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Radio Resistor's Bulletin #5 (Pirate Radio On-line Zine)

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[Airwaves editor's note: Radio Resistor's Bulletin is being fwd'd to
the AIRWAVES mailing list and to as a service
to the editor of that publication.  Please note that references to
"RRB" are to Radio Resistor's Bulletin and not to
Rec.Radio.Broadcasting.  Bill] 

Date: Sat, 8 Jan 1994 18:36:59 -0800 (PST)
From: "Frank Haulgren - R.R. Bulletin" <>
Subject: Radio Resistor's Bulletin #5

RADIO RESISTOR'S BULLETIN #5  1993 / 1994    c 1993  
RE-DISTRIBUTE FREELY.  Please cite RRB #5 when excerpting.

comments and articles to:

Radio Resistor's Bulletin 
PO Box 3038 
Bellingham, WA  98227-3038


We are specifically looking for pieces about  women  involved  in
community  radio  and  the  micro or pirate movements for RRB #6.
Please submit by January 25, 1994.  However, all kinds of materi-
al and all points of view are welcome.  FRANK HAULGREN

Page  1

THE FUTURE: More of the same  or  less of  the  different...   
By Frank Haulgren

Non-commercial broadcasting sits on the edge of a  new  age.   At
first glance this new  age may seem to be defined by rapid change
in available technologies.  Just steps away from us are  interac-
tive  television,  500 cable channels, Digital Audio Broadcasting
(DAB), perhaps even micro-radio or micro-TV, and even the "infor-
mation superhighway". But to see only the technology and the pos-
sibilities it dangles before us is  to be duped. The real  engine
that can drive and define this looming new age is people  -- peo-
ple who grow increasingly wary of and hostile towards media  that
seems  to  be   serving  the  needs  of  the  state and corporate
economies.  These two monsters must  cringe recognizing the irony
that  these  new  technologies present.  Product!  More  product!
But at the same time providing access to the tools and  knowledge
that enable real democratization of society.

   Writing  for the ZEBRA News out of  Denmark,  Steffen  Knudsen
and  Lisa  Klocker  call the appropriate use of new communication
technologies an enabling force for democratic development.   They
write,   "If  progressive movements and organisations are  to in-
fluence the  political  development  seriously,  they  need  more
powerful media. .  ..It should be just as natural to make commun-
ication projects as to  dig  wells  and   support  poor  farmers.
...(Amazon)  rubberworkers  need  their  own  radio (stations) in
order to take active part in drawing up their own future.  Cattle
kings  and oil companies will, like any other authority, consider
the radio a dangerous weapon in the hands of rubberworkers.  This
because  the  radio has a much more immediate effect than for in-
stance a health project. ...Within hours after  the  inauguration
of  a  new  radio  or  TV-station, local (or) even national power
structures can be challenged."

   This call for  a  participatory   people's  media  is  growing
everywhere.   Radio B-92  in Belgrade has captured the support of
its community and has become a trusted  information  channel   by
the people.  Black Liberation Radio in Springfield, Illinois  has
likewise siezed the hearts of that city's African  American  com-
munity.  Last  issue  we reprinted an editorial by Lisa Vinebohm,
editor or AMARC's newsletter InteRadio, in which  she  spoke  (as
Knudsen  and  Klocker  above)  for the empowerment  of aboriginal
peoples through the community radio movement. All this is happen-
ing  at  a  grassroots level.  It is happening because the people
who stand outside of the mainstream media (and this, unfortunate-
ly, has come to  include the bulk of non-commercial radio) have a
very different vision of  the  possibilities  presented  by  this
evolving technology  and because the communities they  are speak-
ing to and of also embrace this vision,  rejecting the  one  tied
to consumption and the bottom line.

   Some herald DAB as providing a place on the  radio  dial   for
everyone. The evolving technical  specifics of this system, howev-
er, seem to dictate that radio broadcasting  will become increas-
ingly centralized, controlled by fewer people and that the future
of localized small audience radio will be threatened  by this new
technology.  DAB could, in some schemes, supplant conventional FM
broadcasting entirely.

   Neil Postman has said that the question we should ask when ex-
amining any new technology is not "if" we need it but "why" do we
need it.   Harold Hallikainen maintains in his Radio World  arti-
cles  (see  p.4)  that given current micro technologies  there is
space on the exisiting FM band for low power stations if the  FCC
chose to allow them. So why do we need DAB and more stations with
far reaching signals?  Why replace an exisiting  technology  that
has  served  quite  well  with another?  Why 500 TV channels when
most people can't  find a thing worth watching on those we have?

