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TUCoPS :: Radio :: philcode.txt

The Phillips Code




The Phillips Code

    Transcribed by Joseph Hartmann K2AVJ

[ J.Hartmann's notes enclosed between brackets ]

[
----------------this is a work in progress --------------------
----------------the actual PHILLIPS CODE book is done ---------
----------------but I am uncertain about embedded TABS --------
----------------and I expect to change some of the ------------
----------------recollections of Stu at the end. --------------
----------------WA2FFY has given me some inputs ---------------
----------------which remain to be incorporated ---------------
]

[cover: brown print on buff background]

           The
           Phillips
           Code
					 
		 
          Bi-Centennial 
          Edition

					 
[reverse side of front cover,
 rubber stamped in red ink:  ]
 
 National Telegraph Office
 1149 Weber St.
 Union, NJ 07083


[page -3: rest of book black print on white background]

              The 
				      
       P h i l l i p s     C o d e
				  
  A THOUROUGHLY TESTED METHOD OF SHORT-    
   HAND ARRANGED FOR TELEGRAPHIC PUR- 
    POSES.  AND CONTEMPLATING THE
     RAPID TRANSMISSION OF PRESS 
       REPORTS; ALSO INTENDED 
          TO BE USED AS AN
		  
E A S I L Y   A C Q U I R E D   M E T H O D
		 	 
                  FOR
					
       General Newspaper and Court
                Reporting
					
                   by
					
            Walter P. Phillips
		
   
             revised in 1975
	
		 
    Entered According to Act of Congress
                    by
             WALTER P. PHILLIPS
                   1879
          Renewed January 8, 1907
		   
		        
                 NEW YORK
        TELEGRAPH AND TELPHONE AGE
                253 BROADWAY


[page -2]
[blank side of previous page]


[page -1]
         I N T R O D U C T I O N
			   
  There has been a persistent demand for
a code book that contained not only the
Phillips, but various other codes and sig-
nals that were once widely used.

  The necessity for codes and coding be-
came apparent with the earliest forms of
signalling, as only very limited intelligence
could be transmitted by the crude devices
of those days.  When the electric telegraph
made possible the speedy transmission of 
alphabets and numerals, coding was still
important to reduce line time and costs.

  Research suggests that at one time, 
commercial telegraphs and railroads had
numerical codes that contained at least
100 groupings.  Few survived beyond the 
turn of the century.  The compilation in
this book represents the consensus of many
whose duties brought them into close con-
tact with this subject.  It will be noted
that in some cases, more than one mean-
ing was assigned to a coding.  The most
generally understood definition is printed
first, with secondary usage in parenthesis.

  The Phillips Code is that of the last offi-
cial edition  -- 1925 --  plus the Market  
supplement of 1909 and a listing of some
codings which have been added.

  I am indebted to J. Ralph Graham, Nick
Carter, George Secrist and Art Stewart, 
long time press operators, for suggestions
and review of the general arrangement.

                              73,
                   E. STUART DAVIS (DV)

	
			
[page 0: a copy of an old advertisement]

      Q U A L I T Y    F I R S T
	  
 [picture of a sounder and key on a wooden base]
 [     with the base marked "MARCONI"          ]

      Only BUNNELL Keys should be used
in sending Phillips' Code or any other Code.
There is no other key in same class.  Perfect
workmanship with iridium hardened, plat-
inum points  is the reason for their easy
working and the beautiful, clean-cut signals
they make.
  Special prices to code users on application.
  
[Picture of          ]  
["Hudson's           ]      H U D S O N     
[Word Register"      ]  W O R D    C O U N T E R
[     Patented       ]
[a pointer over 360  ]    For counting number of
[degrees with "50" at] words written on a typewriter.
[the top, and major  ]    Furnished with attachments
[divisions of 10, 20 ] for applying it to all the stand-
[30, and 40, going   ] makes of machines.
[cw, evenly spaced   ]    On ordering be sure to
[in increments of    ] specify make and model of
[one unit            ] machine on which it is to be
                      used)
                          Directions for attaching ac-
         	      company each machine.	    
                      SPECIAL NET PRICE $3.00

Send for catalog and circular of C.Q.A. Relays.

J.  H.  B U N N E L L   &  C O.  Inc.
PARK PLACE, near Woolworth Bldg.
          NEW YORK.

		  
[page 1]
  W A L T E R    P O L K    P H I L L I P S

  Born in Grafton, Massachusetts, in 1846,
Walter Phillips entered upon a career in com-
munications as a messenger for the American
Telegraph Company at its Providence, Rhode
Island office in 1861. Quickly mastering the 
art of Morse telegraphy, he became one of the
fastest operators of the time.  In 1864 he was
promoted to the position of "report opr." copy-
ing news despatches from the Associated Press.
He set a new speed recond by copying 2731 
words in one hour.  This feat won an award
of a solid gold pen from Prof. Samuel F. B.
Morse.  Phillips joined the Associated Press in
1867 and was made manager of its Washington
Bureau in 1868.  Ever alert to the value of
speed in news transmission, he persuaded the
AP in 1875 to establish the nation's first leased
wire, for press service, linking the cities of
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Wash-
ington.  Determined to make the AP the fast-
est news nervice in the country, he revised the
existing abbreviations and codes used in the
transmission of press.  in 1879 he published the
first edition of the "Phillips code" -- a system
so fundamentally sound in principle and so
easy to learn that it quickly became the stand-
ard code used throughout the North American
continent.

  As an inventor, he patented an improved
form of hand key that was widely acclaimed
by operators -- and shortly thereafter, in con-
junction with R. H. Weiny, invented a single
line repeater knows as the Weiny-Phillips
that remained in service as long as Morse
wires were in use.  He was joint inventor of
the first successful semi-automatic key: the
"Autoplex," patented in 1902 by Horace G. 
Martin.

  In 1898, Walter Phillips was appointed vice
  president and general manager of the United
  Press, and he retired in 1918 as one of the
  most highly respected gentlemen ever to
  grace the telegraphic profession.
  
                                     -DV


[page 2]		
            F O R E W A R D
		   
  The growth of the language necessitates, at
intervals, the elimination form the Phillips
codethose contractions that have become 
practically obsolete, and providing code for
the newer words, or those that, during recent
years, have become common in press reports.

  Revision of the code according to the root 
of the word involved was desired.  This idea
had to be abandoned, however, because the ar-
bitrary representations of words and phrases
by a combination of letters produces anoma-
lous formations, which, being once incorpor-
ated, cannot afterward be easily dropped or
reformed.  And, again, the same contraction
was frequently found to fit different words:
hence deviation from the desired basis of for-
mation was necessary, in order that the more
important words might be included in the
present work.

  Among the more important changes are:
  
  Abr- Abrogate.          Cft- Confident.
  Acq- Acquaint.          Cfu- Confuse.
  Admn- Admission.        Cnc- Concern.
  Adrn- Administration.   Cop- Cheif of Police.
  Ahd- Apprehend.         Cul - Culminate.
  Ape- Appreciate.        Cy- Copy.
  Apkn- Application.      Dcr- December.
  Apln- Appelation.       Dec- Decrease.
  Aq- Acquire.            Def- Defeat.
  Aqt- Acquit.            Deft- Definite.
  Aqu- Acute.             Dfi- Deficient.
  Aqw- Acquiesce.         Dpo- Dispose.
  Asr- Assert.            Efy- Efficiency.
  Atv- Attentive.         Ek- Economy.
  Atrv- Attractive.       Elm- Eliminate.
  Avb- Available.         Elq- Eloquent.
  Avob- Avoidable.        Elt- Element.
  Bri- Brilliant.         Eq- Enquire.
  Ccu-Conclude.           Eql- Equal.


                      3
-----------------------------------------------
Hag- Haggle.              Rept- Repeat.
Hz- Hazard.               Req- Request.
Igo- In consequence of.   Rlav- Relative.
Kf- Confer.               Rlv- Relieve.
Kft- Conflict.            Rpt- Represent.
Kpr- Conspire.            Rpv- Representative.
Kpt- Compete.             Rq- Require
Lx- Pounds sterling.      Rsd- Reside.
Oac- On account of.       Rsg- Resign.
Ot- Owing to.             Rsl- Resolve.
Pa- Pennsylvania          Sac- Senate Committee.
Pcu- Preclude.            Scf- Sacrifice.
Pkg-Packing.              Sovy- Soverignty.
Pkj- Package.             Soy- Society.
Pku- Peculiar.            Spk- Spoke.
Pmnt- Prominent.          Spn- Suspicion.
Pmt- Permit.              Spq- speak.
Png- Pending.             Thu- The house.
Px- Price.                Wam- Ways and means.
Pxl- Political.

  Intelligent use of the code is the desideratum
for both sender and receiver; and, in this con-
nection, some tried observations are submitted.
  1.  To send code at top speed defeats its
purpose.  Indeed, mechanical ability seems a neg-
ligible factor in moving the report, for the mod-
erately slow sender, of even temper, and precise
signals, exites no anger, and, therefore, pro-
vakes no breaking.
  2.  Code should be well spaced, so that the
receiver is required to make no effort in its
translation.  Where the receiver is forced to solve
a puzzle in a way of improper or badly used
code, the context of the story is lost and a 
break usually follows.
  3.  Seldom, if ever, should code be used at
the beginning of a sentence; nor should code be
used where the coded word or words precede
a group of figures.
  4.  Code that in itself makes a good English
word should not be used in any sentence where 
the word coded would fit into the sense.
  5.  Where two consecutive words in a sen-
tence belong to separate ideas, they should not
be contracted into a single combination; e.g.,
"When the vacancy occurred and the question


                      4
------------------------------------------------
of filling it was put to him, the governor."
etc.; "And the only way to stop it was for the
employers and employes to co-operate"; " * * *
the nature of it is not known."
  6.  The sign 'cx" should be freely used, espe-
cially for such proper names as also ore com-
mon English words: "the Glass amendment";
"the Wood report"; and preceding titles inde-
terminable, as such, from the matter just pre-
ceding: "and Immigration Inspectors John Doe
and Richard Roe." The signals "i5" and "e5"
shoulsd no less be neglected.
  7.  Following proper names a contraction some-
times is bad: "Representative Henry of the Owen
committee"; "Judge Dayton in the Hitchman
Coal company case." And, occasionally, a proper
name is best coded: "Congressman Hendry D.
Clayton."
  8.  Possessives, when not clearly indicated by
the context, should be specified: "The account-
ants report."  Here, it isn't clear whether "ac-
countants" is nominative plural, possessive sin-
gular, or possessive plural.
  9.  When the receiver breaks on a coded word,
the sender should spell it out, and then repeat
the cod.
  10.   Errors due to an oversight on the part
of the sender often are better corrected in a 
note at the end of the item.  Many typewriters
are used without ribbons, and it is difficult for
the receiver to locate the place for the correction.
  11.  Difficult words and proper names should
be sent very slowly, without repetition.  Paradox-
ical as it is, it isn't the time one makes, but
the time one loses that really counts on any
circuit.

  For timely and thoughtful suggestions, I am
grateful to many gentlemen too numerous for
brief specification.  Representatives of the Asso-
ciated Press, Laffan News Bureau, Hearst News
Service, and the United Press have been con-
sulted and their advice solicited.  A am specially
indebted to Mr. Milton Gorges, of the Chicago
Associated Press, who, besides submitting many 
new words and changes, has been kind enough
to criticize all changes and additions anent which

                       5
---------------------------------------------------

there was an difference of opinion.  Others
whose help has been invaluable are Messrs. Frank
H. Trickle, New York, George R. Allen, San
Francisco, and C. J. King, Atlanta.

  In conclusion, I have sought to please no one,
but merely to adopt the consensus of opinion
of those whose years in the press service best
qualify them to pass on the fitness of the changes
and additions made in the revision.  I therefore
dismiss the work with a feeling that I have done 
the best I know how.
                               E. E. Bruckner.
  Spokane, January 1, 1914.


[page]
    T H E    P H I L L I P S   C O D E
             ----------------
				 
              INTRODUCTORY.	 
		 
  The Morse alphobet, which is employed to rep-
resent the sounds used in sten-telegraphy, is
composed entirely of linear characters formed 
of dots and dashes, and by combinations of the two.
The letters c, o, r, y, and z, and the symbol
"&" are composed of dots and spaces.  There 
are no spaces in any of the letters composed of
dashes.  The alphabet is as follows:
      A . _                    O .   .
	B _ . . .                P . . . . .
	C . .   .                Q . . _ .
	D _ . .                  R .   . .
	E .                      S . . .
	F . - .                  T _
	G _ _ .                  U . . _
	H . . . .                V . . . _
	I . .                    W . _ _
	J _ . _ .                X . _ . .
	K _ . _                  Y . .   . .
	L ____ [long dash]       Z . . .   .
	M _ _
      N _ .

The figures are as follows:
  1 . _ _ .                  6 . . . . . .
  2 . . _ . .                7 - - . .
  3 . . . _ .                8 _ . . . .
  4 . . . . _                9 _ . . _
  5 _ _ _                    0 ___ [long dash]

The difference between the Morse and
Universal codes are shown in the following list.
   Morse.                   Universal.
   C . .   .                _ . _ .
   F . _ .                  . . _ .
   J _ . _ .                . _ _ _
   L ___[long dash]         . _ . .
   O .  .                   _ _ _
   P . . . . .              . _ _ .
   Q . . _ .                _ _ . _


                   7
-------------------------------------------------

   R .   . .                . _ .
   X . _ . .                _ . . _
   Y . .   . .              _ . _ _
   Z . . .   .              _ _ . .
             Numerals
   1 . _ _ .                . _ _ _ _ 
   2 . . _ . .              . . _ _ _
   3 . . . _ .              . . . _ _
   5 _ _ _                  . . . . .
   6 . . . . . .            _ . . . .
   7 _ _ . .                _ _ . . .
   8 _. . . .               _ _ _ . .
   9 _ . . _                _ _ _ _ .
   0 ___ [long dash]        _ _ _ _ _

  The punctuation marks used as a part of this
       system are as follows:
  Comma- Dot, dash, dot, dash.
  Interrogation point- Dash, two dots, dash, dot
  Capital letter- Cx.
  Small letter- 15. (. . _ _ _)
  Shilling mark- Ut.
  Pounds sterling- Lx.
  Exclamation point- Three dashes, dot.
  Colon: Ko.
  Dollar mark- Sx.
  Colon dash- Kx.
  Not code-E5. (. _ _ _)
  Parenthesis- Pn stands for first and Py for
       the second Parenthesis mark.
  Pence- D.
  Quotation marks- Qn stands for first and Qj
       for the second quotation mark.
  Quotation marks within a quotation- Qx and Qy.
  Brackets- Bx.
  Dash- Dx.
  Hyphen- Hx.
  Semicolon- Si.
  Period- Two dots, two dashes, two dots.
  Paragraph mark- Four dashes.
  Underline- Ux stands for first and Uj for the
       second underline signal.
  Colon followed by a quotation- Kq.
  Percent- Oso.
  
  The punctuation marks in the Universal Cod
       are as follows:


                     8
-----------------------------------------------
  
  Period- Two dots, space, two dots, space, two dots.
  Colon- Three dashes, three dots.
  Semi-colon- Dash dot, dash dot, dash dot.
  Comma- Dot dash, dot dash, dot dash.
  Exclamation- Two dashes, two dots, two dashes.
  Interrogation- Two dots, two dashes, two dots.
  Hyphen- Dash, four dots, dash,
  Apostrophe- Dot, four dashes, dot.
  
  Fractions in the Phillips and Morse codes are
sent by inserting the letter e between the numer-
ator and denominator, thus: Three-sixteenths-
3 . 16.
  Owing to the fact that three ciphers when quick-
ly transwmitted bear a striking resemblance to a 
figure 5, it will always be better to use tnd for
thousand and myn for million when thousands or
millions are expressed after the first, second, or
third figures by ciphers exclusively, thus: 10,000
-10 tnd; 248,000,000- 248 myns.

  Hnd may also be used to advantage sometimes 
to express hundreds, thus: 400- 4 hnd; 500,000
-5 hnd tnd; 300,000,000- 3 hnd myn.
  Decimals should be sent by inserting the word
"dot." thus: 0.34- 0 dot 34; 89.92- 89 dot 92.
  When an omission occurs in the copy, and the
fact is shown by the presence of asterisks, the
letter x several times repeated will indicate that
asterisks are to be inserted in the copy to be sent
out, thus: And this has been one of the results.
* * * * * * * * *  Who shall account for such
corruption- And this has been one of the results.
x x x x x x  Who shall, etc.
  In sending poetry or one or more lines of verse,
a paragraph mark (_ _ _ _) should be used at
the end of each line, thus:
  The gentleman on the other side, as it seems
to me, takes a superficial view of what has been
developed, and manifests a disposition either to
defend these obvious irregularities or content him-
self with what appears on the surface.  Unless he
corrects his methods, I fancy the poet's words,
On the primrose on the river's brim _ _ _ _
  A yellow primrose was to him _ _ _ _
  And nothing more Qj _ _ _ _


                         9
--------------------------------------------------
will be peculiarly applicable to my credulous col-
league in the near future, and he will discover
that he has missed an opportunity to render a
great service to the cause of common honesty.

  Beginners, both senders and receivers, should
commit all of the foregoing to memory before at-
tempting to send the cod.

  Operators essaying to learn to send the accom-
panying system of codification will achieve that 
object with comparative ease by beginning, and
continuing, methodically. They should first com-
mit to memory the meaning conveyed by the single
letters, as follows:

B- B.                      P- Per.
C- See.                    Q- On the.
D- In the, or pence.       R- Are.
F- Of the.                 T- the.
G- From the.               U- You.
H- Has.                    V- Of which.
J- By which.               W- With.
K- Out of the.             X- In which.
M- More.                   Y- Year.
N- Not.                    Z- From which.

