A vast improvement over the Ramsey FM-10.  It uses the BA1404 
IC as a stereo modulator only to modulate a FET vfo, buffer and amp 
chain.  Better audio input filtering and bypassing.  IC voltage regulation for 
the 2.5 volt supply for the BA1404.  A very rugged output stage and 
collector voltage bypassing make this unit stand out from all other 
transmitter designs using the BA1404 chip.  Requires 12 volts DC
5 Watt FM Transmitter - $55
     	An improved version of the Panaxis 5 watt design with a much 
more rugged output transistor capable of producing 5-6 watts.  This is a 
very good basic unit that is very compact, fits into a 4 x 6 inch enclosure 
(available punched and drilled).  Frequency stability is maintained by a 
well designed oscillator section.  It is a mono unit that accepts line level 
input (i.e. an audio signal from a tape deck, mixer, etc.).  A fine frequency 
adjustment control allows for easy adjustment of operating frequency.  To 
increase power of this transmitter use the 30 watt amplifier.  Both will fit 
into a 7 x 7 inch enclosure (available punched and drilled).  Requires 12 
to 14 volts DC at 3/4 to 1 amp for operation. 
6 watt RF Amplifier - $30
     	Uses the same output transistor as above.  It is designed to boost 
low wattage transmitters to a bit higher output power and will produce up 
to 8 watts of output power.  A very small and compact circuit measuring 3 
x 1 1/2 inches for 1/2 watt input drive.  Easy, quick assembly.  Requires 
12-14 volts DC at 3/4 to 1 amp for operation. 
15 watt RF Amplifier - $50
     	Uses a very high gain (14dB, power gain of at least 25X) RF 
transistor to boost a 1/2 watt input to 15 watts.  Perfect for boosting the 
1/2 stereo transmitter to 15 watts.  Measures 2 1/2 by 5 inches and fits 
into a 4 x 6 enclosure (available punched and drilled).  Includes heat sink. 
Easy, point to point surface mount assembly.  Requires 12-14 volts at 2 
amps for operation.
20 -24 watt RF amplifier - $95
     	$95 might sound a bit steep, but for those who do not wish to do an 
extensive amount of soldering and tuning, this is kit is for you.  It uses a 
broad band high gain, RF power module which will put out a 20-24 watt 
signal for only a 100 to 200 miliwatt input.  Kit requires less than 20 solder 
connections to complete, including a 5 element filter.  Since the module is 
broad band from 88 to 108 MHz no tuning is required, plug and play as 
they say.  Requires 12-14 volts at 3 to 4 amps.
25-30 watt RF Amplifier - $60 
	Will produce full power with an input drive of 3-5 watts.  This unit 
works very well with the 5 watt transmitter kit.  In fact, next to the 5 watt 
kit, it is our most popular item.  Fits a 4 x 6 inch enclosure (available 
punched and drilled).  Easy point to point surface mount assembly.  
Includes heat sink. Requires 12-14 volts DC at 4-5 amps for operation. 
1/2 to 1 watt Amplifier - $25
     	1/2 to 1 watt output for an input power of 10 mw.  Great for 
boosting lower power VFOs and low power Ramsey FM-10 type kits.  
Very compact size, 3 1/2 X 1 1/2 inches.  An optional transistor can be 
substituted to take the power up to  1 1/2 watts, add $5 for this option.
Output Filter Kit - $8.00
     	A seven element low pass filter, composed of 4 coils and 3 
capacitors, to flatten those harmonics.  Specify cutoff frequency desired, 
94 MHz, 100 MHz, 104 MHz, 108 MHz.  The cutoff should be about 2 to 4 
MHz above the frequency the transmitter is set for.  Please use a filter on 
any transmitter you to use to avoid possible interference with other 
15 Watt Dummy Load Kit - $10.00
	Essential for tuning up and testing transmitters and amplifiers. Will 
handle 15 watts without any strain, higher powers for a briefer period of 
time (i.e. shut down when it gets rather hot).  Presents a uniform 50 ohm 
impedance to the transmitter.  
 25 Watt Dummy Load Kit - $20
	As above, use this with the 30 watt kit for testing and loading 
purposes. Uses a single, film non-inductive resistor
50 Watt Dummy Load Kit - $35
	Same design as the 25 watt unit, use this if you plan on running the 
30 watt unit for an extended period of time with a dummy load.
100 Watt Dummy Load Kit - $50
	Same design as the 25 & 50 watt units.  Uses 2 film resistors.