   What increasingly disturbs me a year after the first issue  of
RRB  is  the  pace at which access and local concern for minority
audiences (once the stock-and -trade of non-comms) is giving  way
to  concerns about "success", "credibility", and professionalism.
Concepts that once were the far off concerns of commercial broad-
casters.   Lydia Sargent, writing in an issue of Z Papers devoted
to the state of  progressive media, says, "To reach more  people,
by  way  of  being taken seriously in the larger media world, you
are supposed to make your message more palatable, but this usual-
ly  becomes  toning  down the message and eventually selling out.
You can never break into mainstream visibility unless  you  func-
tion the way the mainstream functions..."

   This is a time of "demassification", says Alvin Toffler.   Our
society is abandoning the cultural baggage  that has been carried
since the industrial revolution. The time of mass production  and
mass consumption and perhaps even mass communication  has passed.
We see educational  institutions  once  modeled  after  factories
strive to redefine success among students.  Environmentalists are
successfully changing the definition of economic  impact  by  in-
cluding  consideration  of  environmental factors and the cost of
their mitigation in the cost analysis of major construction  pro-
jects.  Broadcasters seem to be swimming upstream, however, look-
ing large,  measuring with obsolete tools and  seeking  to  limit
access  to a preferred few (be they listener or volunteer) rather
than embrace the concept of inclusion.

   In David Kirsch's letter on page 2 he  correctly  states  that
the  people must fight for access to all media in order to insure
democracy.  And he's right.  There is a lot more  at  stake  than
what  kind  of music gets played on your community radio station.



Micro Radio: Not For Everyone & Not The Best Answer

Dear RRB,
   I appreciate your refreshing newsletter and the spirit it  up-
holds.  I'd also like to enter the discussion on "Sandbox Radio."

   Even though this is the land of Jesse Helms, Balance & Accura-
cy  in  Journalism  (BAJ) got its start because there are so many
people in this area of North Carolina who are  fed  up  with  the
lack  of diverse and non-mainstream public affairs programming on
the radio.

   BAJ is now campaigning to strongly encourage WUNC-FM (a power-
ful  and  wealthy NPR station) to include some diverse and contr-
oversial programming as well as the  shrink-wrapped  and  dumbed-
down fare it currently has on.

   I strenuously disagree with the suggestion in the  front  page
piece (RRB #4, Who Knows What Evil Lurks in Sandbox Radio)  that,
"the time may have arrived to give up seeking a return  to  'com-
munity  radio'  and  start anew.  Recreate - with the scale small
and the possibilities undefined."

    I believe it is important to use all possible media to  main-
tain  access  to  information  for  those  without much power and
wealth.  That includes micro radio.  But please don't concede any
territory.  People  should organize and struggle for greater con-
trol of public and community radio.   Some  points  to  consider:
        The  airwaves  are  ours  not  theirs  (the corporate and
        governmental hacks).  The  original  mandate  for  public
        broadcasting  was  for  controversy,  unheard  voices and
        diversity.  It was established  for  the  express  reason
	that  it could  be  protected from the corporate and
	government pressures to which networks are subjected.

        People expect  more  from  public  and  community  radio.
        Even though NPR and its local stations are very far from
        the original mandate, it tends to reach  those  with  the
	most education and influence within communities, such as
        teachers, doctors and other  professionals.   NPR  got  a
	progressive  reputation  over  the years even while it
	shifted more and more to the right.  Media critic Norman
        Solomon likens the situation to this:  throw a frog  into
        boiling  water  and it will jump out, but put a frog into
        lukewarm water and slowly raise the heat and it will boil
        to death.  Many folks will respond if they become aware
        of the problem.

        Micro radio may be terrific for an urban concentration
        of population.  But consider the  geography  of  an  area such
        as the Triangle (Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill), which
        covers a wide and decentralized  region of city,  suburbs &        
 	country.  A micro station would cover a micro stationary
        audience and  an  even  smaller  mobile  radio  audience.
        (People commute long distances by car and are captive
        audiences of the rush hour radio programs, hence the  big
        influence  of  NPR  News).   A strong signal like that of
        WUNC-FM easily covers the Triangle and many miles

        Even if a prolonged effort to demand the reinstatement
        of public input into public radio  is  unsuccessful, the
	effort itself is worthwhile because it is consciousness-
	raising. People getting sufficiently disgusted by NPR News items
        on bubble-gum blowing contests can feel good about
        supporting stations that broadcast stimulating and
        provocative shows.