  Also a figure 4 for "where," a figure 5 for
"that the," and a figure 7 for "that is."  These
figures are expressed, as will be seen further on,
thus: Fr- four; fv- five; sv- seven.  They should
be so sent whenever they appear alone.  Occur-
ing groups, they may be sent in the usual 
manner.

  The next step for the beginner is to learn the
meaning conveyed by the two-letter contractions,
among the more important of which are the fol-
lowing:
Ab- About.                  Ar- Answer.
Ac- And company.            Au- Author.
Ad- Adopted.                Av- Average.
Af- After.                  Aw- At which.
Aj- Adjust.                 Ax- Ask.
Ak- Acknowledge.            Ay- Any.
Ao- At once.                Az- Applause.
Ap- Appropriate.            Bi- By.
Aq- Acquire.                Bc- Because.
O- of.                      Bd- Board.


                   10
-------------------------------------------

Bf- Before.                 Dq- Discover.
Bg- Being.                  Dr- Doctor.
Bh- Both.                   Ds- Discuss.
Bj- Bound.                  Dt- Do not.
Bk- Break.                  Du-Duty.
Bl- Bill.                   Dv- Divide.
Bn- Been.                   Dw- Draw.
Bo- Baltimore.              Dx- Dash.
Bp- Bishop.                 Dz- Does.
Bq- Bequeath.               Ea- Each.
Br- British.                Ec- Ecclesiastic.
Bs- Best.                   Ed- Editor.
Bt- But.                    Ef- Effect.
Bu- Bushel.                 Eg- England.
Bv- Believe.                Eh- Either.
Bw- Be with.                Ej- Eject.
Bx- Bracket [].             Ek- Economy.
Bz- Business.               El- Elect.
Ca- Came.                   Em- Embarrass.
Cb- Celebrate.              En- Enthusiasm.
Cd- Could.                  Ep- Epoch.
Cf- Chief.                  Eq- Enquire.
Cg- Seeing.                 Er- Error.
Ch- Chicago.                Es- And.
Cj- Coroner's jury.         Eu- Europe.
Ck- Check.                  Ev- Ever.
Cm- Come.                   Ey- Every.
Cn- Can.                    Fa- Fail.
Co- County.                 Fb- Of the bill.
Cp- Constantinople.         Fc- Fiscal.
Cq- Correct.                Fd- Find.
Cr- Care.                   Fg- Following.
Cs- Case.                   Fh- Forth.
Ct- Connect.                Fi- Fire.
Cu- Current.                Fj- Found.
Cv- Cover.                  Fk- Fluctuate.
Cx- Capital letter.         Fl- Feel.
Cy- Copy.                   Fm- From.
Db- Debate.                 Fn- Fifteen.
Dc- District of Columbia    Fo- For.
Dd- Did.                    Fp- Philanthropist.
Df- Differ.                 Fq- Frequent.
Dg- Doing.                  Fr- Four.
Di- Direct.                 Fs- First.
Dk- Descibe.                Ft- For the.
Dl- Deliver.                Fu- Few.
Dm- Demand.                 Fv- Five.
Dp- Depart.                 Fw- Follow.


                     11
------------------------------------------------

Fx- Fort.                   Ic- In connection.
Fz- Freeze.                 Id- Introduce.
Ga- Gave.                   Ig- Indigent.
Gb- Great Britian.          Ih- It has.
Gc- Grace.                  Ij- Injure.
Gd- Good.                   Ik- Instantly killed.
Gf- Gulf.                   Im- Immediately.
Gg- Going.                  Io- In order.
Gh- Gather.                 Ip- Improve.
Gi- Gigantic.               Iq- Inquire.
Gj- Grand jury.             Ir- Irregular.
Gk- Greek.                  Iv- In view.
Gl- Girl.                   Iw- It was.
Gm- Gentlemen.              Ix- It is.
Gn- Gone.                   Jb- Jubilee.
Gp- Group.                  Jf- Justify.
Gq- Geology.                Jg- Judge.
Gr- Ground.                 Jl- Jail.
Gs- Guess.                  Jn- Join.
Gt- Great.                  Jp- Japan.
Gu- Guard.                  Jr- Junior.
Gv- Give.                   Js- Just.
Gw- Grow.                   Jt- Joint.
Gx- Great excitement.       Ju- Jury.
Gy- Guilty.                 Jz- Juarez.
Gz- Gazette.                Kb- Contribute.
Hb- Has been.               Kc- Concentrate.
Hc- Habeas corpus.          Kd- Kind.
Hd- Had.                    Kf- Confer.
Hf- Half.                   Kg- King.
Hg- Having.                 Ki- Kill.
Hh- Has had.                Kj- Complain.
Hi- High.                   Kl- Collect.
Hk- Hook.                   Km- Communicate.
Hl- Hell.                   Kn- Known.
Hm- Him.                    Kp- Keep.
Hn- Has not.                Kr- Color.
Ho- Hold.                   Ks- Conserve.
Hp- Hope.                   Kt- Contain.
Hr- Here.                   Ku- Continue.
Hs- His.                    Kv- Convert.
Ht- Has the.                Kw- Know.
Hu- House.                  Kz- Consult.
Hv- Have.                   La- Louisiana.
Hw- How.                    Ld- London.
Hy- Henry.                  Lf- Life.
Hz- Hazard.                 Lg- Long.
Ia- Iowa.                   Lk- Like.


                 12
----------------------------------------------

Lm- Low middling.           Og- Organize.
Ln- Loan.                   Oh- Ohio.
Lp- Liverpool.              Oj- Object.
Lq- Liquor.                 Om- Omit.
Lr- Lower.                  Op- Opportunity.
Lt- Lieutenant.             Oq- Occupy.
Lu- Lieu.                   Os- Oppose.
Lv- Leave.                  Ot- Owing to.
Lx- Pounds sterling.        Ow- On which.
Md- Made.                   Oz- ounce.
Mf- Manufacture.            Pa- Pennsylvanio.
Mg- Manage.                 Pb- Probable.
Mh- Much.                   Pc- Per cent.
Mk- Make.                   Pd- Paid.
Ml- Mail.                   Pe- Principle.
Mm- Mid-meridian            Pf- Prefer.
    (midnight)              Pg- Progress.
Mo- Month.                  Ph- Perhapse.
Mr- Mister.                 Pj- Prejudice.
Ms- Most.                   Pk- Particular.
Mu- Murder.                 Pm- Postmaster.
Mv- Move.                   Po- Post-office.
Mw- Meanwhile.              Pp- Postpone.
Mx- Mix.                    Pq- Postpone.
Na- Name.                   Pr- President.
Nb- Not be.                 Ps- Pass.
Nc- North Carolina.         Pt- Present.
Nd- Need.                   Pu- Public.
Ne- New England.            Pv- Priviege.
Nf- Notify.                 Pw- Power.
Ng- Negotiate.              Px- Price.
Nh- New Hampshire.          Pz- Prize.
Ni- Night.                  Qa- Qualify.
Nj- New Jersey              Qb- On the bill.
Nl- Natural.                Qc- Concur.
Nm- Nominate                Qm- Quartermaster.
No- No, and New Or-         Qp- On the part of.
    leans, La.              Qr- Quarter.
Nr- Near.                   Qu- Quiet.
Nt- North.                  Ra- Raise.
Nv- Never.                  Rb- Rob.
Nx- Next.                   Rc- Receive.
Ny- New York.               Rd- Read.
Nz- New Zealand.            Rf- Refer.
Oa- Of a.                   Rg- Regular.
Ob- Obtain.                 Rh- Reach.
Oc- O'clock.                Ri- Rhode Island.
Od- Order.                  Rj- Reject.


                     13
-----------------------------------------------

Rk- Recover.                Tn- Then.
Rl- Real.                   Tp- Transport.
Rm- Remain.                 Tq- The question.
Rn- Reason.                 Tr- There.
Ro- Rose.                   Ts- This.
Rp- Report.                 Tt- That.
Rq- Require.                Tw- To-morrow.
Rr- Railroad.               Tx- This is.
Rs- Resolve.                Ty- They.
Rt- Are the.                Tz- These.
Ru- Are you.                Uc- You see.
Rv- Remove.                 Uf- Unfortunate.
Rw- Are with.               Uk- Understand.
Rx- Recommend.              Ul- Usual.
Ry- Railway.                Um- Unanimous.
Rz- Result.                 Un- Until.
Sa- Senate.                 Uq- Upon the.
Sb- Subsequent.             Ur- Your.
Sc- South Carolina.         Us- United States.
Sd- Should.                 Uv- Universe.
Sf- Satisfy.                Vt- Vermont.
Sg- Signify.                Va- Virginia.
Sh- Such.                   Vb- Valuable.
Sj- Subject.                Vf- Verify.
Sk- Success.                Vk- Victor.
Sl- Sail.                   Vm- Vehement.
Sm- Some.                   Vo- Vote.
Sn- Soon.                   Vp- Vice-president.
Sp- Ship.                   Vr- Virtue.
Sq- Separate.               Vu- View.
Sr- Secure.                 Vx- Violate.
Ss- Steamship.              Vy- Very.
St- Street.                 Vz- Venezuela.
Su- Sure.                   Wa- Way.
Sv- Seven.                  Wb- Will be.
Sw- Swear.                  Wc- Welcome.
Sx- Dollar mark.            Wd- Would.
Sz- Sieze.                  Wg- Wrong.
Tb- The bill.               Wh- Which.
Td- Treasury Depart-        Wi- Will.
    ment.                   Wj- Wound.
Tf- The followig.           Wk- Week.
Tg- Thing.                  Wl- Well.
Th- Those.                  Wm- William.
Ti- Time.                   Wn- When.
Tj- The jury.               Wo- Who.
Tk- Take.                   Wp- Weep.
Tm- Them.                   Wq- Warrant.


                    14
---------------------------------------------				  

Wr- Were.                   Xm- Extreme.
Ws- Was.                    Xn- Constitution.
Wt- What.                   Xo- Exonerate.
Wv- Waive.                  Xp- Expense.
Ww- With which.             Xr- Exercise.
Wx- Wait.                   Xs- Exist.
Wy- Why.                    Xt- Extent.
Xb- Exorbitant.             Xu- Exclude.
Xc- Excite.                 Ya- Yesterday.
Id- Exceed.                 Yf- Yellow fever.
Xg- Legislate.              Za- Sea.
Xh- Exhaust.                Zc- Section.
Xj- Explain.                Zd- Said.
Xk- Execute.                Zm- Seem.
Xl- Excel.                  Zn- Seen.

  Having familiarized himself with the foregoing,
the operator will then find it to his advantage to 
apply himself to memorizing the remainder of the
two-letter, and as many as possible of the three-
letter contractions.  Amongy the latter, it will be
observed, the principal words in daily use (and
which are given, in some cases, in their briefest 
form in the two-letter contractions above) are
traced in most of their numerous terminations.
Thus, for example, we have ak for "acknowledge,"
akd for "acknowledged", akg for "ackknowledging,"
etc.  The principal illustrated by this word will be 
found to underlie the whole system, deviation
from the rule only occurring  when the peculiar-
ities of the Morse alphabet will not permit of
following the law, or where the addition of ', d,
g, or m would make a stem spell some word
which would fit in, without disturbing the con-
text, in the place where the word intended to be
conveyed ought to go.  Wherever the author has
foreseen, or experience in working the system has
shown, that a strict adherunce to the rule would
involve the receiver in perplexity, he has departed
therefrom, but in no other cases.
  In the very beginning of their attempts to use
the code, sending operators should first master the
single letters and as many of the double and 
three-letter ones as possible.  Perfect confidence
and ease will come with practice.  In the mean-
time the operator should apply himself to learn-
inge the contractions under the various letters-
a few at a time- using them as much as possible


                        15
---------------------------------------------------

as he proceeds with his practice. A few weeks'
experience will serve to make the whole plan of
working very plain and clear, if a moderate
amount of thought and attention is given to the
foregoing hints, and to memorizing a few of the 
contractions every day.
  The sending operator should always say "bk"
when, from any cause, he breaks down in the 
middle of a word, or interrupts himself.  This
signal is easily recognized, and is of the greatest
possible assistance to the receiving operator.
Ab- About.                  Adsg- Absenting.
Abb- Abbreviate.            Abt- About the.
Abbd- Abbreviated.          Abty- Ability.
Addg- Abbreviating.         Abu- Abundant.
Abbn- Abbreviation.         Aduc- Abundance.
Abc- Absence.               Abuy- Abundantly.
Abd- Aboard.                Abv- Above.
Adg- Abiding.               Aby- Albany.
Abh- Abolish.               Ac- And Company.
Abhd-Abolished.             Aca- Academy.
Abhg- Abolishing.           Acal- Academical.
Abhn- Abolition.            Acan- Academician.
Abi- Abide.                 Acb- Acceptable.
Abj- Abject.                Acc- Account.
Abjy- Abjectly.             Accd- Accounted.
Abm- Abominate.             Accg- Accounting.
Abmd- Abominated.           Acct- Accountant.
Abmg- Abominating.          Acd- Accord.
Abml- Abominable.           Acdd- Accorded. ---*
Abmn- Abominatiion          Acg- According.
Abn- Abandon.               Acgy- Accordingly.
Abnd- Abandoned.            Ach- Achieve.
Abng- Abandoning.           Achd- Achieved.
Abnm- Abandonment.          Achg- Achieving.
Abp- Abrupt.                Achm- Achievement.
Abpns- Abruptness.          Acm- Accumulate.
Abpy- Abruptly.             Acmg- Accumulating.
Abq- Absolute.              Acmp- Accompany.
Abqy - Absolutely.          Acmpd- Accompanied.
Abr- Abrogate.              Acmpg- Accompanying.
Abrd- Abrogated.            Acn- Accumulation.
Abrg- Abrogating.           Aco- Accomodate.
Abrn- Abrogation.           Acod- Accomodated.
Abrv- Abrogative.           Acog- Accomodating.
Abs- Absent.                Acom- Accomodation.
Absd- Absented.             Acp- Accept.
Abse- Absentee.             Acpc- Acceptance.

         ---* For addition, see page 64


                   16
---------------------------------------------				  

Acpd- Accepted.             Adl- Admiral.
Acpg- Accepting.            Adm- Admit.
Acph- Accomplish.           Admc- Admittance.
Acphd- Accomplished.        Admd- Admitted.
Acphg- Accomplishing.       Admg- Admitting.
Acphm- Accomplish           Admn- Admission.
     ment                   Adms- Admits.
Acq- Acquaint.              Adn- Addition.
Acqd- Acquainted.           Adnl- Additional.
Acqg- Acquainting.          Adp- Adopt.
Acqs- Acquaints.            Adpn- Adoption.
Acr- Accurate.              Adq- Adequate.
Acrly- Accurately.          Adqy- Adequately.
Acstm- Accustom.            Adr- Administer.
Acstmd- Accustomed.         Adrd- Administered.
Actl- Actual.               Adrg- Administering.
Actly- Actually.            Adrn- Administration.
Actn- Action.               Adrr- Administrator.
Actu- Actuate.              Adrv- Administrative.
Actud- Actuated.            Adrx- Administratrix.
Actug- Actuating.           Ads- Address.
Acu- Accuse.                Adsd- Addressed.
Acud- Accused.              Adsg- Addressing.
Acug- Accusing.             Adss- Addresses.
Acun- Accusation.           Adt- Amendment.
Acup- Acted upon.           Adts- Amendments.
Acur- Accuser.              Adu- Aduce.
Acv- Active.                Adud- Aduced.
Acvs- Activities.           Adug- Adducing.
Acvly- Actively.            Adus- Adduces.
Acvty- Activity.            Adv- Advertise
Acx- Across.                Advc- Advance.
Acy- Accuracy.              Advcd- Advanced.
Ad- Adopted.                Advcg- Advancing.
Adc- Advice.                Advcm- Advancement.
Adcs- Advices.              Adz- Advise.
Adh- Adhere.                Adzd- Advised.
Adhc- Adherence.            Adzg- Advising.
Adhd- Adhered.              Adzs- Advises.
Adhg- Adhering.             Aen- Aeronaut.
Adht- Adherent.             Aep- Aeroplane.
Adj- Adqourn.               Af- After.
Adjd- Adjourned.            Afa- Affair.
Adjg- Adjourning.           Afc- Affect.
Adjm- Adjournment.          Afed- Affected.


				   17
---------------------------------------------				  

Afcg- Affecting.            Agrg- Agreeing.
Afcn- Affection.            Ags- Agents.
Afcny- Affectionately.      Agt- Agreed to.
Afcs- Affects.              Agu- Argue.
Afd- Afford.                Agud- Argued.
Addd- Afforded.             Agug- Arguing.
Afg- Affording.             Agum- Argument.
Afj- Affidavit.             Agup- Argeed upon.
Afjs- Affidavits.           Agv- Aggressive.
Afl- Afflict.               Agy- Agency.
Afld- Afflicted.            Ahd- Apprehend.
Aflg- Afflicting.           Ahdd- Aprehended.
Afln- Affliction.           Ahg- Apprehending.
Afls- Afflicts.             Ahn- Apprehension.
Afm- Affirm.                Ahv- Apprehensive.
Afmd- Affirmed.             Aj- Adjust.
Afmg- Affirming.            Aja- Adjacent.
Afmn- Affirmation.          Ajd- Adjusted.
Afn- Afternoon.             Ajg- Adjusting.
Afo- Aforesaid.             Ajm- Adjustment.
Afol- American Fed-         Ajn- Adjoin.
      eration of Labor.     Ajnd- Adjoined.
Afr- Affray.                Ajng- Adjoining.
Afv- Affirmative.           Ajs- Adjusts.
Afw- Afterward.             Ajt- Adjutant.
Afx- Affix.                 Ajts- Adjutants.
Afxd- Affixed.              Ak- Acknowledge.
Afxg- Affixing.             Akc- Access.
Ag- Agent.                  Akcy- Accessory.
Aga- Against.               Akd- Acknowledged.
Agb- Agreeable.             Akg- Acknowledging.
Agc- Agriculture.           Akm- Acknowledgment.
Agd- Agreed.                Aks- Acknowledges.
Agg- Aggregate.             Akt- Accident.
Aggd- Aggregated.           Aktl- Accidental.
Aggg- Aggregating.          Aktly- Accidentally.
Aggn- Aggregation.          Akts- Accidents.
Agi- Agitate.               Ala- Alabama.
Agid- Agitated.             Alb- Alberta.
Agig- Agitating.            Alc- Alcohol.
Agiv- Agitation.            Ald- Aldermen.
Agir- Agitator.             Aldm- Alderman.
Agl- Agricultural.          Alg- Along.
Aglst- Agriculturist.       Ali- Allv.
Agm- Agreement.             Alid- Allied.
Agms- Agreements.           Alis- Allies.
Agn- Again.                 Ali- Allege.
Agr- Agree.                 Aljd- Alleged.