Stereo Generator Only - $30
	Actually 1/2 of the above the stereo transmitter, will allow one to 
broadcast in stereo using the 5 watt transmitter with a very minor 

75 Watt Amplifier - $175
	Requires 28 volts DC (two car batteries in series or 28 volt DC 
power supply).  Point to point surface mount construction.  Easy 
assembly, includes heat sink.  Amplifier measures 6 3/4 x 3 3/4 inches.  
Only 5 watts input power needed to drive to full power.
125 Watt Amplifier - $225 	Requires 28 volts DC (two car batteries 
in series or 28 volt DC power supply).  Point to point surface mount 
construction.  Easy assembly, includes heat sink.  Amplifier measures 6 
3/4 x 3 3/4 inches.  Use a power FET RF transistor that requires only 3-5 
watts of input power for 125 watts output.

These are partial kits, just go to your local plumbing supply or hardware 
store for the copper pipe and/or wire needed for completion.  Full 
construction diagrams and instructions included.
J-Pole - $20
	Metal box drilled with SO239 connector, tuning cap and tubing 
clamps.  This one is know as the "electricians special" since it uses mostly 
electric hardware in its construction.  Works very well for urban areas.  No 
soldering of copper pipe required for assembly.  Can be adjusted for 
operation over the entire FM band.
Slim Jim - $15
	SO239 connector and clamps.  Works very well for urban areas 
where a powerful horizontal pattern is needed.  If used at too great of 
height, an area surrounding the antenna will be skipped over due to its 
low angle of radiation.  Even at a height of only about 12 feet mounted on 
a traffic sign pole this antenna was able send a 5 watt signal 2-3 miles.  
Requires soldering of copper pipe.  Can be placed inside a 6" piece of 
black plastic pipe for concealment.  Provides a gain of 2-3.
Dipole - $20
	Plastic box, SO239 and clamps.  Easy and quick design.  Can be 
concealed by placing inside a 4" piece of black plastic pipe.
5/8 Ground Plane - $30
	All necessary parts except copper element and ground radials.  
This is a great design and works extremely well.  It is very portable and 
will boost the power by a factor of 2 to 4.

	Unless you are planning on operating from a 12 volt lead acid 
battery or from the lighter socket in a vehicle you will need an AC 
operated DC power supply.  Wall adapter units can not used.  We have 
the following units available.
2.5 Amp 13.8 V DC power supply  - $29
	Use this to power either the 1/2 watt transmitter or 5 watt 
transmitter or the 1/2 watt stereo unit in combination with the 6 watt 
4.5 Amp 13.8 V DC power - $39
	Use this to power the stereo transmitter in combination with the 15 
watt amplifier.
12 Amp 13.8 V DC power supply - $65
	Use this to power the 5 watt transmitter in combination with the 30 
watt amplifier

Power & SWR Meters
	These are essential to the proper tuning and setting up of both 
transmitters and antennas.  An antenna has to be fine tuned so that it 
accepts the full power of the transmitter and reflects the lowest amount 
possible back, that ratio of forward power to reflected power is know as 
the standing wave ratio (SWR).   The various stages of both transmitters 
and amplifiers have adjustable capacitors which are used to tune the unit 
to the frequency of operation.  A power meter allows you to see the effect 
of these adjustments on the power level and to set everything at an 
optimum level.
Economy Power/SWR meter - $35
	A compact in-line unit that works up to a frequency range of 150 
High Quality Daiwa Meter - $100
	A dual cross needle meter that shows both forward and reflected 
power on the same meter face.  Makes tuning up very easy, no need to 
switch back and forth between these two functions.  Compact design with 
12 volt connection for lighting the meter face.