  BAJ is not only involved in  pressing  for  an  improvement  in
mainstream  sources  like WUNC, it is also involved in supporting
and producing alternative media such as The Unofficial Story   on
WSHA-FM  from  Raleigh's Shaw University,  The Prism (a free all-
volunteer monthly newspaper) and  local  broadcasts  of  Pacifica
Evening News on WSHA and WXYC-FM (Chapel Hill).

   BAJ is distributing a bumpersticker:  "PUT THE PUBLIC BACK  IN
PUBLIC RADIO", for $2 each.  BAJ, PO Box 824, Carrboro, NC 27510.

      Thanks again for your great work,
      David Kirsh

NOTE: David Kirsh is a journalist
 writing occasionally about media
 in EXTRA!, published by FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy  In  Reporting)



FCC Uses 20 Cops to Obtain Pirate's ID

Excerpted from RECLAIMING THE AIRWAVES,Oct.1993 the newsletter of
Free  Radio  Berkeley  and the Free Communications Coalition (the
People's FCC)

     In a scene resembling a French noir film, one person associ-
ated  with  San Francisco Liberation Radio was detained by 20 San
Francisco police officers until his ID could be presented to  FCC
agent David Doon.

    At approximately 9:30PM on Wednesday, September  22,  Richard
Edmondson  was approached by David Doon who asked for identifica-
tion.   After refusing to produce identification  or  answer  any
questions,   Richard drove away and was stopped on Webster St. by
SF police officers who blocked off the entire northbound lane  of
the  street with 8 vehicles.  A confused scene ensued wherein the
police officers had virtually  no idea of what was  going  on  or
why   such massive backup had been called.  Edmondson was ordered
to get out of his vehicle with his hands up and in clear sight by
clearly agitated SF police who subsequently handcuffed him.  Pol-
ice officers were heard to say "Who is this guy" and "What do  we
have   him  for".   For  several  minutes  these  questions  went
unanswered.  By the time the FCC agent arrived to examine Edmond-
son's ID there were at least 20 SF police officers on the scene.

    After learning of what was going on,  some  of  the  officers
were  clearly exasperated at having their time wasted by this FCC
agent.  A few were amused and asked for information regarding San
Francisco  Liberation  Radio's  frequency and broadcast schedule.
After his ID was verified, Edmondson  was  released  without  any
further consequences by the SF police.

   San Francisco Liberation Radio's Richard  Edmondson  described
it  this way: "Before it was all over there were at least 20 pol-
ice officers on the scene.  They were all so pumped up with adre-
naline  you  would  have thought I had committed the crime of the
century.  It was clearly irresponsible for this FCC agent to call
for  such  a  massive response without giving clear reason or in-
struction to the SF police.  When police officers go into  a  si-
tuation  not knowing the details they naturally assume the worst.
For one dark moment I feared my life was in danger."

     This was an obvious case of over-reaction by FCC agent David
Doon who clearly endangered the life of Richard Edmondson by cal-
ling in such a massive police response.  The FCC must be held ac-
countable  for the actions of their agents who use such extremely
excessive and reactionary methods to  suppress  a  growing  micro
power  broadcasting  movement.   It would have sufficed for David
Doon to have written down the license plate number of Edmondson's
vehicle and run a DMV check.

    As more micro power broadcasters go on the  air  in  the  Bay
area  and  Northern California, we can anticipate further actions
by the FCC to harass and intimidate those involved.  However,  we
shall not be moved by their threats and police state tactics.



Publication Notes & REVIEWS:

RADIO IS MY BOMB,  anonymous,         Free Radio Campaign -  Fin-
land      In 1988  the  Free  Radio Campaign in Finland published an
	anonymously authored booklet called RADIO IS MY BOMB. The text of
	this  book  and its electronic's diagrams are now available elec-
	tronically via anonymous ftp. (See InfoBox on  page  3   for  de-

   This essential book is divided into two sections.   The  first
contains   some   fairly  detailed  technical  information  about
transmitter and antenna construction as well as  explanations  of
and  notes about using  signal compressors, limiters, osillators,
harmonic filters and a good deal more very valuable information.