                   18
---------------------------------------------				  

Aljg- Alleging.             Amtd- Amounted.
Aljn- Allegation.           Amtg- Amounting.
Aljnc- Allegiance.          Amts- Amounts.
Alk- Alike.                 Amu- Amuse.
Alm- Alarm.                 Amud- Amused.
Almd- Alarmed.              Amug- Amusing.
Aln- Altercation.           Amun- Ammunition.
Alnc- Alliance.             Amx- Ambitious.
Alns- Altercations.         Amxy- Ambitiously.
Alr- Already.               Amz- Amaze.
Alt- Alternate.             Amzd- Amazed.
Altd- Alternated.           Amzg- Amazing.
Altg- Alternating.          Amzm- Amazement.
Alty- Alternately.          Amzy- Amazingly.
Alu- Allude.                Anc- Announce.
Alud- Alluded.              Ancd- Announced.
Alug- Alluding.             Ancg- Announcing.
Alun- Allusion.             Ancm- Announce-
Alv- Alternative.                ment.
Alw- Always.                Ancs- Announces.
Ama- America.               Ang- Antagonist.
Amal- Amalgamated.          Angm- Antagonism.
Amb- Ambition.              Angs- Antagonists.
Ambs- Ambitions.            Angz- Antagonize.
Amd- Amend.                 Angzd- Antagonized.
Amdd- Amended.              Angzg- Antagonizing.
Amdg- Amending.             Ank- Anarchist.
Amds- Amends.               Anky- Anarchy.
Amdy- Amendatory.           Anl- Anuual.
Amg- Among.                 Anly- Annually.
Amgst- Amongst.             Anm- Animal.
Ami- Amicable.              Anms- Animals.
Amily- Amicably.            Anr- Another.
Amk- Amuck.                 Ant- Anticipate.
Amn- American.              Antd- Anticipated.
Amns- Americans.            Antg- Anticipating.
Amp- Ample.                 Antn- Anticipation.
Ampy- Amply.                Anv- Anniversary.
Ampf- Amplify.              Anx- Anxious.
Ampfd- Amplified.           Anxty- Anxiety.
Ampfg- Amplifying.          Anxy- Anxiously.
Ampfn- Amplification.       Ao- At once.
Amr- Ambassador.            Ap- Appropriate.
Amrl- Ambassadorial.        Apa- Aport.
Amrsp- Ambassador-          Apam- Apartment.
     ship.                  Apoms- Apartments.
Amt- Amount.                Apc- Appreciate.	 

                   19
---------------------------------------------				  

Apcd- Appreciated.          Aqn- Acquisition.
Apcg- Appreciating.         Aqs- Acquires.
Apcn- Appreciation.         Aql- Acquirable.
Apcv- Appreciative.         Aqt- Acquit.
Apd- Appropriated.          Aqtd- Acquitted.
Apg- Appropriating.         Aqtg- Acquitting.
Aph- Approach.              Aqtl- Acquittal.
Aphd- Approached.           Aqts- Acquits
Aphg- Approaching.          Aqu- Acute.
Aphs- Approaches.           Aqw- Acquiesce.
Api- Apiece.                Aqwc- Aquiescence.
Apkn- Application.          Aqwd- Acquiesed.
Apl- Appeal.                Aqwg- Acquiescing.
Aplg- Appealing.            Aqy- Acutely.
Aplg- Appealing.            Aqy- Acutely.
Apln- Appelation.           Ar- Answer.
Apls- Appeals.              Ara- Arrange.
Aplt- Appelant.             Arad- Arranged.
Apm- Appointment.           Arag- Arranging.
Apms- Appointments.         Aram- Arrangement.
Apn- Appropriation.         Arb- Arbitrate.
Apns- Appropriations.       Arbd- Arbitrated.
App- Appoint.               Arbg- Arbitrating.
Appd- Appointed.            Arbm- Arbitrament.
Appg- Appointing.           Arbp- Archbishop.
Apr- Appear.                Arbr- Arbitrator.
Aprc- Appearance.           Arby- Arbitrarily.
Arpd- Appeared.             Ard- Answered.
Aprg- Appearing.            Arg- Answering.
Aps- Appropriates.          Ark- Arkansas ---*
Apt- Apporent.              Arl- Artillery.
Apty- Apporently.           Arn- Arbitration.
Apv- Approve.               Aro- Arose.
Apvd- Approved.             Arr- Arrest.
Apvg- Approving.            Arrd- Arrested.
Apvl- Approval.             Arrg- Arresting.
Apx- Approximate.           Ars- Answers.
Apxd- Approximated.         Arv- Arrive.
Apxg- Approximating.        Arvd- Arrived.
Apxn- Approximation.        Arvg- Arriving.
Apxs- Approximates.         Arvl- Arrival.
Apxy- Approximately.        Ary- Arbitrary.
Apy- Appropriately.         Arz- Arizona.
Aq- Acquire.                Asa- As soon as.
Aqc- Acquaintance.          Asb- Absorb.
Aqd- Acquired.              Asbd- Absorbed.
Aqg- Acquiring.             Asbg- Absorbing.
Aqm- Acquirement.           Asc- Ascertain.


                   20
---------------------------------------------			   

Ascd- Ascertained.          Atks- Attacks.
Asd- Associated.            Atl- Atlantic.
Asf- As follows:  ---*      Atm- Attempt.
Asg- Ascertaining.          Atmd- Attempted.
Asi- Assist.                Atmg- Attempting.
Asic- Assistance.           Atms- Attempts.
Asid- Assisted.             Atn- Attention.
Asig- Assisting.            Atns- Attentions.
Asit- Assistant.            Atr- Attract.
Asl- Asleep.                Atrd- Attracted.
Asm- Assemble.              Atrg- Attracting.
Asmd- Assembled.            Atrn- Attraction.
Asmg- Assembling.           Atrs- Attracts.
Asmj- Assemblage.           Atrv- Attractive.
Asn- Association.           Atu- Attitude.
Aso- Also.                  Atv- Attentive.
Asp- Aspect.                Atvy- Attentively.
Asr- Assert.                Atx- Atrocious.
Asrd- Asserted.             Aty- Attorney.
Asrg- Asserting.            Atyg- Attorney-General.
Asrn- Assertion.            Au- Author.
Ast- Associate.             Aub- Auburn.
Asts- Associates.           Auc- Auction.
Asu- Assume.                Aucnr- Auctioneer.
Asud- Assumed.              Aucs- Auctions.
Asug- Assuming.             Aud- Audience.
Asun- Assumption.           Audm- Auditorium.
Asus- Assemes.              Auds- Audiences.
Asx- Assinate.              Aug- August.
Asxd- Assassinated.         Auh- Authentic.
Asxg- Assassinating.        Auhcy- Authenticity.
Asxn- Assassination.        Auhd- Autheenticated.
Asy- Assembly.              Auhg- Authenticating.
Atb- Attribute.             Auhn- Authentication.
Atbd- Attributed.           Auhs- Authenticates.
Atbg- Attributing.          Auhy- Authentiaclly.
Atc- Attendance.            Aum- Autumn.
Atd- Attend.                Aumb- Automobile.
Atdd- Attended.             Aun- Austrian.
Atds- Attends.              Aup- Auspices.
Atg- Attending.             Aupx- Auspicious.
Ath- Athlete.               Aur- Austria.
Athc- Athletic.             Aus- Austrailia.
Athcs- Atletics.            Ausn- Austrailian.
Aths- Athletes.             Aut- Adjourned until
Atk- Attack.                     to-morrow.
Atkd- Attacked.             Auv- Authoritative.
Atkg- Attacking.            Auvy- Authoritatively.



                   21
---------------------------------------------				  

Aux- Auxiliary.             Awi- Awhile.
Auy- Authority.             Ax- Ask.
Auys- Authorities.          Axd- Asked.
Auz- Authorize.             Axg- Asking.
Auzd- Authorized.           Axn- Annexation.
Augz- Authorizing.          Ay- Any.
Auzn- Authorization.        Ayb- Anybody.
Auzs- Authorizes.           Ayg- Anything.
Av- Average.                Ayh- Anyhow.
Avb- Available.             Aym- Any more.
Avd- Averaged.              Ayo- Any other.
Ave- Avenue.                Ay4- Anywhere.
Avg- Averaging.             Az- Applause.
Avin- Aviation.             B- Be.
Avir- Aviator.              Baf- Baffle.
Avix- Aviatrix.             Bafd- Baffled.
Avk- Advocate.              Bafg- Baffling.
Avkd- Advocated.            Bafs- Baffles.
Avkg- Advocating.           Baj- Badge.
Avl- Avail.                 Bal- Balance.
Avld- Availed.              Bald- Balanced.
Avig- Availing.             Balg- Balancing.
Avls- Avails.               Bap- Baptist.
Avm- Averment.              Bas- By a score of.
Avn- Aversion.              Bc- Because.
Avo- Avoid.                 Bca- Became.
Avob- Avoidable.            Bch- Beach.
Avod- Avoided.              Bcm- Become. ---*
Avog- Avoiding.             Bd- Board.
Avos- Avoids.               Bdd- Boarded. ---*
Ayr[sic]- Aver.             Bdg- Boarding.
Avrd- Averred.              Bdl- Bundle.
Avrg- Averring.             Bdm- Bondsman.
Avrs- Avers.                Bdmn- Bondsmen.
Avs- Averages.              Bdn- Burden.
Avt- Avert.                 Bdr- Boarder.
Avtd- Averted.              Bds- Boards.
Avtg- Averting.             Bdt- Bandit.
Avts- Averts.               Bdy- Body.
Avoy- Avoidably.            Bea- Beacon.
Aw- At which.               Bef- Beef.
Awa- Away.                  Beq- Bequest.
Awd- Award.                 Bev- Beverage.
Awdd- Awarded.              Bew- Bewilder.
Awdg- Awarding.             Bf- Before.
Awds- Awards.               Bfh- Beforehand.
Awf- Awful.                 Bfl- Beautiful.
Awfy- Awfully.              Bkt- Breakfast.


                   22
---------------------------------------------				  

Bfy- Beautifully.           Bnv- Benevolent.
Bg- Being.                  Bo- Baltimore.
Bga- Began.                 Boe- Bank of England.
Bgg- Baggage.               Boh- Board of Health.
Bgi- Begin.                 Bop- Breach of promise.
Bgig- Beginning.            Bos- Boston.
Bgm- Belgium.               Bot- Bought.
Bgn- Bargain.               Bp- Bishop.
Bgr- Burglar.               Bpc- Bishopric.
Bgt- Bright.                Bq- Bequeath.
Bug- Begun.                 Bqd- Bequeathed.
Bgy- Burglary.              Bqg- Bequeathing.
Bh- Both.                   Br- British.
Bhd- Behind.                Brc- Brilliance.
Bhf- Behalf.                Brd- Burned.
Bhv- Behave.                Brf- Brief.
Bi- By.                     Brg- Burning.
Bis- Bystander.             Bri- Brilliant.
Bit- By the.                Brk- Broke.
Bj- Bound.                  Brl- Barrel.
Bjy- Boundary.              Brm- Barometer.
Bk- Break.                  Brn- Burn.
Bkg- Breaking.              Bro- Brother.
Bkn- Broken.                Bry- Brilliantly.
Bkw- Backward.              Brz- Breeze.
Bky- Bakery.                Bs- Best.
Bl- Bill.                   Bsp- Battleship.
Bld- Build.                 Bsps- Battleships.
Blf- Belief.                Bt- But.
Blg- Building.              Btk- Betake.
Blk- Black.                 Btl- Battle.
Blm- Blame.                 Btld- Battled.
Bln- Berlin.                Btlg- Battling.
Blo- Blow.                  Btn- Between.
Blt- Built.                 Btr- Better.
Blu- Blue.                  Bts- By the score of.
Bmb- Bombard.               Bty- Battery.
Bmd- Bombarded.             Bu- Bushel.
Bmg- Bombarding.            Buf- Buffalo.
Bmt- Bombardment.           Buk- Book. ---*
Bn- Been.                   Bun- Bulletin.
Bnd- Bond.                  Buo- Bureau.
Bnf- Benefit.               Bv- Believe.
Bng- Bring.                 Bvd- Believed.
Bnh- Beneath.               Bvg- Believing.
Bnk- Bank.                  Bvs- Believes.
Bnl- Beneficial.            Bw- Be with.
Bng- Banquet.               Bwr- Beware.


                   23
---------------------------------------------				  

Bx- Brackets [].            Cby- Celebrity.
Bxd- Boxed.                 Cbt- Cabinet.
Bxg- Boxing.                Ccd- Concluded.
Bxr- Boxer.                 Ccg- Concluding.
Bxs- Boxes.                 Ccl- Cancel.
Byd- Beyond.                Ccld- Cancelled.
Bz- Business.               Ccclg- Cancelling.
Bzl- Brazil.                Ccln- Cancellation.
Bzln- Brazilian.            Ccn- Conclusion.
C- See.                     Ccsn- Concession.
Ca- Came.                   Ccu- Conclude.
Cac- Caucus.                Cd- Could.
Cacd- Caucused.             Cda- Canada.
Cacg- Caucusing.            Cde- Concede.
Cacs- Caucuses.             Cdd- Conceded.
Cak- Contract.              Cdg- Conceding.
Cakd- Contracted.           Cdk- Contradict.
Cakg- Contracting.          Cdkd- Contadicted.
cakn- Cantraction.          Cdkg- Contradicting.
Cal- Calculate.             Cdkn- Contradiction.
Cala- California.           Cdm- Condemn.
Cald- Calculated.           Cdmd- Condemned.
Calg- Calculating.          Cdmg- Condumning.
Caln- Calculation.          Cdmn- Condemnation.
Cap- Capital.               Cdn- Canadian.
Capz- Capitalize.           Cdr- Consider.
Capzd- Capitalized.         Cdrd- Considered.
Capzg- Capitalizing.        Cdrg- Considering.
Capzn- Capitalization.      Cdrl- Considerable.
Cau- Cause. ---*            Cdrn- Consideration.
Coud- Coused.               Cdrs- Considers.
Caug- Causing.              Cdry- Considerably.
Caus- Causes.               Cdt- Credit.
Cav- Cavalry.               Cdtd- Credited.
Cax- Casualties.            Cdtg- Crediting.
Cay- Casualty.              Cdtr- Creditor.
Cb- Celebrate.              Cdy- Custody.
Cba- columbia.              Cf- Chief.
Cbd- Celebrated.            Cfc- Confidence.
Cbg- Celebrating. ---*      Cfd- Confined.
Cbi- Covered by insur-      Cfg- Confining.
     ance.                  Cfi- Confine.
Cbl- Cable.                 Cfim- Confinement.
Cbld- Cabled.               Cfk- Confiscate.
Cblg- Cabling.              Cfkd- Confiscated.
Cbls- Cables.               Cfkg- Confiscating.
Cbn- Celebration.           Cfkn- Confiscation.
Cbs- Celebrates             Cfi- Confidential.
	 

                   24
---------------------------------------------				  

Cfly- Confidentially.       Chp- Cheap.
Cfm- Confirm.               Chpr- Cheaper.
Cfmd- Confirmed.            Chr- Character.
Cfmg- Confirming.           Chrc- Characteristic.
Cfms- Confirms.             Chu- Choose.
Cfn -Confirmation.          Chz- Characterize.
Cfr- Chauffeur.             Chzd- Characterized.
Cft- Confident.             Chzg- Characterizing.
Cfty- Confidently.          Chzn- Characterization.
Cfu- Confuse.               Chzs- Characterizes.
Cfud- Confused.             Cic- Commander in
Cfug- Confusing.                 chief.
Cfun- Confusion.            Cin- Cincinnati.
Cfus- Confuses.             Ciq- Coroner's inquest.
Cfy- Cheifly.               Cj- Coroner's jury.
Cg- Seeing.                 Cjd- Congregated.
Cgm- Congressman.           Cjg- Congregating.
Cgmn- Congressmen.          Cjl- Congregational.
Cgn- Campaign.              Cjn- Congregation.
Cpnd- Campaigned.           Cjt- Congregate.
Cgng- Campaigning.          Cjx- Courageous.
Cgns- Campaigns.            Cjxy- Courageously.
Cgs- Congress.              Ck- Check.
Cgsl- Congressional.        Ckc- Coerce.
Ch- Chicago.                Ckl- Circle.
Cha- China.                 Ckld- Circled.
Chad- Chamber of            Cklg- Circling.
     Deputies.              Ckls- Circles.
Chc- Chance.                Ckn- Coercion.
Chcd- Chanced.              Ckt- Circuit.
Chcg- Chancing.             Cktx- Circuitous.
Chcs- Chances.              Ckv- Coercive.
Che- Chinese.               Ckx- Committed sui-
Chg- Charge.                     cide.
Chgd- Charged.              Cl- Call.
Chgg- Charging.             Cla- Class.
Chgs- Charges.              Cld- Called.
Chh- Church.                Clg- Calling.
Chj- Challenge.             Clj- College.
Chjd- Challenged.           Cljt- Collegiate.
Chjg- Challenging.          Clk- Clerk.
Chjr- Challenger.           Clm- Claim.
Chjs- Challenges.           Clmd- Claimed.
Chk- Cheek.                 Clmg- Claiming.
Chm- Chairman.              Clms- Claims.
Chmn- Chairmen.             Clo- Close.
Chn- Children.              Clod- Closed.
Cho- Chose.                 Clog- Closing.