	To accurately maintain your operating frequency a digital frequency 
counter is highly recommended.  A digital tuner with signal strength 
indication can be used as a substitute.  We have a frequency counter 
available for $80.00

	A coaxial cable is a special type of wiring that has an inner 
conductor surrounded by an insulating plastic sheath which is covered by 
a braid of copper wire that is then covered by a plastic jacket.  The 75 
ohm video cable used in home TV applications is one type of coaxial 
cable.  For most RF purposes, 50 ohm cable is used.  Quite a number of 
50 ohm coaxial cables are available ranging from the rather small to 
cables over 1" in diameter.  Regardless of the type, all such cables exhibit 
a  loss that increases with frequency of operation and the length of the 
cable.  For most purposes we will concern ourselves with RG8 and RG8x 
(mini version of RG8).  In very short runs RG58 can be used, but we 
prefer RG8x due to its lower loss and ability to stand a bit more abuse.  
RG8 has the lowest loss of the group.  Under no circumstances should 
the cables be twisted, kinked or crushed, this will cause major problems.  
We supply both RG8X and RG8 in the following lengths.  Each end is 
terminated with a PL259 plug.
RG8X:  25 feet - $15, 50 feet - $25, 75 feet- $35, 100 feet - $40
RG8: 50 feet - $32, 75 feet - $42, 100 feet - $52

4 x 6 aluminum chassis punched and drilled for 5 watt xmtr, 15 watt 
amplifier or 30 watt amplifier - $18
7 x 7 aluminum chassis punched and drilled for 1/2 watt stereo transmitter 
or 5 & 30 combo or PLL 1/2 watt. - $25
The Brick enclosure - $30
Combined heat sink and enclosure, will support a 1/2 or 5 watt  
transmitter and any of the booster amplifiers up to 35 watts.

Tweak stick - $2.50
	Essential to tuning transmitters and amplifiers.  Non-conductive 
body with tiny metal blade at end.  In tuning these transmitters and 
amplifiers a metal screwdriver will cause false tuning to happen due to the 
interactive effects of the metal and the holder of the screwdriver with the 
circuit.  A plastic TV tuning tool kit can be found at Radio Shack as well. 

Stereo Audio Processor & Mixer
	A combined stereo generator, limiter and audio mixer
1-5 Watt AM & SW Transmitter kit with companion 25-50 watt amplifier kit
1-5 watt UHF TV transmitter kit with 15 & 50 watt amplifier kits

Proceeds from the sales of these kits go to the furtherance of micro power 
broadcasting, bringing a voice of empowerment to every community.
Please add $3.00 for handling and shipping for each kit.  $5.00 for the 2.5 
& 4.5 amp power supply and $10.00 for the 12 amp power supply.  Add 
$2.00 for UPS 3 day services.  COD orders add $5.00.  Air mail to other 
countries, $5.00 per kit.

Payment to be made out to Free Radio Berkeley
Free Radio Berkeley 1442 A Walnut St., #406 Berkeley, CA 94709
Voice mail:  (510) 464-3041	Net mail:



	The lambi (a gathering call usually made with the aid of a sea shall) 
rings out.  "Asosye li jou!"  (Friend, the day has begun!) "Leve kanpe!"  
(Time to rise!)  "Soley la leve!"  (The sun's up!) It is 6 a.m., and the 
clandestine radio "Soley Leve" has started its broadcast on 94.9 MHz FM.  
It will continue until 8 a.m. and come back on the air at 8 p.m.
	Created in 1993, this station has made a name for itself in Port-au-
Prince.  The residents of the shanty towns surrounding the capital 
enthusiastically welcomed the renewal of its programming at the end of 
1993, following an interruption for unspecified reasons in October of the 
same year.
	The low-power station is a daily headache for the military. 
According to a reliable source, the men under Michel Francois (the 
current police chief) are actively searching for its broadcasting 
headquarters.  Serge Beaulieu, a fervent supporter of the military and the 
owner of Radio Liberte, which is just next to Soley Leve on the dial, 
complains of problems that the "pirate station" causes for his own 
programs.  At the time of the signing of the Governors Island Agreement 
and the New York Pact,ppealed to grass-roots sectors to continue their 
resistance, even now, 29 months after the coup.
	"Komite rezistans pou jodi" (resistance committee today) and 
"komite rezistans pou demem" (resistance committee tomorrow) are 
continual announcements on Radio Pep Ayisyen (People of Haiti), Soley 
Leve's sister station, which broadcast its first program in April 1992.  After 
silencing its transmitters for more than six months, Radio Pep Ayisyen 
renewed its regular programming in February 1994.
	A drumbeat announces that this station, usually called "Radio pep 
la," (radio of the people) is about to come on the air.  In Port-au-Prince, 
the country's capital, people tune in at 1600 kHz AM. Its antennas are 
turned on about six times each day, with different schedules for each 
region of the country.  This seems to be intended to overcome the 
problem of low transmission power.
	Radio Pep Asyen provides time for international news, in addition 
to its editorials and national news bulletins.  "The suffering, struggles and 
victories of one people are the business of all peoples," the radio explains 
in an ad.  In the time slot entitled "kozman pep la" (chatting with the 
people) the residents of poor neighborhoods and rural areas voice their 
demands and speak their minds regarding the country's problems.
	The same formula was used by Radio Lave Je (literally: washing 
living under cover in Port-au-Prince.  However, they are determined to 
resume Radio Lave Je's programming.
	Since President Jean-Bertrand Aristide was overthrown on 
September 30, 1991, several clandestine radios have come into being in 
Haiti.  Radio Resistance Lavalas made its first broadcast immediately 
after the coup.  It represented a breath of fresh air for the people of Port-
au-Prince throughout the dark days of late 1991.  During that same period 
Radio 29 Novembre became well known.  These initiatives did not last 
very long, but they did make it possible to speak out despite a prohibition 
enforced at gunpoint.  They represented a turning point that will leave a 
permanent mark on the evolution of radio in Haiti.
Gotson Pierre CRAD Information Service

This article is from InteRadio, Vol. 6, No.1., the newsletter of AMARC, the 
World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters. InteRadio is 
published in English, French and Spanish.  To suscribe or for information 
about joining AMARC contact us at:

3575 St-Laurent, # 704
Montreal, Quebec - H2X 2T7  
Fax: +(514) 849-7129 - Tel: +(514) 982-0351 Email:



by Richard Edmondson 
	The big news at San Francisco Liberation Radio is that we've been 
broad-casting nightly for more than three months now and we're still on 
the air!  Our door hasn't been broken down yet!  Be assured, however, we 
are under no delusion as to this representing a new openness toward free 
speech on the part of our repressive government.  My own feeling is that 
they are watching all of this, biding their time, waiting, like some reptile, 
for the right moment to strike.  Our motto at SFLR has become: "Don't get 
com-placent; don't let your guard down!" 
	I think a lot of the credit for our good fortune so far goes to our 
wonderful attorney, Luke Hiken, who seems to have the FCC tied up 
legally for the moment.  That, plus the enormous amount of publicity we 
have gotten and the fact that we now have an international audience over 
the airways of Radio For Peace International are shielding us from 
government attack, for the time. 
	Our first live, phone-in talk show is now a happening thing every 
Wednesday from 5-7 pm.  "Voices of Rebellion" hosted by Keith McHenry 
of Food Not Bombs premiered July 6, and to our pleasant surprise we got 
about six phone calls that day. A regular feature on our Friday night line 
up has become "The Radman's Radio Revolution," an eclectic blend of 
music, poetry, and "Anarchy 101," hosted by the Radman. We just 
finished recording a 30-second promo for our Monday night program, 
"World Beat Music," with Captain Fred, which we now cross-plug at 
various times during the week.  
	Yessiree!  We're startin' to sound more and more like a genuine, 
bona-fide radio station every day! SFLR is, to my knowledge, the only 
station in the Bay Area airing childrens programming-and the credit for 
that goes to Annie Voice.  Annie's program, "Time Out," airs on Thursday 
and Saturday nights from 7:30-8:00, and features childrens stories to 
teach and delight. Stay with us on Saturday nights, for at 8:00 it's "Annie 
Voice for Adults" as Annie brings you music, interviews and political satire 
from the Jolly Roger Comedy Troupe. Programming from Black Liberation 
Radio out of Springfield, Il., is now our regular Tuesday night feature.  
M'banna Kantako's interview with Ramona Africa on the Philadelphia 
police assault on the MOVE house was a chilling account of state-
sanctioned terrorism and murder, and generated a lot of listener 
	At the first of July we aired a program from the Food Not Bombs 
Radio Network featuring an interview with Dr. Alan Cantwell, author of 
evolved into a regular Wednesday night feature entitled, "AIDS/Biowarfare 
Update" featuring the latest news off the Internet plus interviews with 
journalists and others involved in bringing this story to light. On Thursday 
nights we're "Sailing the Seas of Liberation" and sometimes they're 
turbulent seas.  This program focuses on the secret government of the 
U.S., drug running by the CIA, corporate/government criminal activity, 
"free trade," and the crime bill and other attempts to dismantle the 
constitution and the bill of rights. 
	Which brings us to what we all must do more of: "Protest!", airing 
on Sunday nights, is an in-depth report on the major demonstrations 
taking place in San Francisco and the Bay Area during the previous week, 
featuring sound bites interspersed with songs of social protest from the 
60's to the 90's. We'd like to thank TUC Radio for its excellent 13-part 
series, GATT: The Secret Side of Free Trade, which aired over SFLR in 
June and July, and last but not least we'd like to welcome Radio Libre to 
the airwaves, our sister station on the other side of Twin Peaks. 
	Finally, a very, very special thanks to everyone who has 
contributed -their work, their sweat, their labor, their love-to making San 
Francisco Liberation Radio a reality.  "Alternative media" is only a start.  
Together we must create a true, whole alternative society, where we can 
live without fear, and have hope for the future.  We must find a way to 
defeat the insanity fostered by the government and the corporations-while 
there still is a future.  Do not be afraid.  Always remember: "they got the 
guns but we got the numbers."  Together we can do it.



	"My conclusion is that TV and radio stand in the same protected 
position under the First Amendment as do newspapers and magazines. 
The philosophy of the FirstAmendment requires that result  ....The fear 
that Mad-ison and Jefferson had of government intrusion ... was founded 
not only on the spectre of a lawless government but [on the spectre] of 
government under the control of a faction that desired to foist its views of 
the common good on the people  ....The sturdy people who fashioned the 
First Amendment would be shocked at the intrusion of government into a 
field which in this Nation has been reserved for individuals  ....
	The prospect of putting government in a position of control... is to 
me an appalling one, even to the extent of the Fairness Doctrine. The 
struggle for liberty has been a struggle against government. The essential 
scheme of our Constitution and Bill of Rights was to take government off 
the backs of people. Separation of powers was one device. An 
independent judiciary was another device. The Bill of Rights was still 
another. And it is anathema to the First Amendment to allow government 
any role of censorship over newspapers, magazines, books, art, music, 
TV, radio, or any other aspect of the press"