   While part one provides essential practical  information  that
someone  on your micro broadcasting team had better be knowledge-
able about, the  second part provides  a  wealth  of  information
that  gives  a solid grounding for working through  questions and
issues that have much grayer answers.

   Consider your medium: AM, FM, SW, television?  Will you broad-
cast live or via tape? How do you plan an escape in the event the
authorities come knock, knock, knocking at your door or  pounding
up  the  pathway  to  your  hilltop  broadcast site? What kind of
internal structure should your "station" have? What does one  say
in the event of a bust?

   RADIO IS MY BOMB is a necessary textbook  (well,  as  much  as
there can be one) for anyone considering wading into micro broad-
casting.  Though the shopping lists may be a bit dated given  the
pace  at  which micro technology races, the theory remains  sound
even  if the specifics seem a bit too European: "On a tower block
	in  London  the DTI squads can tell where  you are, within 20 me-	
	ters, less than 10 minutes after you switch on...  The  detection
	squads...are  officially  responsible for stamping out 'radio in-
	terference'...  They use mobile detection vans and  lots  of  un-	
	marked cars... The DTI squads are not supposed to arrest you,  so
	they bring along the local filth  on  busts..."  		
Ditto  the  FCC. (See story on page 3)

   If you are interested in more than playing your favorite music
for a select small audience and feel the need to challenge a sys-
tem that unfairly and perhaps illegally  keeps  the  disempowered
off  the  public  airwaves,  RADIO  IS MY BOMB poses some serious
questions that will need to be worked through: "The word 'commun-
	ity"  has  lost  any  real meaning through  misuse and overuse...
	The old style communities are a thing of the past...  as the sys-
	tem  breaks  us  all  down into consumers.  So  if you're talking
	about 'community radio' you should be quite clear what  you  mean
	by  it...  What class, ethnic, interest, political or gender sec-
	tions of the people are you aiming  (at)?   Or  better,  creating
	your  pirate  radio  with? Or are your really working on your own
	career?  Or trying to create 'community' in your  own head?"

   And finally, RADIO IS MY BOMB provides just good  stuff   that
gets  lost in the shuffle of excitement.  How to set-up.  How  to
knock-down.  How to set up a studio.  And this bit,  perhaps  the
most  valuable and often overlooked consideration for anyone pur-
suing a vision:   "It's hard  to  give  advice  about  long  term
	development,  but there's a few things worth saying. First of all
	it's important to pace yourselves.  It's easy to start off with a
	lot of enthusiasm, then get busted off the air, or just burnt out	
	with  too much work or too few people.   However  good   or  dif-
	ferent you are you will be very lucky to build up a regular audi-
	ence or mass support overnight... Breaking down passive  consump-
	tion of the media is not easy... Your long term aim, as a pirate,
	should  be  to  reach  a  situation  where  you  have   so   much
	support...that the state just  cannot wipe you out at will."

  The title, RADIO IS MY BOMB, comes from a remark Chantal Pater-
nostre,  a  Belgian anarchist and broadcaster for Radio Air Libre
(a Brussels Pirate station in 1985), made while being interrogat-
ed   on  charges of arson and bombing.  After more than a year in
prison authorities apparently believed her claim and let her go.


  November 10, December 8, 1993 January _, 1994
  (See InfoBox  P.6  for  subscription details.)

Harold Hallikainen has written a series of three articles for the
monthly  Radio  World.   The articles discuss the impact that the
FCC's interpretation of spectrum scarcity and its licensing prac-
tices  have  had  on the existing micro broadcasting movement and
how a reinterpretation of the commission's rules  could  open  up
various opportunities for micro radio.

   Article #1 "The Fairness of Spectrum  Leases?"  (RW  11/10/93)
broaches  the  touchy issue of First Amendment rights and how the
FCC uses the concept of spectrum scarcity to  control  the  elec-
tronic  media  in  a  way that would horrify if applied to print.
Hallikainen proposes a system of  spectrum  leasing  rather  than
spectrum  "selling" as we now see.  While he concedes that such a
scheme would likely do little to open the airwaves  up  to  those
without  hundreds  of  thousands of dollars to spend, he suggests
that spectrum leasing (as he details it) might put the incredible
amount  of money that is now paid to broadcast attorneys more ap-
propriately into the public coffers.