                   25
---------------------------------------------				  

Clos- Closes.               Cncg- Concerning.
Clr- Clear.                 Cncs- Concerns.
Clrd- Cleared.              Cnd- Condition.
Clrg- Clearing.             Cnds- Conditions.
Cls- Calls.                 Cnf- Confess.
Cly- Clearly.               Cnfd- Confessed.
Cm- Come.                   Cnfg- Confessing.
Cmb- Combine.               Cnfn- Confession.
Cmbd- Combined.             Cnfs- Confesses.
Cmbg- Combining.            Cng- Change.
Cmbs- Combines.             Cngd- Changed.
Cmc- Commerce.              Cngd- Changing.
Cmcd- Commenced.            Cngs- Changes.
Cmcg- Commencing.           Cnl- Control.
Cmcm- Commencement.         Cnld- Controlled.
Cmd- Command.               Cnlg- Controlling.
Cmdd- Commanded.            Cnls- Controls.
Cmdg- Commanding.           Cnq- Conquer.
Cmds- Commands.             Cnqd- Conquered.
Cmf- Comfort.               Cnqg- Conquering.
Cmfd- Comforted.            Cnqr- Conqueror.
Cmfg- Comforting.           Cnqs- Conguers.
Cmfl- Comfortable.          Cnr- Controller.
Cmfs- Comforts.             Cnv- Convene.
Cmg- Coming.                Cnvd- Convened.
Cml- Commercial.            Cnvg- Convening.
Cmly- Commercially.         Cnvs- Convenes.
Cmm- Commission.            Cnx- Connsolidate.
Cmmd- Commissioned.         Cnxd- Consolidated.
Cmmg- Commissioning.        Cnxg- Consolidating.
Cmms- Commissions.          Cnxn- Consolidation.
Cmn- Combination.           Cnxs- Consolidates.
Cmp- Company.               Co- County.
Cmps- Companies.            Coc- Chamber of Com-
Cmr- Commissioner.               merce.
Cmrc- Commerce.             Cof- Coffee.
Cmt- Commit.                Coi- Court of inquiry.
Cmtd- Committed.            Coj- County jail.
Cmtg- Committing.           Col- Colonel.
Cmtm- Commitment.           Com- Committee.
Cmts- Commits.              Comm- Committeeman.
Cmw- Commwealth             Comn- Committeemen.
Cmx- Circumstance.          Con- Convention.
Cmxd- Circumstanced         Cop- Cheif of police.
Cmxl- Circumstantial.       Coq- Coroner.
Cmxs- Circumstances.        Cot- Cotton.
Cnc- Concern.               Cou- Country.
Cncd- Concerned.            Cous- Countries.


                   26
---------------------------------------------				  

Cow- Committee of the       Cqt- Consequent.
     whole.                 Cqty- Consequently,
Coz- Cousin.                Cqy- Correctly.
Cp- Constantinople.         Cr- Care.
Cpa- Capacity.              Crc- Circulate.
Cpb- Capable.               Crcd- Circulated.
Cpc- Compliance.            Crcg- Circulating.
Cpd- Captured.              Crcn- Circulation.
Cpe- Catastrophe.           Crcr- Circular.
Cpg- Capturing.             Crcs- Circulates.
Cpk- Complicate.            Crd- Cared.
Cpkd- Complicated.          Crf- Careful.
Cpkg- Complicating.         Crg- Caring.
Cpkn- Complication.         Crj- Carriage.
Cpm- Compromise.            Crm- Ceremony.
Cpmd- Compromised.          Crmx- Ceremonious.
Cpmg- Compromising.         Crmxy- Ceremoniously.
Cpms- Compromises.          Crn- Certain.
Cpn- Captain.               Crny- Certainly.
Cpo- Compose.               Crp- Correspond.
Cpod- Composed.             Crpd- Corresponded.
Cpog- Composing.            Crpg- Corresponding.
Cpon- Composition.          Crpn- Corporation.
Cpos- Composes.             Crpt- Correspondent.
Cpr- Capture.               Crs- Cares.
Cpt- Complete.              Crt- Court.
Cptd- Completed.            Cru- Crew.
Cptg- Completing.           Cs- Case.
Cptn- Completion.           Csh- Cash.
Cpts- Completes.            Cshd- Cashed.
Cpu- Compute.               Cshg- Cashing.
Cpud- Computed.             Cshr- Cashier.
Cpug- Computing.            Csi- Consist.
Cpun- Computation.          Csid- Consisted.
Cpus- Computes.             Csig- Consisting.
Cpv- Captive.               Csis- Consists.
Cpvy- Captivity.            Csit- Consistent.
Cpy- Comply.                Csl- Counsel.
Cpz- Capsize.               Csm- Custom.
Cpzd- Capsized.             Csn- Cession.
Cpzg- Capsizing.            Csp- Championship.
Cpzs- Capsizes.             Csr- Customer.
Cq- Correct.                Css- Cases.
Cqc- Consequence.           Cst- Contest.
Cqd- Corrected.             Cstd- Contested.
Cqg- Correcting.            Cstg- Contesting.
Cqn- Correction.            Csts- Contests.
Cqs- Corrects.              Csu- Consume.


                   27
---------------------------------------------				  

Csud- Consumed.             Czn- Citizen.
Csug- Consuming.            Cznsp- Citizenship
Csun- Consumption.          D- in the, or pence.
Csuv- Consumptive.          Das- Days. ---*
Csy- Customary.             Dau- Daughter.
Ct- Connect.                Db- Debate.
Ctd- Connected.             Dbd- Debated.
Ctf- Certificate.           Dbf- Destroyed by fire.
Ctfn- Certification.        Dbg- Debating.
Ctg- Connecting.            Dbl- Debatable.
Ctm- Contempt.              Dbr- Debater.
Ctmb- Contemptible.         Dbs- Debates.
Ctn- Connection.            Dbt- Doubt.
Cts- Connects.              Dc- District of Colum-
Cty- City.                        bia.
Ctz- Criticize.             Dca- Decay.
Ctzd- Criticized.           Dcad- Decayed.
Ctzg- Criticizing.          Dcag- Decaying.
Ctzm- Criticism.            Dcd- Decide.
Ctzs- Criticizes.           Dcdd- Decided.
Cu- Current.                Dcds- Decides.
Cuj- Courage.               Dcg- Deciding.
Cul- Culminate.             Dcl- Declare.
Culd- Culminated.           Dcld- Declared.
Culg- Culminating.          Dclg- Declaring.
Culn- Culmination.          Dcln- Declaration.
Culs- Culminates.           Dcls- Declares.
Cur- Currency.              Dcn- Decision.
Cus- Currents.              Dcr- December.
Cuy- Currently.             Dcs- Decease.
Cv- Cover.                  Dcsd- Deceased.
Cvc- Convenience.           Dct- District court.
Cvd- Covered.               Dcv- Decisive.
Cvg- Covering.              Dd- Did.
Cvl- Civil.                 Ddc- Deduct.
Cvk- Convoke.               Ddcd- Deducted.
Cvkd- Convoked.             Ddcg- Deducting.
Cvkg- Convoking.            Ddcn- Deduction.
Cvks- Convokes.             Ddu- Deduce. ---*
Cvn- Civilization.          Ddud- Deduced.
Cvt- Convenient.            Ddug- Deducing.
Cvy- Conveniently.          Ddus- Deduces.
Cvz- Civilize.              Dduv- Deductive.
Cvzd- Civilized.            Dea- Deacon.
Cvzg- Civilizing.           Deb- Debris.
Cy- Copy.                   Dec- Decrease.
Cx- Capital letter.         Decd- Decreased.
Cxy- Consecutive.           Decg- Decreasing.



                   28
---------------------------------------------				  

Decs- Decreases.            Dgh- Distinguish.
Ded- Dead.                  Dghd- Distinguished.
Def- Defeat.                Dghg- Distinguishing.
Defd- Defeated.             Dgt- Draught.
Defg- Defeating.            Dh- Deadhead. ---*
Defs- Defeats.              Di- Direct.
Deft- Definite.             Dia- Diamond.
Defty- Definitely.          Dif- Difficult.
Deg- Degree.                Difs- Difficulties.
Degs- Degrees.              Dify- Difficulty.
Del- Delegate.              Dig- Directing.
Dela- Delaware.             Din- Direction.
Deln- Delegation.           Dir- Director.
Dels- Delegates.            Dis- Directs.
Dem- Democrat.              Div- Dividend.
Demc- Democratic.           Divs- Dividends.
Demy- Democracy.            Diz- Disease.
Dep- Deputy.                Dizd- Diseased.
Deps- Deputies.             Dizs- Diseases.
Depz- Deputize.             Dj- Deject.
*Des- Despatch, or          Djd- Dejected.
      dispatch.             Djn- Dejection.
Det- Debt.                  Dk- Describe.
Df- Differ.                 Dkd- Described.
Dfc- Difference.            Dkg- Describing.
Dfd- Differed.              Dkm- Discriminate.
Dfdt- Defendant.            Dkmd- Discriminated.
Dfg- Differing.             Dkmg- Discriminating.
Dfi- Deficient.             Dkmn- Discrimination.
Dfm- Defame.                Dkms- Discriminates.
Dfmd- Defamed.              Dkn- Description.
Dfmg- Defaming.             Dl- Deliver.
Dfmn- Defamation.           Dla- Delay.
Dfn- Definition.            Dlad- Delayed.
Dfr- Defer.                 Dlag- Delaying.
Dfrd- Deferred.             Dlas- Delays.
Dfrg- Deferring.            Dlb- Deliberate.
Dfs- Differs.               Dlbd- Deliberated.
Dft- Different.             Dlbg- Deliberating.
Dfty- Differently.          Dlbn- Deliberation.
Dfv- Defective.             Dlby- Deliberately.
Dfy- Deficiency.            Dld- Delivered.
Dg- Doing.                  Dlg- Delivering.
..............................................
  *The receiver may determine whether despatch
or despatch is meant; the former meaning to for-
ward concretely; e. g., to "despatch an army";
"despatch a messenger," and the latter meaning
to send abstractly: "dispatch a telegram."



                   29
---------------------------------------------				  

Dlq- Delinquent.            Dpd- Departed.
Dlqy- Delinquency.          Dpg- Departing.
Dls- Delivers.              Dpk- Depict.
Dly- Delivery.              Dpkd- Depicted.
Dm- Demand.                 Dpkg- Depicting.
Dmc- Domestic.              Dpl- Disposal.
Dmd- Demanded.              Dpm- Department.
Dmg- Demanding.             Dpms- Departments.
Dmh- Diminish.              Dpn- Disposition.
Dmhd- Diminished.           Dpo- Dispose.
Dmhg- Diminishing.          Dpod- Disposed.
Dmhs- Diminishes.           Dpog- Disposing.
Dmlh- Demolish.             Dpr- Departure.
Dmn- Demonstration.         Dps- Departs.
Dms- Demands.               Dpt- Diplomat.
Dmt- Demonstrate.           Dpv- Deprive.
Dmtd- Demonstrated.         Dpy- Diplomacy.
Dmtg- Demonstrating.        Dq- Discover.
Dmtr- Demonstrator.         Dqc- Divorce.
Dmz- Demoralize.            Dqcd- Divorced.
Dmzd- Demoralized.          Dqce- Divorcee.
Dmzg- Demoralizing.         Dpcg- Divorcing.
Dmzn- Demoralization.       Dqd- Discovered.
Dn- ? (Interrogation).      Dqg- Discovering.
Dnc- Denounce.              Dqn- Drown.
Dncd- Denounced.            Dqr- Discoverer.
Dncg- Denouncing.           Dqs- Discovers.
Dncn- Dunuciation.          Dqy- Discovery.
Dng- Danger.                Dr- Doctor.
Dngs- Dangers.              Drd- Doctored.
Dngx- Dangerous.            Drf- Draft.
Dnl- Denial.                Drfs- Drafts.
Dnm- Denomination.          Drg- Doctoring.
Dnr- Dinner.                Drl- Dreadful.
Doa - Department of         Drs- Doctors.
      Agriculture.          Ds- Discuss.
Doc- Document.              Dsb- Disturb.
Docs- Documents.            Dsbc- Disturbance.
Docy- Documentary.          Dsbd- Disturbed.
Doj- Department of          Dsbg- Disturbing.
     Justice.               Dsc- Distance.
Dol- Dollar.                Dsd- Discussed.
Dols- Dollars.              Dsg- Discussing.
Dom- Dominion.              Dsi- Desist.
Dos- Department of          Dsl- Dissolve.
     State.                 Dsld- Dissolved.
Dp- Depart.                 Dslg- Dissolving.
Dpc- Diplomatic.            Dsln- Dissolution.


                   30
---------------------------------------------				  

Dns- Discussion.            Dvd- Divided.
Dsp- Desperate.             Dvg- Dividing.
Despn- Desperation.         Dvn- Division.
Dsr- Desire.                Dvo- Devote.
Dsrd- Desired.              Dvod- Devoted.
Dsrg- Desiring.             Dvog- Devoting.
Dss- Discusses.             Dvon- Devotion.
Dst- Disaster.              Dvp- Develop.
Dsv- Deserve.               Dvpd- Developed.
Dsx- Disastrous.            Dvpg- Developing.
Dsy- Destroy.               Dvpm- Development.
Dsyd- Destroyed.            Dvr- Devour.
Dsyg- Destroying.           Dvrd- Devoured.
Dt- Do not.                 Dvrg- Devouring.
Dtb- Distribute.            Dvs- Divides.
Dtbd- Distributed.          Dvt- Divert.
Dtbg- Distributing.         Dvtd- Diverted.
Dtbn- Distribution.         Dvtg- Diverting.
Dtf- Doubtful.              Dvts- Diverts.
Dth- Death.                 Dw- Draw.
Dtm- Determine.             Dwf- Dwarf.
Dtmd- Determined.           Dwg- Drawing.
Dtmg- Determining.          Dwl- Dwell.
Dtn- Determination.        *Dwn- Drawn.
Dtr- Detract.               Dwr- Drawer.
Dtrd- Detracted.            Dws- Draws.
Dtrg- Detracting.           Dx- (Dash).
Dtv- Detective.             Dxn- Destruction.
Dtvs- Detectives.           Dxv- Destructive.
Du- Duty.                   Dny- Dynamite.
Dub- Double.                Dz- Does.
Dubd- Doubled.              Ea- Each.
Dubg- Doubling.             Ebd- Embezzled.
Dup- Duplicate.             Ebg- Embezzling.
Dupd- Duplicated.           Ebm- Embezzlement.
Dupg- Duplicating.          Ebr- Embezzler.
Dupn- Duplication.          Ebz- Embezzle.
Dups- Duplicates.           Ec- Ecclesiastic.
Dur- During.                Ecj- Encourage.
Dus- Duties.                Ecjn- Encouragement.
Dv- Divide.                 Eck- Eccentric.
Dva- Devastate.             Ecl- Ecclasiastical.
Dvad- Devastated.           Ed- Editor.
Dvag- Devastating.          Edd- Edited.
Dvan- Devastation.          Edf- Edify.
Dvc- Device.                Edg- Editing.
.................................................
*Spell out "down."


                   31
---------------------------------------------				  

Edl- Editorial.             Ehy- Either year.
Edn- Education.             Ehz- Either from
Ednl- Educational.               which.
Edt- Edit.                  Ej- Eject.
Edu- Educate.               Eja- Ejaculate.
Edud- Educated.             Ejad- Ejaculated.
Edug- Educating.            Ejag- Ejaculating.
Edv- Endeavor.              Ejan- Ejaculation.
Edvd- Endeavored.           Ejd- Ejected.
Edvg- Endeavoring.          Ejg- Ejecting.
Edw- Edward.                Ejm- Ejectment.
Ef- Effect.                 Ejn- Ejection.
Efd- Effected.              Ejo- Enjoy.
Efg- Effecting.             Ejod- Enjoyed.
Efi- Efficient.             Ejog- Enjoying.
Efl- Effectual.             Ejom- Enjoyment.
Efly- Effectually.          Ejs- Ejects.
Efm- Effeminate.            Ek- Economy.
Efo- Effort.                Ekc- Economic.
Efos- Efforts.              Ekl- Economical.
Efs- Effects.               Eks- Economics.
Efs- Effects.               Eks- Economics.
Efv- Effective.             Ekz- Economize.
Efvy- Effectively.          El- Elect.
Efy- Efficiency.            Elc- Electric.
Eg- England.                Elcl- Electrical.
Ega- Engage.                Elcn- Electrician.
Egad- Engaged.              Elcy- Electrically.
Egag- Engaging.             Elcu- Electrocute.
Egam- Engagement.           Elcud- Electrocuted.
Egh- English.               Elcug- Electrocuting.
Egm- Englishman.            Elcum- EElectrocution.
Egn- Englishmen.            Elb- Elaborate.
Egp- Egypt.                 Elbn- Elaboration.
Egr- Eager.                 Eld- Elected.
Egy- Eagerly.               Elg- electing.
Eh- Either.                 Elj- Elligible.
Ehb- Either be.             Eljy- Eligibility.
Ehd- Either in the.         Elm- Eliminate.
Ehf- Either of the.         Elmd- Eliminated.
Ehg- Either from the.       Elmg- Eliminating.
Eho- Either of.             Elmn- Elimination.
Ehq- Either on the.         Eln- Election.
Ehr- Either are.            Elo- Elope.
Eht- Either the.            Elod- Eloped.
Ehu- Either you.            Elog- Eloping.
Ehv- Either of which.       Elom- Elopment.
Ehw- Either with.           Elq- Eloquent.
Ehx- Either in which.       Elqc- Eloquence.