	The work of the Committee on Democratic Communications,a 
national committee of  the Lawyer's Guild, focuses on the right of all 
peoples to a world-side system of media and communications basedupon 
the principle of cultural and informational self-determination.The 
Committee was formed in 1987 to look at the applicability of traditional 
First Amendment concepts in the face of the world-wide monopolization of 
communications resources by commercial interests, and to work for the 
Right To Communicate as an international human right. The committee 
supports independent media organizations and forms of communication, 
such as micro-radio, public access television, and cyberspace resources, 
and works to ensure that they can function freef rom government or big 
business control.   The Committee offers legal advice and representation 
to groups and individuals seeking to establish and sustain such forms 
	 Litigation support and policy analysis are the Committee's main 
activities. The Committee is currently active in constitutional litigation 
challenging the Federal CommunicationsCommission's policies banning 
low power community  (micro-radio)broadcasting.  In  addition, the 
Committee is researching the micro-radio policy of countries outside the 
U.S. in an attempt to develop a model micro-radio policy for the U.S. that 
allows both for access by those interested in non-commercial 
broadcasting and freedom from signal interference for all broadcasters.    	 
	CDC members have represented the Guild at the international 
meetings of the MacBride Roundtable on Communications and assisted in 
drafting that organization's proposed constitution.  This effort,along with 
articles in the CDC newsletter and meetings with human rights groups, 
has helped to further the application of internationa law to the issue of the 
free flow of information in this country and worldwide.  The CDC has 
advised the African National Congress on the proposed broadcast policy 
and regulations to be instituted under thenew South African constitution.         
	 	Individuals, nonprofit organizations, public access coalitions, 
activist organizations, labor unions, community groups, schools, and 
libraries are only some of those who could potentially benefit from the 
developing telecommunications resources.  The challenge will be to 
establish their legal and economic entitlement to these resources.  
Without universal access, democracy will have no meaning as we enter 
the 21st century.  Once established, the right of expression within a 
human rights, international law context will need vigilant protection.     
	 In addition, the CDC is discussing putting together a conference in 
San Francisco for 1995 to address these pressing communications 
issues.  The conference will be sponsored by the CDC in conjunction with 
Media Alliance, and will feature speakers from groups such as Media 
Alliance, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, the Electronic 
Frontiers Foundation and alternative communication magazines such as 
Wired and Mondo 2000.  While the CDChas received partial funding from 
a McMillan grant from the National Office of the national Lawyers Guild, 
the Committee still needs financial assistance.  Finally, funding is needed 
in organizing the CDC's '95 conference.  Money will be needed to secure 
the site, for publicity and for transportation costs for the keynote speaker.  
This an extremely exciting time for the CDC as we are in the midst of 
another phase of the communications revolution.  Please support the 
CDC's work in democratizing global communication by joining today.

For further information, contact:
Committee On Democratic Communications, One Sansome St.
Suite 900, San Francisco CA 94104
(415) 705-6464	FAX: (415) 705-6450	     Email: pfranck@igc.apc


On the Air !
	At this the time of this printing the following micro power stations 
are on the air in the San Francisco Bay Area.

San Francisco Liberation Radio	93.7 - West and North of Twin Peaks in 
Sundays, 2 PM to 10 PM.  Mon, Tues & Fri., 8PM to 12MID.  Wed., 5PM 
to 12 MID.  Thurs. & Sat., 7:30PM to 12MID.

Radio Libre 103.3 - SF Mission District, Tenderloin, SOMA, Civic Center
Every evening from 6PM until 10 PM.  They announce the Food Not 
Bombs meal serving at Civic Center.

Free Radio Berkeley 104.1 - Berkeley, North Oakland, El Cerrito, 
Richmond & Albany.  Sundays from 8 PM to 11 PM, more days will be 
added soon.  Call (510) 464-3041 for updates.

South Marin 87.9 - Mainly Sausalito area.  Every evening until late.

San Rafael, low end around 88.1.  In the evenings

South and North Bay, and beyond.  We have heard of folks being on the 
air from San Jose north to Ukiah.  Unfortunately we have not received 
much information about times and frequencies.  Any updates would be 

	Activity is picking up around the country, several stations will going 
on in New York City, Seattle, and many other areas as well.  We would 
like to hear about what other folks are doing out there, keep us informed.  
In Mexico City a 300 watt street station run by some members of the PRD 
is on the air in open deifance of the government.  Several transmitters are 
operating in Chiapas, both units built by Free Radio Berkeley.

Black Liberation Radio and Mabana Kantako are now on the internet.  
The email address is:


END of Newsletter

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