   Article #2 "Ideas on MicroBroadcasting", (RW 12/8/93) explores
the FCC's rules governing low power FM broadcasting and secondary
services such as FM translators and repeaters and how these rules
might  be  altered  to accommodate legalized micro radio.  Halli-
kainen's arguments are well documented and compelling.  For exam-
ple,  in discussing the FCC's rationale that translators have the
potential to provide larger numbers of options to the "consumer",
he  cites  a  study  by the National Association of Broadcasters.
This survey of small counties and large population  areas  showed
that, overwhelmingly, translator applications tend to propose ad-
ditional service to areas  where  there  is  already  significant
choice and, consequently, extreme spectrum scarcity.

   "The fact that translators are authorized at all seems to  in-
dicate  that  it is possible for low power stations to operate in
the gaps between highpower stations and still  meet  interference
requirements," he notes.

Article #3, "License Free Low Power  FM?"  (RW  1/94).   In  this
piece  Hallikainen  briefly  mentions the cases that KAPW (a half
watt station in Phoenix, Arizona) and Free  Radio  Berkeley  have
pending  with the FCC.  While both have been cited with Notice of
Apparent Liability fines far in excess of what their actions war-
rant ($17,500 and $20,000 respectively) both continue to operate.
Suggested is a practical strategy  whereby  the FCC could identi-
fy  "holes  in the spectrum" and define specific transmitter set-
tings that would be significantly greater than current rules  al-
low,   protect existing licensed stations and  allow low power FM
stations, such as KAPW and FRB, to operate unharrassed.

  Referring back to his original article,  Hallikainen  asks  the
question  that both of these micro operations and the information
he has provided seem to pose.  "If freedom of speech  is  applied
to  broadcasting,  does  the FCC have a 'compelling governmental
interest" to prohibit low power stations that can  (as  KAPW  and
FRB have) operate without interference with existing stations?"


MONDO 2000, #11    $5.95 Mondo 2000, #11, contains an   extensive
feature by Wes Thomas on pirate media.  There is extensive cover-
age of Free Radio Berkeley  & Stephen Dunifer, an  article  about
setting  up a national micro broadcasting network, a step by step
on Do It Yourself FM  with  great  pictures  of  some  homebrewed
equipment,  an interview with Veran Matic, Director of Belgrade's
Radio B-92 movement (mentioned in the last RRB), an article  about
Internet  radio  (which  provides access to digitized audio files
which subscribers can download to a PC  and  play  back),  and  a
comprehensive  guide  to  guerrilla media resources. All this and
more, well worth $5.95 and a trip to your local book seller.

CURSEword!, #7.  November  1993    Free The  voice  of  KCMU-FM's
strident  opposition presents its anniversary issue with a pretty
good recap of last year's battle over  control  of  the  one-time
flag  ship  station  of  Seattle's  (and the world's) alternative
music scene.  Ring up the Hotline    206-298-CURS   or  write  to
CURSEword, PO Box 85839, Seattle, WA  98145-1839

p. 5

STATION UPDATES: Community  Radio On The Rocks!

        Station Updates:   Information  comes  in  from
	around the country regularly about college          
	and community stations that  are  falling  to           
	"professionalization". This  time  around Station Updates looks
	farther afield than it has in the past and posts the first 
	installments of some new struggles as well as bringing news
	about some "old favorites".            RRB

KOPN-FM  Columbia, Missouri
 Community Radio
   By Jay Teutenberg There has always been a lot   of  passionate
volunteer  disapproval  with the direction KOPN's staff/board has
been taking us.  But, it's  only recently that  we  are  learning
exactly  what that direction really means. Basically, the yuppies
have stolen our community station.

    Our board/staff has teamed up with the National Federation of
Community  Broadcaster's  (NFCB)  David  LePage  and under a plan
named  "The Healthy Station Project" (HSP),  they  are  hammering
the  final  nails into the coffin of free radio in Columbia, Mis-

   KOPN's board/staff has agreed on a 3 year plan to  become  the
number  one station in Columbia, securing 30% of the affluent 25-
45 year old crowd of  listeners by the end of  that  period.  The
vehicle  for this is going to be the Triple A format (Adult Album
Alternative) .  Even though we already have a new commercial sta-
tion  (KBXR)   doing  Triple A,  KOPN is going to compete using a
different variation.  We have been told that  this  will  involve
"hotboxes"  and "rotation clocks",  possibly with the djs eventu-
ally being told what cuts to play and when. They are looking  for
a  "more  homogeneous, predictable, consistent"  airsound, (which
will probably sound a lot like World Cafe, is my guess).