                   32
---------------------------------------------				  

Elqy- Eloquently.           Enj- Enjoin.
Elr- Elector.               Enjd- Enjoined.
Els- Elects.                Enjng- Enjoining.
Elt- Element.               Enjm- Enjoyment.
Elts- Elements.             Enm- Entertainment.
Elty- Elementary.           Eno- Enormous.
Elu- Elude.                 Enoy- Enormously.
Elv- Elective.              Enr- Enter.
En4- Elsewhere.             Enrd- Entered.
Em- Embarrass.              Enrg- Entering.
Ebm- Embrace.               Ent- Entertain.
Embd- Embraced.             Entd- Entertained.
Embg- Embracing.            Entg- Entertaining.
Embt- Embracement.          Enu- Enumerate.
Emc- Emphatic.              Enud- Enumerated.
Ency- Emphatically.         Enug- Enumerating.
Emd- Embarrassed.           Enun- Enumeration.
Emg- Embarrassing.          Env- Envelope.
Emi- Emigrate.              Envd- Enveloped.
Emid- Emigrated.            Envg- Enveloping.
Emig- Emigrating.           Envm- Envelopment.
Emj- Emergent.              Eny- Enthusiastically.
Emjy- Emergency.            Enz- Enterprise.
Emm- Emigration.            Enzg- Enterprizing.
Emo- Emotion.               Epd- Employed.
Emp- Empty.                 Epg- Employing.
Empd- Emptied.              Epe- Employe[sic].
Empg- Emptying.             Epl- Episcopal.
Emt- Embarrassment.         Epm- Employment.
Emy- Embody.                Epn- Episcopalian.
Emyd- Embodied.             Epr- Employer.
Emyg- Embodying.            Epy- Employ.
Emym- Embodyment.           Eq- Enquire.
Emz- Emphasize.             Eqb- Equable.
Emzd- Emphasized.           Eqd- Equalled.
Emzg- Emphasizing.          Eqg- Equaling.
En- Enthusiasm.             Eqk- Earthquake.
Enn- Enable.                Eql- Equal.
Enc- Enthusiastic.          Eqls- Equals.
Enf- Enforce.               Eqm- Equipment.
Enfd- Enforced.             Eqp- Equip.
Enfg- Enforcing.            Eqps- Enquires.
Enfm- Enforcement.          Eqv- Equivalent.
Eng- Engine.                Eqy- Equiry.
Engr- Engineer.             Eqz- Equalize.
Engrd- Engineered.          Eqzd- Equalized.
Engrg- Engineering.         Eqrg- Equalizing.
Enh- Enough.                Eqrn- Equalization.


                   33
---------------------------------------------				  

Er- Error.                  Exbd- Exhibited.
Ers- Errors.                Exbg- Exhibiting.
Erx- Erroneous.             Exbn- Exhibition.
Erxy- Erroneously.          Exc- Excess.
Es- And.                    Exd- Expected.
Esb- Establish.             Exg- Exchange.
Esbd- Established.          Exk- Expect.
Esbg- Establishing.         Exkg- Expecting.
Esbs- Establishes.          Exkn- Expectation.
Esc- And so forth.          Exm- Examine.
Esd- And in the.            Exmd- Examined.
Esk- Escape.                Exmg- Examining.
Eskd- Escaped.              Exn- Examination.
Eskg- Escaping.             Exp- Express.
Eskm- Escapement.           Expd- Expressed.
Esl- Essential.             Expg- Expressing.
Esls- Essentials.           Expn- Expression.
Esly- Essentially.          Exq- Excuse.
Esm- Establishment.         Exqd- Excused.
Esp- Especial.              Exqg- Excusing.
Espy- Especially.           Exgs- Excuses.
Esq- Esquire.               Exr- Examiner.
Esr- And are.               Exrs- Examiners.
Est- And the.               Exv- Excessive.
Etc- Etcetera.              Ey- Every.
Etd- Estimated.             Eyb- Everybody.
Etg- Estimating.            Eyg- Everything.
Etm- Estimate.              Ey4-Everywhere.
Etn- Estimation.            F- Of the.
Eu- Europe.                 Fa- Fail.
Eun- European.              Fab- Fabric.
Ev- Ever.                   Fac- Fact.
Eva- Evade.                 Facn- Faction.
Evad- Evaded.               Facr- Factor.
Evag- Evading.              Fad- Failed.
Evan- Evasion.              Fag- Failing.
Evc- Evidence.              Fam- Family.
Evcd- Evidenced.            Fap- Filed a petition.
Evcg- Evidencing.           Fapib- Filed a petition
Evg- Evening.                     in bankrutcy.
Evk- Evoke.                 Fas- Fails.
Evkd- Evoked.               Fau- Failure.
Evkg- Evoking.              Fav- Favor.
Evm- Evermore.              Fax- Facts.
Evn- Even.                  Fb- Of the bill.
Evt- Evident.               Fbl- Favorable.
Exa- Extra.                 Fbo- Fire broke out.
Exb- Exhibit.               Fbx- Fabulous.


                   34
---------------------------------------------				  

Fc- Fiscal.                 Fjd- Founded.
Fcd- Financed.              Fjg- Founding.
Fcg- Financing.             Fjn- Foundation.
Fce- Finance.               Fjr- Founder.
Fch- French.                Fjy- Foundry.
Fcl- Financial.             Fk- Fluctuate.
Fcly- Financially.          Fkd- Fluctuated.
Fcr- Financier.             Fkg- Fluctuating.
Fcs- Finances.              Fkn- Fluctuation.
Fd- Find.                   Fks- Fuuctuates.
Fdc- Federal Court.         Fkx- Fictitious.
Fdd- Federated.             Fky- Factory.
Fdg- Finding.               Fl- Feel.
Fdl- Federal.               Fla- Flame.
Fdm- Fundamental.           Flas- Flames.
Fdn- Federation.            Fld- Field.
Fdr- Finder.                Fldd- Fielded.
Fds- Finds.                 Fldg- Fielding.
Fea- Feather.               Flds- Fields.
Feb- February.              Flg- Feeling.
Fem- Feminine.              Flh- Flourish.
Fev- Fever.                 Flhd- Flourished.
Ffj- Fugitive from jus-     Flhg- Flourishing.
     tice.                  Flhs- Flourishes.
Ffr- Philosopher.           Flo- Flow.
Ffy- Philosophy.            Flod- Flowed.
Fg- Following.              Flog- Flowing.
Fgh- Photograph.            Flos- Flows.
Fghd- Photographed.         Fls- Feels.
Fghg- Photographing.        Flz- Fertilize.
Fghr- Photographer.         Flzd- Fertilized.
Fgm- Fragment.              Flzg- Fertilizing.
Fgms- Fragments.            Flzr- Fertilizer.
Fgmy- Fragmentary.          Fm- From.
Fgn- Foreign.               Fmd- Formed.
Fgnr- Foreigner.            Fmg- Forming.
Fgo- Following order.       Fml- Formal.
Fgr- Figure.                Fmly- Formally.
Fgd- Figured.               Fmn- Formation.
Fgg- Figuring.              Fmr- Former.
Fh- Forth.                  Fmy- Formerly.
Fhr- Further. ---*          Fmx- Famous.
Fhw- Forthwith.             Fn- Fifteen.
Fi- Fire.                   Fna- Fanatic.
Fid- Fired.                 Fnc- France.
Fig- Firing.                Fnd- Friend.
Fin- Finish.                Fndsp- Friendship.
Fj- Found.                  Fnh- Furnish.


                   35
---------------------------------------------				  

Fnhd- Furnished.            Ftm- For the murder.
Fnhg- Furnishing.           Ftp- For the purpose.
Fnhs- Furnishes.            Ftu -Feature.
Fnk- Frank.                 Fty- Fatally.
Fnl- Funeral.               Fu- Few.
Fnt- Front.                 Fug- Fugitive.
Fny- Funny.                 Fui- Fully insured.
Fnz- Frenzy.                Fut- Future.
Fo- For.                    Fv- Five.
Foj- Fourth of July.        Fvh- Fifth.
Fot- Fought.                Fvt- Favorite.
Fou- Fourteen.              Fw- Follow.
Fp- Philanthropist.         Fwd- Followed.
Fpc- Philanthropic.         Fx- Fort.
Fpy- Philanthropy.          Fxd- Fixed.
Fq- Frequent.               Fxg- Fixing.
Fqd- Frequented.            Fxn- Fortification.
Fqg- Frequenting.           Fxs- Forts.
Fqs- Frequents.             Fxy- Fortify.
Fqy- Frequently.            Fym- Furthermore.
Fr- Four.                   Fyn- Fortune.
Frc- Force.                 Fyt- Fortunate.
Frcd- Forced.               Fz- Freeze.
Frcg- Forcing.              Fzn- Frozen.
Frd- Fraud.                 G- From the.
Frdt- Fraudulent.           Ga- Gave.
Frh- Fourth.                Gad- Guaranteed.
Fri- Friday.                Gag- Guaranteeing.
Frl- Fearful.               Gal- Gallon.
Frm- Form.                  Gals- Gallon.
Frn- Forenoon.              Gar- Guarantee.
Frt- Freight.               Gau- Gauge.
Frv- Forever.               Gay- Guaranty.
Frw- Forward.               Gb- Great Britian.
Frwd- Forwarded.            Gc- Grace.
Frwg- Forwarding.           Gcl- Graceful.
Frws- Forwards.             Gcx- Gracious.
Frx- Furious.               Gcy- Gracefully.
Fs- First.                  Gd- Good.
Fsd- Finished.              Gds- Goods.
Ft- For the.                Gen- General.
Ftb- For the bill.          Gens- Generals.
Ftl- Fatal.                 Geny- Generally.
................................................
  Use "fr" for "four" and say "4" for "where,"
except in groups.  "fx" for "fort."
  Spell out "fix."


                   36
---------------------------------------------				  

Ger- German.                Gom- Gulf of Mexico.
Gery- Germany.              Gov- Governor.
Gf- Gulf.                   Gp- Group.
Gfd- Gratified.             Gpd- Grouped.
Gfg- Gratifying.            Gpg- Grouping.
Gfn- Gratification.         Gps- Groups.
Gfy- Gratify.               Gq- Geology.
Gg- Going.                  Gql- Geological.
Gh- Gather.                 Gqt- Geologist.
Ghd- Gathered.              Gr- Ground.
Ghg- Gathering.             Grd- Grounded.
Ghs- Gathters.              Grf- Greif.
Gi- Gigantic.               Grg- Grounding.
Gj- Grand Jury.             Grn- Grain.
Gk- Greek.                  Grs- Grounds.
Gks- Greeks.                Grv- Greive.
Gl- Girl.                   Grvd- Grieved.
Glc- Glance.                Grvg- Grieving.
Glcd- Glanced.              Gs- Guess.
Glcg- Glancing.             Gsd- Guessed.
Gld- Gold.                  Gsg- Guessing.
Glm- Gleam.                 Gsp- Gossip.
Glmd- Gleamed.              Gspd- Gossipped.
Glmg- Gleaming.             Gspg- Gossipping.
Glms- Gleams.               Gt- Great.
Gln- Glean.                 Gtg----Getting.
Glnd- Gleaned.              Gtr- Greater.
Glng- Gleaning.             Gty- Greatly.
Glns- Gleans.               Gu- Guard.
Gls- Girls.                 Gubl- Guernatorial.
Glv- Glove.                 Gud- Guarded.
Glvs- Gloves.               Gug- Guarding.
Glx- Glorious.              Gus- Guards.
Gm- Gentleman.              Gv- Give.
Gmn- Gentlemen.             Gvc- Grievance.
Gms- Gentleman's            Gvg- Giving.
Gmy- Gentlemanly.           Gvn- Given.
Gn- Gone.                   Gvt- Government.
Gnd- Grand.                 Gw- Grow.
Gni- Good night.            Gwg- Growing.
Gno- Gave notice.           Gwh- Growth.
Gnt- Grant.                 Gwn- Grown.
Gntd- Granted.              Gws- Grows.
Gntg- Granting.             Gx- Great excitement.
Gnts- Grants.               Gy- Guilty.
Gnx- Generous.              Gz- Gazette.
Gnxy- Generously.           Gzd- Gazetted.
Goh- Guest of honor.        Gzr- Gazetteer[sic].


                   37
---------------------------------------------				  

H- Has.                     Hnd- Hundred.
Hag- Haggle.                Ho- Hold.
Hagd- Haggled.              Hog- Holding.
Hagg- Haggling.             Hom- Home.
Hags- Haggles.              Homs- Homes.
Hap- Happy.                 Hon- Honorable.
Hb- Has been.               Hor- Holder.
Hbr- Harbor.                Hos- Holds.
Hbrd- Harbored.             Hox- Hostilities.
Hbrg- Harboring.            Hoy- Hostility.
Hbrs- Harbors.              Hp- Hope.
Hc- Habeas corpus.          Hpd- Hoped.
Hd- Had.                    Hpf- Hopeful.
Hdb- Had been.              Hpg- Hoping.
Hed- Head.                  Hpl- Hopeless.
Hes- Hesitate.              Hpn- Happen.
Hesd- Hesitated.            Hpnd- Happened.
Hesn- Hesitation.           Hpns- Happens.
Hf- Half.                   Hps- Hopes.
Hg- Having.                 Hqrs- Headquarters.
Hgb- Having been.           *Hr- Here.
Hh- Has had.                Hrd- Heard.
Hhd- Hogshead.              Hrf- Heretofore.
Hi- High.                   Hrg- Hearing.
Hib- Hibernian.             Hrl- Hurl.
Hin- Hinder.                Hrld- Hurled.
Hir- Higher.                Hrlg- Hurling.
Hk- Hook.                   Hrm- Harm.
Hkd- Hooked.                Hrmd- Harmed.
Hkg- Hooking.               Hrmg- Harming.
Hkn- Hurricane.             Hrms- Harms.
Hkp- Handicap.              Hrt- Hurt.
Hks- Hooks.                 Hrtg- Hurting.
Hl- Hell.                   Hrv- Harvest.
Hlh- Health.                Hrvd- Harvested.
Hlp- Help.                  Hrvg- Harvesting.
Helpd- Helped.              Hrvr- Harvester.
Hlpg- Helping.              Hrvs- Harvests.
Hly- Healthy.               Hrw- Herewith.
Hm- Him.                    Hry- Hurry.
Hmx- Harmonious.            Hs- His.
Hmy- Harmony.               Hsb- Husband.
Hn- Has not.                Hsf- Himself.
Hnb- Has not been.          Hsp- Hospital.
Hnc- Hence.                Ht- Has the.
............................................
  *Spell out "hear."
  

                   38
---------------------------------------------				  

Htl- Hotel.                 Ict- Inconvenient.
Hu- House.                  Icu- Include.
Hub- House bill.            Icud- Included.
Huc- House committee.       Icug- Including.
Hud- Hudson.                Icun- Inclusion.
Hul- House of Lords.        Icus- Includes.
Huq- House of Com-          Icv- Inconvenience.
     mons.  ---*            Icw- In connection
Hur- House of Rep-               with.
     resentatives.          Id- Introduce.
Hv- Have.  	                Ida- Idaho.
Hvb- Have been.             Idc- Induct.
Hvnb- Have not been.        Idcd- Inducted.
Hvk- Havoc.                 Idcg- Inducting.
Hvr- However.               Idcn- Induction.
Hvu- Have you.              Idd- Introduced.
Hvy- Heavy.                 Idf- Identify.
Hw- How.                    Idfd- Identified.
Hx- Hyphen.                 Idfg- Identifying.
Hy- Henry.                  Idfn- Identification.
Hz- Hazard.                 Idg- Introducing.
Hzd- Hazarded.              Idm- Indictment.
Hzg- Hazarding.             Idn- Introduction.
Hzx- Hazardous.             Idt- Indict.
Ia- Iowa.                   Idtd- Indicted.
Iab- Introduced a bill.     Idtg- Indicting.
Ian- Indian.                Idty- Identify.
Iar- Introduced a reso-     Idu- Induce.
      lution.               Idud- Induced.
Iat- In addition to.        Idug- Inducing.
Iaw- In accordance          Idum- Inducement.
      with.                 Idy- Introductory.
Ibo- In behalf of.          Ifc- Inference.
Ic- In connection.          Ifd- Informed.
Icc- Interstate Com-        Ifg- Informing.
      merce Commis-         Ifl- Informal.
	  sion.                 Ifm- Inform.
Icg- In concluding.         Ifn- Information.
Icj- Intercollegiate.       Ifo- In favor of.
Icm- Income.                Ifq- Infrequent.
Icmg- Incoming.             Ifqy- Infrequently.
Icms- Incomes.              Ifr- Infer.
Icn- In conclusion.         Ift- Inflict.
Icp- Incorporate.           Iftd- Inflicted.
Icpd- Incorporated.         Iftg- Inflicting.
Icpg- Incorparating.        Iftn- Infliction.
Icpn- Incorporation.        Ifts- Inflicts.