   The board/staff maintains that we must go  in  this  direction
because  we  are in such dire financial straits - caused by a bad
decision to relocate KOPN's (fund raising) bingo  game,  and  the
other usual causes such as government money drying up, etc.  How-
ever, last year the staff's salaries amounted  to  $145,000,  ap-
proximately  half  our  budget.  This year the station will carry
forward a debt note of $20,000, in addition to the other accounts
payable.   What  I  am  getting  at is that while the board/staff
points at how they have taken a 10% pay cut for the  4th  quarter
it  has been their salaries and their decisions that have created
this dire situation.  They now use it as an excuse to  take  con-
trol away from the volunteers and community.

   David LePage has laid it out in black and white terms,  either
we  can  lift  the budget to  $400,000, or we can run at $100,000
with  no paid staff or CPB (Corporation for Public  Broadcasting)
funding.  No  one  has talked much about what it would be like to
run without paid staff,  just left it as sort of  an 'unspeakable
horror'.     (Editor's note: Jon Bekken's paper, "Community Radio
at the Crossroads:...", mentioned in RRB #4  clearly  outlines  this
particular cycle of addiction.)

  Our board has a long history of being very  difficult  to  deal
with.  Their  meetings  are run by people who are very skilled at
controling direction  and  frustrating  the  com-munity's  input.
Over  the years they have assumed near total control of the board
with the exception of one seat - 1 out of 12.

   Although the station's volunteers  are  preparing  to  make  a
more  organized   argument  when  the big format change comes,  I
doubt the situation will be changed by other than forceful means,
such  as  interfering with their fund raising, underwriters, etc.
I  don't know if there is going to be enough community support to
save  KOPN.   If  we  cannot restrict the flow money before their
commercialized programming begins to pay off, we are sunk.

  The volunteers at KOPN-FM left themselves open for this,  in  a
way. We didn't work hard enough at getting out into the community
and encouraging new listeners.  We didn't see  the  problem  with
accepting  money from the government, from bingo, from other non-
listener sources.  Our biggest problem has been lack of organiza-
tion  among  the  djs  and other volunteers. The  staff/board has
been able to  divide and conquer,  and make us  feel  like  we're
powerless to do anything about it.

  The information from the Net has been extremely valuable to us.
Not  only for resistance ideas, but also from knowing that we are
not alone, that there are others fighting, and a few winning.  We
needed to realize that this is a nationwide trend, and to look at
the big picture.  I have been in touch with just  under  10  con-
tacts  who  have an interest in KOPN's battle, and there are 5-10
people in town who have e-mail and are involved also. The trouble
is,  whenever a meeting takes place off-line, there is no way for
anyone else to learn from it.  To update  a  new  member  of  our
'resistance'  is  too  inefficient,  we  wind  up saying the same
things over and over. I would really like to  see  the  topic  of
resistance  to  professionalization  on a listserver, linked to
the Usenet, and the ftp  archives  consolidated  or  at  least  a
directory of pertinent sites maintained. It would also be cool if
one of the resistance newsletters could be a snail-mail interface
to those who are off the Net.

   Communication will mean organization and education, and that's
what  we need if we hope to outwit such an entrenched adversary.

NOTE: Jay Teutenberg is a volunteer at KOPN-FM  a community radio
station  in  Columbia  Missouri.   He speaks only for himself and
does not represent the station or any specific  organization  at-
tempting to beat back the changes at KOPN.  Jay can be reached by
e-mail at


KRCL 91 FM  Salt Lake City, Utah.
     By Robert Nelson.  There hasn't been  any  huge  crisis  and
showdowns between KRCL's staff and volunteers like the one raging
at KCMU in Seattle.  It's been a gradual, subtle change in direc-
tion:  let's target the upscale listeners at radiothon, let's use
commercial radio strategy, like arbitrons, and shoehorn them   to
fit  demographics.   Longtime programmers have been told to "dumb
down" their shows; don't play so much esoteric stuff,  play  more
recognizable  tunes/artists.  Some of staff's "pet shows" get ad-
vertised in mass media where they've never (run) such ads before.

   Last summer there was an abrupt change  in  programming.   The
World Beat people affected were given two week notice that they
were losing a half hour from their shows.  No advance warning, no
appeals,   no  input;  accept  it.   A  meeting  was  called  and
volunteers were extremely offended that such a large  change  was
quickly rammed in.  Staff said they did it because they wanted to
make  the  change  as  painless  as  possible.     However,   the
volunteers  felt  like  they were being taken for granted and pa-
tronized. Now they  have  changed  the  policies  on  programming
changes.   Volunteers can participate in a comment period regard-
ing  the shows and times  involved. The staff   will  weigh  into
account the volunteer's suggestions before they implement the de-
cision.  Although volunteers still have no "vote"  in  the  final
decision  making  process.   I  guess  there are pros and cons to

   The station manager has a formal review this  year.   I  think
the   staff  is more aware that volunteers do care more about the
station than just programming a show. I don't think they'll be so
cavlier in decisions in the future.

   I support staff and generally think the station manager is do-
ing  a good job.  (Many others at KRCL think he is too dictatori-
al).  However, I am perceiving a greediness oozing  into  certain
decisions  regarding  fund  raising.   Our contributor categories
used to go from $35, $50/60, $75. Now they were  raised  to  $40,
$75.   There isn't much of a middle category anymore.  Where does
that leave students, artists, working people who love the station
but  can't  absorb  a $75 pledge?  They feel like their lousy $20
bucks goes unwanted.

   Staff is now very concerned not just with  money  pledged  but
collection  rates.  After our last radiothon, we were supposed to
air these admonishing PSA's the tenor of which was basically, "OK
you  listeners,  remember,  you  pledged;   now  DON'T  FORGET TO
PAY!!!."  Even though we say to them throughout  'thon,  "Take  6
months to a year to pay, pledging's a voluntary act, we won't send a
bill collector after you..."  And we send people  bill  reminders
every month. That ought to be enough reminding.

   Think of it - we've been bombarding them for 2-4 weeks  before
hand that 'thon is coming.  Then 10 days of beg, beg, beg.  Then,
after it's over (staff) wants  us  to  keep  hounding  them...???
'Thon's  been  over  for  a month and every week it's still these
damn PSA's. I think that's an insult to our listeners...


p. 6

Puget Sound Stations:

KUGS-FM, Bellingham:  New GM, Dan Tritle, took over the first  of
November.   One  of  his first official acts was to accompany the
outgoing interim GM before the AS (Associated  Students  Board  -
caretakers  of  the station's license) and stand by a recommenda-
tion that the KUGS Advisory Committee (KAC)  be  disbanded.   The
university's  newspaper, The Western Front, reported on 11/2 that
the KAC could be reinstated after the charter and mission  state-
ment  were  re-written.   The problem, the paper stated, was that
the current charter allowed non-students to be seated on the  ad-
visory committee.  The AS passed the recommendation unanimously.

And, the November 27th,  Bellingham Herald ran a story announcing
KUGS'  strategic  success in capturing a larger share of its tar-
geted listener group.  The Herald states that in  the  15  months
since  the  bitter battle which  resulted in a purge of many non-
student programmers and a dramatic shift in programming to a  ro-
tation  format featuring "alternative rock" almost exclusively the
number of coveted 18-24 year olds listening to  the  station  has
doubled  while the 35-54 year old listener group has been halved.
Not much of a net gain to speak of but the age group is  the  one
the  the  station's  management  and  AS wanted. Whillhight Radio
Research out of Seattle reports that the number of Western  Wash-
ington  University  students  listening  has   risen from 7.3% to

Though Tritle said in the Herald article, "We're well aware  that
our  signal  goes  out  into the community.  We haven't forgotten
them..."  Anyone tuning in Thanksgiving Day though would have im-
mediately  realized  that  the  station  is now primarily for and
about students.  Dead air was the main fare proving the GM's fol-
low  on  statement  to  the above, R...but, it's the students who
we're mainly serving."

KCMU / CURSE, Seattle: The stand off between  the  University  of
Washington's  KCMU-FM and CURSE (Censorship Underminds Radio Sta-
tion Ethics) continues.  While CURSE has won over   many  of  the
volunteers  who  were hired to replace striking CURSE members and
their supporters, pushed World Cafe to the weekends  and  accumu-
lated  a significant escrow of pledge monies that could have gone
to the station, KCMU may finally  be  finding  new  support.  Its
fall  on-air  fundraiser was the most successful since the battle
began more than a year ago.

GM Chris Knab has been replaced by an interim GM, sister  station
KUOW's development director Tom Mara.