	 
                   38
---------------------------------------------				  

Ify- Infantry.              Imn- Immigration.
Ig- Indignant.              Imnt- Imminent.
Igc- Ignorance.             Imp- Import.
Igl- Illegal.               Impd- Imported.
Ign- Indignation.           Impg- Importing.
Igt- Ignorant.              Impn- Importation.
Igy- Indignantly.           Imps- Imports.
Ih- It has.                 Imt- Immediate.
Iho- In honor of.           Imv- Imaginative.
Ij- Injure.                 Ina- Initiate.
Ijc- Intelligence.          Inad- Initiated.
Ijd- Injured.               Inag- Initiating.
Ijg- Injuring.              Inav- Initiative.
Ijn- Injunction.            Inas- Initiates.
Ijs- Injures.               Inc- Increase.
Ijt- Intelligent.           Incd- Incresed.
Ijx- Injurious.             Incg- Increasing.
Ijy- Injury.                Incs- Increases.
Ik- Instantly killed.       Ind- Indiana.
Ikd- Indicated.             Inf- Influence.
Ikg- Indicating.            Infl- Influential.
Ikm- Incriminate.           Inj- Injustice.
Ikmd- Incriminated.         Inl- International.
Ikmg- Incriminating.        Ino- Innocent.
Ikmn- Incrimination.        Inoc- Innocence.
Ikms- Incriminates.         Inp- Independent.
Ikn- Indication.            Inpy- Independently.
Iks- Indicates.             Inq- Inquest.
Iku- Incumbent.             Ins- Insurance.
Ikv- Indicative.            Instn- Institution.
Ild- Illustrated.           Instu- Institute.
Ilg- Illustrating.          Instd- Instituted.
Iln- Illustration.          Instg- Instituting.
Ils- Illustrates.           Insx- Instantaneous.
Ilt- Illustrate.            Int- Interest.
Ilv- Illustrative.          Intd- Interested.
Ilx- Illustrious.           Intg- Interesting.
Im- Immediately.            Inu- Innumerable.
Ima- Imagine.               Inv- Involve.
Iman- Imagination.          Invd- Involved.
Imd- Imagined.              Invg- Involving.
Img- Imagining.             Inx- Instruct.
Imi- Immigrate.             Inxd- Instructed.
Imid- Immigrated.           Inxg- Instructing.
Imig- Immigrating.          Inxn- Instruction.
Imm- Immense.               Inxs- Instructs.
Immy- Immensely.            Iny- Incendiary.


                   40
---------------------------------------------				  

Inys- Incendiaries.         Isi- Insist.
Io- In order.               Isjt- Insurgent.
Iot- In order to            Isjts- Insurgents.
Ip- Improve.                Isjy- Insurgency.
Ipc- Importance.            Isn- Island.
Ipd- Improved.              Iso- In spite of.
Ipg- Improving.             Ista- Interstate.
Ipk- Implicate.             Isu- Issue.
Ipkd- Implicated.           Isuc- Issuance.
Lpkg- Implicating.          Isud- Issued.
Ipkn- Implication.          Isug- Issuing.
Ipm- Improvement.           Isus- Issues.
Ipn- Imposition.            Isw- In sympathy with.
Ipo- Impose.                Isxn- Insurrection.
Ipod- Imposed.              Isxn- Insurrection.
Ipog- Imposing.             Itc- In this connection.
Ips- Improves.              Itd- Intend.
Ipt- Important.             Itdd- Intended.
Ipu- Impute.                Itg- Intending.
Ipud- Imputed.              Itf- Interfere.
Ipug- Imputing.             Itfd- Interfered.
Ipun- Imputation.           Itfg- Interfering.
Ipus- Imputes.              Itn- Intention.
Ipx- Inspect.               Itx- Intoxicate.
Ipxd- Inspected.            Itxd- Intoxicated.
Ipxg- Inspecting.           Itxg- Intoxicating.
Ipxn- Inspection.           Itxn- Intoxication.
Ipxs- Inspects.             Iug- Inaugurate.
Iq- Inquire.                Iugd- Inaugurated.
Iqd- Inquired.              Iugg- Inaugurating.
Iqg- Inquiring.             Iul- Industrial.
Iqn- Inquisition.           Iun- Inauguration.
Iqo- In consequence of.     Iup- Interrupt.
Iqr- Inquirer.              Iupd- Interrupted.
Iqs- Inquires.              Iupg- Interrupting.
Iqy- Inquiry.               Iupn- Interruption.
Ir- Irregular.              Iux- Industrious.
Ird- Ireland.               Iuxy- Industrously.
Irh- Irish.                 Iuy- Industry.
Irl- Internal.              Iuys- Industries.
Irn- Iron.                  Iv- In view.
Irs- Irregularities.        Iva- Invade.
Irt- In regard to.          Ivad- Invaded.
Iry- Irregularly.           Ivag- Invading.
Isc- Instance.              Ivan- Invasion.
Iscd- Instanced.            Ivas- Invades.
Iscg- Istancing.            Ivd- Investigated.
Iscs- Instances.            Ivg- Investigate.


                   41
---------------------------------------------				  

Ivgg- Investigating.        Jbt- Jubilant.
Ink- Invoke.                Jdl- Judicial.
Ivkd- Invoked.              Jdx- Judicious.
Ivkn- Invocation.           Jdxy- Judiciously.
Ivkn- Invocation.           Jdy- Judiciary.
Ivl- Individual.            Jf- Justify.
Ivm- Investment.            Jfd- Justified.
Ivn- Investigation.         Jfg- Justifying.
Ivo- In view of.            Jfl- Justifiable.
Ivs- Invest.                Jfn- Justification.
Ivsd- Invested.             Jfs- Justfies.
Ivsg- Investing.            Jg- Judge.
Ivt- Invite.                Jgd- Judged.
Ivtd- Invited.              Jgg- Judging.
Ivtg- Inviting.             Jgm- Judgment.
Ivtn- Invitation.           Jgs- Judges.
Ivts- Invites.              Jl- Jail.
Ivu- Interview.             Jlsy- Jealousy.
Ivud- Interviewed.          Jlx- Jealous.
Ivug- Interviewing.         Jlxy- Jealously.
Iw- It was.                 Jly- July.
Iwb- It was believed.       Jn- Join.
Iwc- It was claimed.        Jnd- Joined.
Iwf- it was feared.         Jng- Joining.
Iwh- It was held.           Jnl- Journal.
Iwj- It was alleged.        Jns- Joins.
Iwn- It was not.            Jny- Journey.
Iwr- It was reported.       Jop- Justice of the
Iwu- It was understood.           Peace.
Iwx- It was expected.       Jp- Japan.
Ix- It is.                  Jpe- Japanese.
Ixb- It is believed.        Jpx- Joepardous.
Ixc- It is claimed.         Jpy- Jeopardy.
Ixf- It is feared.          Jpz- Jeopardize.
Ixh- It is held.            Jr- Junior.
Ixj- It is alleged.         Jrn- Jurisdiction.
Ixn- It is not.             Jrnl- Jurisdictional.
Ixp- It is possible.        Js- Just.
Ixr- It is reported.        Jsc- Justice.
Ixs- It is said.            Jsy- Justly.
Ixt- It is the.             Jt- Joint.
Ixu- It is understood.      Jty- Jointly.
Ixx- It is expected.        Ju- Jury.
J- By whiche.               Jus- Juries.
Jan- January.               Jvn- Javelin.
Jas- James.                 Jwl- Jewel.
Jb- Jubilee.                Jwy- Jewelry.
Jbn- Jubilation.            Jz- Juarex (Mexico).


                   42
---------------------------------------------				  

K- Out of the.              Kg- King.
Kah- Knots an hour.         Kgd- Congratulated.
Kan- Kansas.                Kgg- Congratulating.
Kb- Contribute.             Kgm- Kingdom.
Kbd- Contributed. ---*      Kgn- Congratulation.
Kbg- Contributing.          Kgu- Congratulate.
Kbn- Contribution.          Kgy- Congratulatory.
Kbs- Contributes.           Ki- Kill.
Kc- Concentrate.            Kid- Killed.
Kcd- Concentrated.          Kig- Killing.
Kcg- Concentrating.         Kis- Kills.
Kcl- Conciliate.            Kj- Complain.
Kcld- Conciliated.          Kjd- Complained.
Kclg- Conciliating.         Kjg- Complaining.
Kcln- Conciliation.         Kjn- Conjunction.
Kcls- Conciliates.          Kjt- Complaint.
Kcn- Concentration.         Kl- Collect.
Kcs- Concentrates.          Kld- Collected.
Kcx- Conscious.             Klg- collecting.
Kcxn- Consciousness.        Kli- Collide.
Kd- Kind.                   Klid- Collided.
Kdc- Conduct.               Klig- Colliding.
Kdcd- Conducted.            Kln- Collection.
Kdcg- Conducting.           Klps- Collapse.
Kdcr- Conductor.            Klpsd- Collapsed.
Kdg- Knowledge.             Klpsg- Collapsing.
Kdn- Kindness.              Klr- Collector.
Kdu- Conduce.               Klrl- Collateral.
Kdud- Conduced.             Kls- Collects.
Kdug- Conducing.            Klsn- Collision.
Kdus- Conduces.             Klv- collective.
Kdy- Kindly.                Km- Communicate.
Kf- Confer.                 Kmd- Communicated.
Kdc- Conference.            Kmg- Communicating.
Kfd- Conferred.             Kml- Criminal.
Kfe- Conferee.              Kmly- Criminally.
Kfg- Conferring.            Kmn- Communication.
Kfm- Conform                Kmp- Compare.
Kfmd- Conformed             Kmpd- Compared.
Kfmg- Conforming.           Kmpg- Comparing.
Kfms- Conforms.             Kmpv- Comparative.
Kfmy- Conformity.           Kmw- Communicate
Kfs- Confers.                   with. ---*
Kft- Conflict.              Kmy- Community.
Kftd- Conflicted.           Kn- Known.
Kftg- Conflicting.          Knc- Conscience.
Kfts- Conflicts.            Knd- Candidate.
Kfw- Confer with.           Kndy- Candidacy.


                   43
---------------------------------------------				  

Knp- Contemplate.           Krbn- Corroboration.
Knpd- Contemplated.         Krbs- Corroborates.
Knpg- Contemplating.        Krd- Colored.
Knpn- Contemplation.        Krg- Coloring.
Knps- Contemplates.         Krp- Corrupt.
Kns- Converse.              Krpd- Corrupted.
Knsd- Conversed.            Krpg- Corrupting.
Knsg- Conversing.           Krpn- Corruption.
Knv- Conversation.          Krps- Corrupts.
Knx- Conscientious.         Krs- Colors.
Kny- Conscientiously.       Kru- Crusade.
Ko- Colon (:).              Ks- Conserve.
Kol- Column.                Ksd- Conserved.
Kom- Common.                Ksg- Conserving.
Kop- Co-operate.            Ksm- Conservatism.
Kopd- Co-operated.          Ksn- Conservation.
Kopg- Go-operating.         Kst- Christ. ---*
Kopn- Co-operation.         Kstn- CHristian.
Kp- Keep.                   Ksu- Consummate.
Kpd- Comprehend.            Ksud- Consummated.
Kpg- Keeping.               Ksug- Consummating.
Kpl- Compel.                Ksun- Consummation.
Kpn- Competition.           Ksv- Conservative.
Kpr- Conspire.              Kt- Contain.
Kprd- Conspired.            Ktd- Contained.
Kprg- Conspiring.           Ktg- Containing.
Kpt- Compete.               Kts Contains.
Kptd- Competed.             Ktv- Controvert.
Kptg- Competing.            Kty- Controversy.
Kptr- Competitor.           Ku- Continue.
Kptv- Competitive.          Kuc- Continuance.
Kpv- Coomprehensive.        Kud- Continued.
Kpx- Conspicuous.           Kug- continuing.
Kpy- Conspiracy.            Kul- Continual.
Kq- Colon, Quota-           Kun- Continuation.
     tion (:").             Kus- Continues.
Kqc- Convince.              Kuy- Continually.
Kqcd- Convinced.            Kv- Convert.
Kqcd- Convincing.           Kva Convey.
Kqd- Convicted.             Kvac- Conveyance.
Kqd- Convicting.            Kvad- Conveyed.
Kqn- Conviction             Kvag- Conveying.
Kgq- Convects.              Kvb- Convertible.
Kqt- Convict.               Kvd- Converted.
Kr- Color.                  Kvg- Converting.
Krb- Corroborate.           Kvn- Conversion.
Krbd- Corroborated.         Kvs- Converts.
Krbg- Corroborating.        Kvy- Convertibly.


                   44
---------------------------------------------				  

Kw - Know.                  Lgs- Longs.
Kwg- Knowing.               Lgt- Legitimate.
Kws- Knows.                 Lgu- League.
Kx- Colon, dash             Lgy- Legally.
     (: -).                 Lgz- Legalize.
Kxc- Construct.             Lia- Liability.
Kxd- Constructed.           Lias- Liabilities.
Kxg- Constructing.          Lib- Liberty.
Kxn- Construction.          Libs- Liberties.
Kxs- Constructs.            Lic- License.
Ky- Kentucky.               Licd- Licensed.
Kyn- Kentuckian.            Licg- Licensing.
Kz- Consult.	            Lics- Licenses.
Kzd- Consulted.             Lit- Little.
Kzg- Consulting.            Lk- Like.
Kzn- Consultation.          Lkd- Liked.
Kzs- Consults.              Lkg- Liking.
La- Louisiana.              Lks- Likes.
Lab- Labor.                 Lky- Likely.
Labd- Labored.              Ln- Loan.
Labg- Laboring.             lnd- Loaned.
Labs- Labors.               Lng- Loaning.
Laby- Laboratory.           Lns- Loans.
Laf- Laugh.                 Loco- Locomotive.
Lag- Language.	            Loj- Lodge.
Lan- Lousianian.            Lok- Lock.
Las- Last.                  Lol- Loss of Life.
Lat- Latitude.              Lon- Longitude.
Lav- Lavish.                Lov- Love.
Lavd- Lavished.             Lp- Liverpool.
Lavg- Lavishing.            Lq- Liquor.
Lavy- Lavishly.             Lqd- Liquidated.
Lbl- Liberal.               Lqd- Liquidating.
Lbr- Lumber.                Lqn- Liquidation.
Lbx- Laborious.             Lqt- Liquidate.
Ld- London.                 Lqs- Liquors.
Ldg- Leading.               Lr- Lower.
Ldr- Leader.                Lrj- Large.
Lea- Leather.               Lrn- Learn.
Lf- Life.                   Lrnd- Learned.
Lfb- File boat.             Lrng- Learning.
Lfi- Life insurance.        Lt- Lieutenant.
Lfr- Laughter.              Ltr- Letter.
Lg- Long.                   Lu- Lieu.
Lgd- Longed.                Luk- Look.
Lgg- Longing.               Lux- Luxury.
Lgl- Legal.                 Lv- Leave.
Lgr- Longer.                Lng- Leaving.


                   45
---------------------------------------------				  

Lvs- Leaves.                Mgr- Manager.
Lw- Law.                    Mgs- Manages.
Lw- Law.                    Mgs- Manages.
Lwf- Lawful.                Mh- Much.
Lwl- Lawless.               Mid- Midnight.
Lwr- Lawyer.                Mil- Military.
Lx- Pounds Sterling.        Min- Minute.
Lyg- Lying,                 Mir- Minister.
M- More.                    Mit- Might.
Mab- May be.                Mjt- Magistrate.
Mag- Magnificent.           Mjy- Majority.
Mah- Miles an hour.         Mk- make.
Maj- Major.                 Mkg- Making.
Mam- Mammoth.               Mkr- Maker.
Mar- March.                 Mks- Makes.
Mas- Massachusetts.         Mkt- Market.
Mat- Material.              Ml- Mail.
Max- Maximum.               Mld- Mailed.
Mbz- Mobilize.              Mlg- Mailing.
Mbzn- Mobilization.         Mls- Mails.
Mch- Machine.               Mlx- Malicious.
Mck -Mechanic.              Mlxy- Maliciously.
Mcl- Mechanical             Mm- Mid-meridian (12
Mcn- Mechanician.               o'clock midnight,
Mcy- Machinery.                 when the sun is
Md- Made.                       equidistant from
Mda- Monday.                    the meridian, or
Mdf- Modify.                    noon).
Mdfn- Modification.         Mmb- Memorable.
Mdg- Middling.              Mml- Memorial.
Mdl- Middle.                Mmy- Memory.
Mdm- Medium.                Mmz- Memorize.
Mdn- Moderation.            Mnf- Manifest.
Mdt- Moderate.              Mnfd- manifested.
Mdy- Moderately.            Mnfg- Manifesting.
Mdz- Merchandise.           Mnfn- manifestation.
Me- Maine.                  Mng- Morning.
Med- Mediterranean.         Mnm- Minumum.
Mem- Member.                Mnr- Manner.
Mf- Manufacture.            Mnv- Maneuver.
Mfd- Manufactured.          Mnx- Monotonous.
Mfg- Manufacturing.         Mny- Many.
Mfr- Manufacturer.          Mo- Month.
Mfs- Manufactures.          Med- Modern.
Mfy- Manfactory.            Mof- Matter of fact.
Mg- Manage.                 Mol- More or less.
Mgd- Managed.               Mom- Moment.
Mgg- Managing.              Momx- Momentous.
Mgm- Management.            Mon- Money.


                   46
---------------------------------------------				  

Mos- Months.                Mut- Mutual. ---*
Moy- Monthly.               Muty- Mutually.
Mpc- Monopolistic.          Mux- Murderous.
Mpd- Manipulated.           Muy- Municipality.
Mpg- Manipulating.          Muys- Municipalities.
Mpn- Manipulation.          Mv- Move.
Mpon- Metropolitan.         Mvd- Moved.
Mpu- Maipulate.             Mvg- Moving.
Mpy- Monopoly.              Mvl- Moveable.
Mpz- Monapolize.            Mvr- Mover.
Mr- Mister.                 Mvs- Moves.
Mrd- Married.               Mw- Meanwhile.
Mrg- Mortgage.              Mx- Mix.
Mrj- Marriage.              Mxc- Maintenance.
Mrl- Marshal.               Mxd- Mixed.
Mrv- Marvel.                Mxg- Mixing.
Mrvx- Marvelous.            Mxn- Maintain.
Mry- Marry.                 Mxnd- Maintained.
Ms- Most.                   Mxng- Maintaining.
Msd- Missed.                Mxr- Mixer.
Msg- Missing.               Mxs- Mixes.
Msj- Message.               Myd- Maryland.
Msjr- Messenger.            Myn- Million.
Msk- Mistake.               Myr- Millionaire.
Mskn- Mistaken.             Mys-- Mystery.
Msn- Mission.               Myx- Mysterious.
Msny- Missionary.           N- Not.
Msp- Mississippi.           Na- Name.
Msr- Measure.               Nad- Named.
Msrd- Measured.             Nag- Naming.
Msrg- Measuring.            Mal- National.
Msrm- Measurement.          Nas- Names.
Mst- Must.                  Nav- Navigate.
Msy- Mostly.                Navn- Navigation.
Mt- Meet.                   Nb- Not be.
Mtg- Meeting.               Nbg- Not being.
Mtn- Mountain.              Nbh- Neighborhood.
Mtr- Matter.                Nbr- Neighbor.
Mts- Meets.                 Nbrg- Neighboring.
Mty- Materially.            Nc- Norch Carolina.
Mtz- Materialize.           Nct- Necessitate.
Mtzn- Materialization.      Ncy- Necessity.
Mu- Murder.                 Nd- Need.
Mud- Murdered.              Nfd- Needful.
Mug- Murdering.             Ndg- Needling.
Mun- Municipal.             Ndy- Needy.
Mur- Murderer.              Ne- New England.
Mus- Murders.	            Neb- Nebraska.


                   47
---------------------------------------------				  

Nec- Necessary.             Nv- Never.
Neg- Negative.              Nvl- Nevertheless.
Nev- Nevada.                Nvx- Nervous.
Nf- Notify.                 Nw- Now.
Nfd- Notified.              Nwg- Notwithstand-
Nfg- Notifying.                  ing.
Nfk- Norfolk.               Nx- Next. ---*
Nfn- Notification.          Ny- New York.
Ng- Negotiate.              Nz- New Zealand.
Ngd- Negothiated.           O- Of.
Ngg- Negotiating.           Oa- Of a.
Ngn- Negotiation.           Oao- On account of.
Ngs- Negotiates.            Ob- Obtain.
Nh- New Hampshire.          Obc- Obedience.
Ni- Night.                  Obd- Obtained.
Nik- Nicaragua.             Obg- Obtaining.
Nj- New Jersey.             Obo- On behalf of.
Nl- Natural.                Obq- Obscure.
Nly- Naturally.             Obqd- Obscured.
Nlz- Naturalize.            Obqg- Obscuring.
Nlzn- Naturalization.       Obqy- Obscurity.
Nm- Nominate.               Obs- Obtains.
Nmd- Nominated.             Obt- Obedient.
Nme- Nominee.               Oc- O'clock.
Nmg- Nominating.            Oca- Occasion.
Nml- Nominal.               Occ- Occurrence.
Nmn- Nomination.            Ocd- Occasioned.
No- New Orleans, La.        Ocg- Occasioning.
Nor- Normal.                Ocl- Occasional.
Nov- November.              Oct- October.
Nr- Near. ---*              Ocu- Occur.
Nrv- Nerve.                 Ocud- Occurred.
Nry- Nearly.                Ocug- Occurring.
Nt- North.                  Ocy- Occasionally.
Ntc- Notice.                Od- Order.
Ntg- Nothing.               Odd- Ordered.
Ntn- Northern.              Odg- Ordering.
Ntr- Neither.               Ods- Orders.
Ntx- Notorious.             Ody- Orderly.
Nty- Northerly.             Ofc- Officer.
Nu- New.                    Ofd- Offered.
Num- Number.                Ofg- Offering.
Numd- Numbered.             Ofl- Official.
Numg- Numbering.            Ofn- Often.
Nums- Numbers.              Ofr- Offer.
Nup- Newspaper.             Ofs- Office.
Nus- News.                  Ofy- Officially.
Nux- Numerous.              Og- Organize.


                   48
---------------------------------------------				  

Ogd- Organized.             Oss- Opposes.
Ogg- Organizing.            Ost- Opposite.
Ogl- Original.              Ot- Owing to.
Ogn Organization.           Otg- Outrage.
Ogs- Organizes.             Otgx- OUtrageous.
Ogt- On the ground          Otr- Other.
     that.                  Ou- Our.
Ogy- Originally.            Ov- Over.
Oh- Ohio.                   Ova- Ovation.
Oht- Ought.                 Ovb- Overboard.
Oj- Object.                 Ovm- Overwhelm.
Ojd- Objected.              Ovmd- Overwhelmed.
Ojg- Objecting.             Ovmg- Overwhelming.
Ojl- Objectionable.         Ovms- Overwhelms.
Ojn- Objection.             Ow- On which.
Ojs- Objects.               Owd- Owed.
Ojv- Objective.             Owg- Owing.
Oko- Of course.             Owz- Otherwise.
Om- Omit.                   Oz- Ounce.
Omd- Omitted.               P- Per.
Omg- Omitting.              Pa- Pennsylvania.
Omn- Omission.              Pab- Passed a bill.
Omo- On motion of.          Pac- Pacific.
Oms- Omits.                 Pacn- Pacification.
Ond- Owned.                 Pag- Paying.
Onr- Owner.                 Pam- Pamphlet.
Ont- Ontario. ---*          Pap- Paper.
Op- Opportunity.		    Paps- Papers.
Opd- Opened.                Pat- Patent.
Opg- Opening.               Pau- Pause.
Opn- Opinion.  (Spell       Pb- Probable.
     out "Open.")           Pbg- Pittsburg.
Opr- Operator.              Pbm- Problem.
Ops- Opportunities.         Pbty- Probability.
Opt- Opponent.              Pby- Probably.
Opu- Opportune.             Pc- Percent.
Oq- Eccupy.                 Pcb- Practicable.
Oqd- Occupied.              Pcd- Proceed.
Oqg- Occupying.             Pcdr- Procedure.
Ojn- Occupation.            Pcdg- Proceeding.
Oq- Occupies.               Pch- Purchase.
Oqt- Occupant.              Pchhd- Purchased.
Oqy- Occupancy.             Pchg- Purchasing.
Ory- Ordinary.              Pci- Percentage.
Os- Oppose.                 Pcl- Practical.
Osd- Opposed.               Pcn- Procession.
Osg- Opposing.              Pcp- Participate.
Osn- Opposition.            Pcpd- Participated.

                            
                   49
---------------------------------------------				  

Pcpn- Participation.        Pf- Prefer.
Pcpt- Participant.          Pfc- Preference.
Pct- Precipitate.	        Pfd- Preferred.
Pctd- Precipitated.         Pff- Plaintiff.
Pctg- Precipitating.        Pfg- Preferring.
Pctn- Precipitation.        Pfk- Perfunctory.
Pcts- Precipitates.         Pfky- Perfunctorily.
Pcu- Preclude.              Pfl- Preferable.
Pcud- Precluded.            Pfly- Preferably.
Pcug- Precluding.           Pfm- Perform.
Pcus- Precludes.            Pfn- Perfection.
Pcv- Perceive.              Pfsl- Professional.
Pcvd- Perceived.            Pfsn- Professoin.
Pcy- Practically.           Pftd- Perfected.
Pd- Paid.                   Pftg- Perfecting.
Pdc- Precedence.            Pfu- Profuse.
Pdd- Preceeded.             Pfun- Profusion.
Pde- Precede.               Pfuy- Profusely.
Pdg- Preceding.             Pfy- Perfectly.
Pdk- Predict.               Pg- Progress.
Pdkd- Predicted.            Pgd- Progressed.
Pdkg- Predicting.           Pgg- Progressing.
Pdkn- Prediction.           Pgh- Paragraph.
Pdm- Predominate.           Pgm- Programe.
Pmd- Predominated.          Pgn- Progression.
Pdmg- Predominating.        Pgr- Passenger.
Pdn- Production.            Pgs- Progresses.
Pdr- Predecessor.           Pgv- Progressive.
Pdt- Precedent.             Ph- Perhaps.
Pdu- Produce.               Pha- Philadelphia.
Pdud- Produced.             Phb- Prohibit.
Pdug- Producing.            Phbd- Prohibited.
Pdus- Produces.             Phbg- Prohibiting.
Pdut- Product.              Phbn- Prohibition.
Pdv- Productive.            Phc- Physic.
Pe- Principle.              Phcs- Physics.
Pedn- Pedestrian.           Phl- Physical.
Pem- Presented a me-        Phn -Physician.
     morial.                Phy --Physically.
Peny- Penitentiary.         Pip -Philippine.
Peo- People.                Pips- Phillippines.
Pep- Presented a pe-        Pj- Prejudice.
	      tition.           Pjd- Prejudiced.
Pes- Principles.            Pjg- Prejudicing.
Pet- Petition.              Pjl- Prejudicial.
Petd- Petitioned.           Pjn- Projection.
Petg- Petitioning.          Pjr- Perjure.


                   50
---------------------------------------------				  

Pjs- Prejudices.            Pnr- Prisoner.
Pjt- Project.               Pnt- Point.
Pjtd- Projected.            Pnx- Precencts.
Pjtg- Projecting.           Pny- Principally.
Pjy- Perjury.               Po- Post-office.
Pk- Particular.             Pod- Post-office de-
Pkg- Packing.                    partment.
Pkj- Package.               Pog- Postage.
Pkm- Predicament.           Pon- Position.
Pks- Particulars.           Pop- Popular.
Pku- Peculiar..             Popn- Population.
Pkuly- Peculiarly.          Pos- Possible.
Pkuy- Peculiarity.          Posy- Possibly.
Pky- Particularly.          Pot- President of the.
Pkz- Particularize.         Potus- President of the
Plf- Platform.                    United States.
Pln- Politician.            Pov- Poverty.
Plny- Preliminary.          Pox- Police.
Plm- Parliament.            Poxm- Policeman.
Plmy- Parliamentary         Poxn- Policemen.
Pls- Please.                Poy- Possibility.
Plsr- Pleasure.	            Pp- Postpone.
Plx- Politics.              Ppd- Postponed.
Ply- Politically.           Ppg- Postponing.
Pm- Postmaster.             Ppl- Proposal.
Pma- Panama.                Ppm- Postponement.
Pmac- Panama Canal.         Ppn- Proposition.
Pmo- Prominence.            Ppo- Propose.
Pmg- Postmaster-Gen-        Ppod- Proposed.
     eral.                  Ppog- Proposing.
Pmn- Proclamation.          Ppr- Prepare.
Pmnt- Prominent.            Pprd- Prepared.
Pmp- Peremptory.            Pprg- Preparing.
Pmpy- Peremptorily.         Pprn- Preparation.
Pmsl- Permissible.          Pprs- Prepares.
Pmsn- Permission.           Ppry- Preparatory.
Pmt- Permit.                Pps- Postpones.
Pmtd- Permitted.            Ppy- Property.
Pmtg- Permitting.           Pq- Possess.
Pmy- Prominently.           Pgd- Possessed.
Pnc- Pronounce.             Pqg- Possessing.
Pncd- Pronounced.           Pqn- Possission.
Pncg- Pronouncing.          Pqy- Plurality.
Pncn- Pronunciation.        Pr- President. ---*
Png- Pending.               Prm- Permanent.
Pnl- Principal.             Prn- Prison.
Pnpy- Plenipotentiary.      Prp- Proper.


                   51
---------------------------------------------				  

Prpn- Proportion. ---*      Pud- Published.
Prs- Presidents.            Pug- Publishing.
Prt- Part.                  Puh- Publish.
Prty- Party.                Puhr- Publisher.
Pry- Presidency.            Pum- Publication.
Ps- Pass.                   Pur- Purpose.
Psd- Passed.                Puy- Publicly.
Psc- Persistence.           Pv- Privilege.
Psg- Passing.               Pvc- Province.
Psi- Persist.               Pvcl- Provincial.
Psid- Persisted.            Pvd- Privileged.
Psig- Persisting.           Pvi- Provide.
Psis- Persists.             Pvid- Provided.
Psit- Persistent.           Pvig- Providing.
Psj- Passage.               Pvk- Provoke.
Psk- Prospect.              Pvkd- Provoked.
Pskd- Prospected.           Pvkg- Provoking.
Pskg- Prospecting.          Pvl- Prevail.
Pskv- Prospective.          Pvld- Prevailed.
Psl- Personal.              Pvlg- Prevailing.
Psn- Person.                Pvlc- Prevalence.
Psnl- Personnel.            Pvn- Prevent.
Pspx- Prosperous.           Pvntd- Prevented.
Pspy- Prosperity.           Pvntg- Preventing.
Psq- Prosecute.             Pvnl- Provisional.
Psqd- Prosecuted.           Pvtn- Prevention.
Pqqg- Prosecuting.          Pvs- Privilegis.
Psqn- Prosecution.          Pvt- Private.
Pss- Passes.                Pvx- Previous.
Psu- Presume.               Pvxy- Previously.
Psud- Presumed.             Pvy- Privately.
Psug- Presuming.            Pw- Power.
Psun- Presumption.          Pwf- Powerful.
Psuy- Presumably.           Pws- Powers.
Psv- Passive.               Pwy- Powerfully.
Psy- Personally.            Px- Price
Pt- Present.                Pxl- Political.
Ptc- Pretence.              Pxn- Protection.
Ptd- Presented.             Pxo- Porto Rico.
Ptg- Presenting.            Pxon- Porto Rican.
Ptm- Presentment.           Pxs- Prices.
Ptn- Presentation.          Pxt- Protect.
Ptr- Presenter.             Pxtd- Protected.
Pts- Presents.              Pxtg- Protecting.
Pty- Presently.             Pxts- Portects.
Pu- Public.                 Pby- Presbytery.
Pucy- Publicity.            Pyn- Presbyterian.


                   52
---------------------------------------------				  

Pz- Prize.                  Qu- Quiet.
Pzd- Prized.                Quo- Quota.
Pzg- Prizing.               Quy- Quietly.
Pzn- Poison.                R- Are.
Pznd- Poisoned.             Ra- Raise.
Pzng- Poisining.            Rad- Raised.
Pzr- Poisoner.              Raf- Ratify.
Pzs- Prizes.                Rafd- Ratified.
Q- On the.                  Rafg- Ratifying.
Qa- Quality.                Rafn- Ratification.
Qad- Qualified.             Rafs- Ratifies.
Qag- Qualifying.            Rag- Raising.
Qan- Jualification.         Rah- Ravish.
Ray- Quality.               Ral- Radical.
Qb- On the bill.            Ras- Raises.
Cq- Concur.                 Rav- Ravage.
Qcc- Concurrence.           Rb- Rob.
Qcd- Concuurred.            Rbd- Robbed.
Qcg- Concurring.            Rbg- Robbing.
Qcs- Concurs.               Rbr- Robber.
Qct- Concurrent.            Rby- Robbery.
Qk- Quick.                  Rc- Receive.
Qky- Quickly.               Rcd- Received.
Qm- Quartermaster.          Rcg- Receiving.
Qmg- Quartermaster-         Rcn- Reception.
     general.               Rcp- Reciprocate.
Qny- Quantity.              Rcpl- Reciprcal.
Qco- On the contrary.       Rcpy- Reciprocity.
Qoh- On the other hand.     Rcr- Receiver.
Qom- Quorum.                Rcs- Receives.
Qow- On the whole.          Rct- Receipt.
Qp- On the part of.         Rcu- Recuperate.
Qpt- On the part of the.    Rcud- Recuperated.
Qq- On the question.        Rcug- Recuperating.
Qr- Quarter.                Rd- Read.
Qrd- Quartered.             Rdg- Reading.
Qrg- Quartering.            Rdn- Reduction. ---*
Qrl- Quarrel.               Rdr- Reader.
Qrs- Quarters.              Rds- Reads.
Qry- Quarterly.             Rdu- Reduce.
Qrz- Quartz.                Rdud- Reduced.
Qsd- Questioned.            Rdug- Reducing.
Qsg- Questioning.           Rdx- Ridiculous.
Qsh- Quash.                 Rdy- Ready.
Qsn- Question.              Reb- Rebel.
Qso- Quite so.              Reg- Register.
Qt- Quite.                  Regd- Registered.
Qtn- Quotation.             Regg- Registering.


                   53
---------------------------------------------				  

Regn- Registration.         Rj- Reject.
Regr- Registrar.            Rjc- Rejoice.
Regs- Registers.            Rjcd- Rejoiced.
Rek- Wreck.                 Rjcg- Rejoicing.
Rekj- Wreckage.             Rjd- Rejected.
Rept- Repeat.               Rjg- Rejecting.
Repd- Repeated.             Rjn- Rejection.
Repg- Repeating.            Rjr- Rejector.
Reptn- Repetition.          Rjs- Rejects.
Req- Request.               Rk- Recover.
Reqd- Requested.            Rkc- Recognizance.
Reqd- Requesting.           Rkd- Rocovered.
Reqs- Requests.             Rkg- Recovering.
Rev- Reverend.              Rkn- Recognition.
Rf- Refer.                  Rko- Record.
Rfc- Reference.             Rkod- Recorded.
Rfd- Referred.              Rkog- Recording.
Rfe- Referee.               Rks- Recovers.
Rfg- Referring.             Rky- Recovery.
Rfk- Reflect.               Rkz- Recognize.
Rfkd- Reflected.            Rkzd- Recognized.
Rfkg- Reflecting.           Rl- Leal.
Rfkn- Ferlection.           Rla- Relate.
Rfm- Reform.                Rlave- Relative.
Rfn- Reformation.           Rlb- Reliable.
Rfr- Reformer.              Rlc- Reluctance.
Rfs- Refers.                Rld- Related.
Rfu- Refuse.                Rlf- Relief.
Rfud- Refused.              Rlg- Relating.
Rfug- Refusing.             Rlj- Religion.
Rfum- Referendum.           Rljx- Religious.
Rg- Regular.                Rln- Relation.
Rgd- Regard.                Rlps- Relapse.
Rgdd- Regarded.             Rlpsd- Relapsed.
Rgdg- Regarding.            Rlpsg- Relapsing.
Rgds- Regards.              Rlpss- Relapses.
Rgm- Regiment.              Rlq- Relinquish.
Rgn- Regulation.            Rls- Release.
Rgs- Regulars.              Rlsd- Released.
Rgt- Regulate.              Rlsg- Releasing.
Rgy- Regularly.             Rlv- Relieve.
Rh- Reach.                  Rlvd- Relieved.
Rhd- Reached.               Rlvg- Relieving.
Rhg- Reaching.              Rly- Really.
Rhr- Rather.                Rlz- Realize.
Rhs- Reaches.               Rm- Remain.
Rht- Right.                 Rmb- Remember.
Ri- Rhode Island.           Rmc- Remembrance.