Depositions by the 14 former volunteers and  listeners  who  have
filed  a  First  Amendment suit against the UW,  the university's
director of broadcasting  Wayne Roth and Knab have been filed  in
Federal  Court  and  a  June  1994  court  date  is  set.   For a
comprehensive year end review of the KCMU/CURSE  situation,   get
yourself a copy of CURSEword #7. (See InfoBox, p. 6)



Info Box. Info Box  Info Box

 DJ-L for folks involved in and interested in college radio.
   Send   a   subscribe   message   to    the    listserver    at

 NACB run by the National Association of College Broadcasters.
   For the "career  minded"...   Send  a  subscribe  message  to:

 Usenet newsgroups:

   CURSE / CURSEword
     PO Box 85839
     Seattle,  WA  98145-1839      Hotline 206 298-CURS

   Free Radio Berkeley  / Peoples FCC
     1442 A Walnut St., #406
     Berkeley,   CA   94709     phone    510-464-3041      

     PO Box 1214
     Falls Church, VA  22041    Phone 703 - 998 - 7600

   BAJ (Balance and Accuracy  in Journalism)
     PO Box 824
     Carrboro, NC   27510       PUT THE PUBLIC  BACK  IN PUBLIC RADIO   
				Bumper sticker  is $2.00

   RADIO IS MY BOMB,  anonymous
     Available electronically  by   anonymous  ftp   from
Or  contact  RRB   if you're not
    connected and we'll see what we can be worked out.

 Devmedia: Media for Development and Democracy.
   Send subscribe message     to

Additional 12/6 insert


As Radio Resistor's Bulletin #5 went to the printer the  follow-
ing information was received.

San Francisco Liberation Radio and Richard  Edmondson  have  been
served  a  $10,000.00 Notice of Apparent Liability by the FCC for
alleged illegal broadcasting.  They have retained Louis Hiken  of
the National Lawyers Guild Committee for Democratic Communication
to represent them.

Free Radio Berkeley has received a reply to its   13  page  legal
response  to  the  $20,000  Notice  of  Apparent Liability levied
against Stephen Dunifer last  spring.   Dunifer  paraphrased  the
FCC's  response  this  way:  "Your  legal arguments do not mean a
thing to us, send us a check for $20,000.S

Both San Francisco Liberation Radio and Free Radio Berkeley  will
continue  to  broadcast  despite action taken by the FCC.  FRB is
intent on getting a network of micro  stations  on  the  air  and
notes that many stations are now coming up all over the Bay area,

In a related case the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals surprised U.S.
micro  broadcasters  and  ordered  the  FCC to respond to  briefs
filed in support of KAPW's Bill Dougan  and  Tom  Reveille.   The
case  is  slated to come before the court in San Francisco on De-
cember 14, 1993.  The court's order states in part: "The court is
interested  in  the way (the FCC's) regulations serve public con-
venience, interest and necessity and  the  government's  interest
involved in precluding micro power broadcasts."

Louis Hiken released a statement saying that, "The Committee  for
Democratic Communication, FRB and SFLR are pleased that the court
has seen fit to question the FCC's  total  prohibition  of  micro
broadcasting.  The court order reflects an awareness that the FCC
appears to have totally exceeded its authority  as  a  regulatory
agency  and,  instead,  has come perilously close to being an arm
for government censorship - an institution which serves to stifle
democratic communication."

In a statement released by the National  Lawyers  Guild  attorney
Peter  Franck,  former  president  of the Pacifica Foundation and
Guild member, called micro radio the "pamphlet of  the  90Us  and

Further information regarding all of  these  cases  is  available

Sansome Street, Suite 900 San Francisco, CA   Phone 415-705-6464

Free Radio Berkeley  and The Free Communication Coalition   Phone
510-464-3041  1442 A Walnut, #406, Berkeley, CA 94709      e-mail

San Francisco Liberation Radio    Phone 415-487-6308

KAPW,    Bill  Dougan  PO  Box  47473,  Phoenix,  AZ   85068-7473
602-548-1054                   R R B

12/23 The court will not issue its ruling for several weeks.   In-
formation received indicates however that of the 3 judges hearing
Dougan's case one was sympathetic to the idea of Micro broadcast-
ing,  one was on the fence and the third was hostile to the whole
idea.  While the 9th Circuit Court has a reputation for  its  li-
beralism  its  rulings  have  not always stood up well  in higher

Watch for additional information on this.

PO BOX 3038 
BELLINGHAM, WA  98227-3038





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