                   54
---------------------------------------------				  

Rmd- Remained.              Rps- Reports.
Rmg- Remaining.             Rpt- Represent.
Rmk- Remark.                Rptd- Represented.
Rmkd- Remarked.             Rptg- Representing.
Rmkg- Remarking.            Rptn- Representation.
Rmn- Rumuneration.          Rpu- Repudiate.
Rmr- Rumor.                 Rpud- Repudiated.
Rmrd- Rumored.              Rpug- Rupudiating.
Rmrg- Rumoring.             Rpun- Repudiation.
Rms Remains.                Rpv- Representative.
Rmt- Remit.                 Rpvs- Representatives.
Rmu- Remunerate.            Rpy- Reply.
Rmv- Remunerative.          Rq- Require.
Rmx- Remarks.               Rqd- Required.
Rn- Reason.                 Rqg- Requiring.
Rnc- Ronounce.              Rqm- Requirement.
Rncd- Renounced.            Rqn- Requisition.
Rncg- Ronouncing.           Rqs- Requires.
Rnd- Reasoned.              Rr- Railroad.
Rnf- Reinforce.             Rrg- Railroading.
Rnfm- Reinforcement.        Rsd- Reside.
Rng- Reasoning.             Rsdc- Residence.
Rnl- Reasonable.            Rsdd- Resided.
Rnu- Renew.                 Rsdg- Residing.
Rny- Reasonably.            Rsdt- Resident.
Ro- Rose.                   Rsg- Resign.
Rog- Re-organize.           Rsgd- Resigned.
Rogd- Re-organized.         Rsgg- Resigning.
Rogg- Re-organizing.        Rsgn- Resignation.
Rogn- Re-organization.      Rsi- Resist.
Rot- Report of the.         Rsic- Resistance.
Rp- Report.                 Rsid- Resisted.
Rpb- Rosponsible.           Rsig- Resisting.
Rpby- Responsibility.       Rsis- Resists.
Rpc- Republic.              Rsl- Resolve.
Rpd- Reported.              Rsld- Resolved.
Rpg- Reporting.             Rslg- Resolving.
Rph- Reproach.              Rsn- Resolution.
Rphd- Reproached.           Rsp- Respect.
Rphg- Reproaching.          Rspd- Respected.
Rpl- Repeal.                Rspg- Respecting.
Rpld- Repealed.             Rspv- Respective.
Rplg- Repealing.            Rspy- Respectively.
Rpls- Repeals.              Rsq- Rescue.
Rpm- Re-appointment.        Rqqd- Rescued.
Rpn- Republican.            Rsqg- Rescuing.
Rpr- Reporter.              Rsu- Resume.
                            Rsud- Resumed.

[ This page is very interesting since the
  columns do not match -- however the
  non-matching columns so bothered the
  publishers of the Bi-Centennial Edition,
  that they gradually slid the second column,
  vis-a-vis the first column, so that the 
  reader would not notice the "error"; that
  is, the second column is slightly more 
  condensed than the first column, so that to
  the casual reader, the columns both start
  togetther, *and* finish together.  The
  computer, of course, is not to be fooled;
  however, the human copier is faced with the
  question: "what is going wrong with my
  eyes ?? " ]

                   55
---------------------------------------------				  

Rsug- Resuming.             Rzs- Results.
Rsum- Resumption.           Rzt- Resultant.
Rsv- Reserve.               Sa- Senate.
Rsvd- Reserved.             Sab- Senate bill.
Rsvg- Reserving.            Sac- Senate committee.
Rsvn- Reservation.          Saf- Spocke as follows.
Rt- Are the.                Saik- Shot and instantly
Rtd- Returned.                    killed.
Rtg- Returning.             Sak- Shot and killed.
Rtn- Return.                Sal- Salary.
Ru- Are you.                Sap- Soon as possible.
Ruf- Rough.                 Sar- Senator.
Rup- Rupture.               Sb- Subsequent.
Rupd- Ruptured.             Sbc- Subsequence.
Rupg- Rupturing.            Sbl- Substantial.
Rus- Russia.                Sbly- Substantially.
Rv- Remove.                 Sbm- Submit.
Rvd- Removed.               Sbd- Submitted.
Rvg- Removing.              Shg- Submitting.
Rvk- Revoke.                Sbn- Submission.
Rvkd- Revoked.              Sby- Subsequently.
Rvkg- Revoking.             Sc- Souch Carolina.
Rvkn- Revocation.           Sca- Scare.
Rvl- Removal.               Scb- Subscribe.
Rvn- Revolution.            Scd- Subscribed.
Rvo- Revolve.               Scf- Sacrifice.
Rvod- Revolved.             Scfd- Sacrificed.
Rvog- Revolving.            Scfg- Sacrificing.
Rvos- Revolves.             Scg- Subscribing.
Rvor- Revelver.             Sch- Schooner.
Rvr- River.                 Scl- School.
Rvs- Remones.               Scn- Subscription.
Rvt- Revolt.                Scotus- Uspreme court
Rvu- Review.                       of the United
Rvy- Revolutionary.                States.
Rwd- Reward.                Sct- Supreme court.
Rwdd- Rewarded.             Scu- Seclude.
Rwdg-s Rewarding.           Scud- Secluded.
Lwds- Rewards.              Scug- Secluding.
Rx- Recommend.              Scun- Seclusion.
Rxd- Recommended.           Scy- Scarcely.
Rxg- Recommending.          Sd- Should.
Rxn- Recommendation.        Sdn- Sudden.
Rxs- Recommends.            Sdr- Surrender.
Ry- Railway.                Sdrd- Surrendered.
Rz- Result.                 Sdrg- Surrendering.
Rzd- Resulted.              Sdu- Seduce.
Rzg- Resulting.             Sdud- Seduced.


                   56
---------------------------------------------				  

Sdug- Seducing.             Sjn- Subjection.
Sdun- Seduction.            Sjo- Subject of.
Sdus- Seduces.              Sjt- Sergeant.
Sdy- Sunday.                Sk- Success.
Se- From which.             Skd- Succeed.
Sec- Section.               Skj- Schedule.
Sed- Said.                  Skjd- Scheduled.
Seg- Saying.                Skjg- Scheduling.
Sem- Seem.                  Ski- Successful.
Sen- Seen.                  Skm- Scheme.
Sep- September.             Skr- Successor.
Ses- Says.                  Skv- Successive.
Sey- Secretary.             Sky- Successfully.
Sf- Satisfy.                Sl- Sail. (Spell out
Sfd- Satisfied.                   "sale.")
Sfg- Satisfying.            Sld- Sailed.
Sfj- Suffrage.              Slf- Self.
Sfjt- Suffragette.          Slg- Sailing.
Sfly- Satisfactorily.       Slh- Selfish.
Sfn- Satisfaction.          Slr- Sailor.
Sfr- Nuffer.                Slt- Slight.
Sfy- Satisfactory.          Sm- Some.
Sg- Signify.                Sma- Small.
Sgc- Significance.          Smb- Somebody.
Sgd- Signified.             Smc- Symathetic.
Sgg- Signifying.            Smg- Something.
Sghr- Stenographer.         Smh- Somehow.
Sgn- Signification.         Smk- Smoke
Sgt- Significant.           Smp- Sympathy.
Skg- Stenography.           Smr- Summer.
Sh- Such.                   Smt- Sometime.
Shf- Sheriff.               Smw- Somewhat.
Skk- Shake.                 Smx- Simultaneous.
Shl- Shall.                 Smz- Sympathize.
Shr- Share.                 Sn- Soon.
Si- Semicolon (;).          Snc- Since.
Sig- Signature.             Snd- Send.
Sil- Silver.                Snm- Sentiment.
Sim- Similar.               Sur- Sooner.
Sip- Said in part.          Soa- Secretary of
Sis- Sister.                     Agriculture.
Siu- Situate.               Soc- Secretary of 
Siud- Situated.                  Commerce.
Siug- Situating.            Sor- Soldier.
Siun- Situation.            Sos- Secretary of
Sj- Subject.                     State.
Sjd- Subjected.             Sot- Secretary of the.
Sjg- Subjecting.            Sou- South.


                   57
---------------------------------------------				  

Soun- Southern.             Srm- Surmise.
Sov- Soverign.              Srs Secures.
Sovy- Soverignty.           Srx- Serious.
Sow- Secrotary of War.      Srxy- Seriously.
Soy- Society.               Sry- Securely.
Sp- Ship.                   Ss- Steamship.
Spa- Spacious.              Ssn- Session.
Spb- Shipborad.             St- Street.
Spd- Shipped.               Sta- State.
Spfc- Specific.             Stay- Statistics.
Spfd- Specified.            Stc- Sentence.
Spfg- Specifying.           Stcd- Sentenced.
Spfn- Specification.        Stcg- Sentencing.
Spfy- Specify.              Std- Standard.
Spg- Shipping.              Stdz- Standardize.
Sph- Speech.                Stg- Strong.
Spk- Spoke.                 Stgr- Stronger.
Spkg- Speculating.          Stgy- Strongly.
Skkn- Spoken.               Stj- Strange.
Spkr- Speculator. ---*      Stjr- Stranger.
Spku- Speculate.            Stjy- Strangely.
Spkun- Speculation.         Stk- Strike.
Spkv- Speculative.          Stkr- Striker.
Spl- Special.               Stn- Station.
Spm- Shipment.              Sto- Store.
Spn- Suspicion.             Stod- Stored.
Spo- Suppose.               Stog- Storing.
Spod- Supposed.             Str- Steamer.
Spog- Suppposing.           Sts- Streets.
Spon- Supposition.          Sty- Steady.
Spq- Speak.                 Su- Sure.
Spqg- Speaking.             Sub- Substitute.
Spqr- Speaker.              Subd- Substituted.
Spr- Shipper.               Subg- Substituting.
Spt- Support. (Spell        Subn- Substitition.
      out "sport.")         Sud- Surround.
Sptr- Supporter.            Sudd- Surrounded.
Spx- Suspicious.            Sudg- Surrounding.
Spz- Surprise.              Suf- Sufficient.
Sq- Separate.               Sufy- Sufficiently.
Sqd- Separated.             Sug- Suggest.
Sqg- Separating.            Sugd- Suggested.
Sqn- Separation.            Sugg- Suggesting.
Sqr- Square.                Sugn- Suggestion.
Sqa- Separates.             Suk- Suspect.
Sr- Secure.                 Sukd- Suspected.
Srd- Secured.               Sui- Suicede.
Srg- Securing.              Supm- Supreme.


                   58
---------------------------------------------				  

Supr- Superior.             Tch- Touch.
Supt- Superintendent.       Tcl- Technical.
Sux- Sucurities.            Tct- Transact.
Suy- Saturday.              Tcd- Transacted.
Sv- Seven.                  Tcg- Transacting.
Svc- Service.               Tcn- Transaction.
Svd- Served.                Tcy- Technically.
Sve- Serve.                 Td- Treasury Depart-
Svg- Serving.                    ment.
Svh- Seventh.               Tdb- The debate.
Svl- Several.               Tde- Trade.
Svr- Severe.                Tdg- Trading.
Svt- Servant.               Tdl- Traditional.
Svy- Severely.              Tdn- Tradition.
Sw- Swear.                  Tdy- To-day.
Swg- Swearing.              Ter- Terror.
Swn- Sworn.                 Tes- Testimony.
Swo- Swore.                 Tex- Texas.
Sws- Swears.                Tey- Territory.
Sx- Dollar mark ($).        Tez- Terrorize.
Sxh- Sixth.                 Tezd- Terrorized.
Sxl- Sexual.                Tezg- Terrorizing.
Sxm- Settlement.            Tf- The following.
Sxn- Sensation.             Tfc- Terrific.
Sxnl- Sensational.          Tfd- Testified.
Syc- Systemitic.            Tff- Tariff.
Syl- Systematical.          Tfg- Testyfying.
Sym- Symptom.               Tfk- Traffic.
Syn- Syndicate.             Tfm- Transform.
Sys- System.                Tfmd- Transformed.
Syz- Systematize.           Tfmg- Transforming.
Sz- Seize.                  Tfn- Transformation.
Szd- Seized.                Tfr- Transfer.
Szg- Seizing.               Tfrd- Transferred.
Szn- Season.                Tfrg- Transferring.
Szr- Seizure.               Tfy- Testify.
Szs- Seizes.                Tg- Thing.
T- The.                     Tgh- Telegraph.
Tam- The amendment.         Tgm- Telegram.
Tan- Than.                  Tgr- Together.
Tau- To authorize.          Tgy- Telegraphy.
Tb- The bill.               Th- Those.
Tbc- Tobacco.               Thd- Thursday.
Tbd- The board.             Thea- Theatre.
Tbh- To be held.            Thf- Thief.
Tbl- Trouble.               Thk- Thank.
Tbx- Tuberculosis.          Thm- Thermometer.
Tbz- The business.          Tho- Though.


                   59
---------------------------------------------				  

Thq- Thick.                 Trl- Trial.
Thr- Their.                 Trm- Terminate.
Thru- Through.              Trmd- Terminated.
Tht- Thought.               Trmg- Terminating.
Thu- The house.             Trml- Terminal.
Ti- Time.                   Trmn- Termination.
Tj- The jury.               Trn- Train.
Tjg- The judge.             Trp- Troop.
Tk- Take.                   Trps- Troops. ---*
Tkg- Taking.                Trw- Therewith.
Tkh- Turkish.               Ts- This.
Tkn- Taken.                 Tsa- The senate.
Tkr- Taker.                 Tsb- This bill.
Tkt- Ticket.                Tse- These.
Tky- Turkey.                Tsf- This forenoon. ---*
Tm- Them.                   Tsm- This morning.
Tmp- Temperature.           Tsp- This afternoon.
Tmd- Transmitted.           Tsq- This question.
Tmg- Transmitting.          Tsr- Treasurer.
Tmn- Transmission.          Tsv- This evening.
Tmt- Transmit.              Tsy- Treasury.
Tmx- Tremendous.            Tt- That.
Tn- Then.                   Tti- That is (7).
Tnc- Thence.                Ttt- That the (5).
Tnd- Thousand.              Tuf- Tough.
Tni- To-night.              Tuy- Tuesday.
Tnk- Think.                 Tw- To-morrow.
Tnm- Tournament.            Twd- Toward.
Tnv- Tentative.             Twf- Tomorrow fore-
Tnvy- Tentatively.               noon.
Tny- Tendency.              Twh- To which.
Tol- Tolerate.              Twm- Tomorrow
Tp- Transport.                   marning.
Tpd- Transported.           Twp- Tomorrow
Tpg- Transporting.               afternoon.
Tph- Telephone.             Twv- To-morrow
Tpn- Transportation.             evening.
Tpo- The passage of.        Twy- Twenty.
Tpy- Temporary.             Tx- This is.
Tq- The question.           Txb- This is believed.
Tql-s Tranquil.             Txi- Taxicab.
Tqo- The question of.       Txm- This is more.
Tqy- Tranquilly.            Txn- This is not.
Tr- There.                  Txs- This is said.
Trd- Third.                 Txt- This is the.
Tre- Three.                 Ty- They.
Trf- Therefore.             Tz- These.
Trk- Track.                 U- You.


                   60
---------------------------------------------				  

Uac- Unaccepted.            Unx- Unexpected.
Uau- Unauthorized.          Uny- Unexpectedly.
Uav- Unavoidable.           Uoc- Unchanged on
Ubd- Undoubted.                  call.
Ubq- Ubiquitous.            Upn- Upon.
Uby- Undoubtedly.           Upt- Unimportant.
Uc- You see.                Upw- Upward.
Ucm- Uncommon.              Uq- Upon the.
Ucn- Uncertain.             Uqq- Upon the ques-
Ucx- Unconscious.                tion.
Ucxn- Unconsciousness.      Ur- Your.
Ucy- Unnecessary.           Us- United States.
Udf- Unidentified.          Usa- United States of
Uf- Unfortunate.                 America.
Ufb- Unfavorable.           Usf- Useful.
Ufby- Unfovorably.          Usg- United States
Ufd- Unfounded.                  Government.
Ufm- Uniform.               Usk- Unsuccessful.
Ufp- Under falso pre-       Utaf- Under the aus-
     tenses.                      pices of the.
Ufy- Unfortunately.         Utc- Under the cir-
Ugd- Unchanged.                  cumstances.
Ugt- Urgent.                Utd- Uttered.
Ugud- Unguarded.            Utr- Utter.
Uguy- Ungardedly.           Uty- Utterly.
Ugy- Urgently.              Utz- Utilize.
Uk- Understand.             Uv- Universe.
Ukd- Understood.            Uvl- Universal.
Ukg- Understanding.         Uvy- University.
Ukn- Unkoown.               Ux- Underline, i.e.,
Uky- Understandingly.           italics.
Ul- Usual.                  Uxc- Under these cir-
Ulm- Ultimate.                   cumstances.
Ult- Ultimo.                Uxl- Unconstitutional.
Uly- Usually.               Uxty- Unconstitution-
Um- Unanimous.                    ality.
Umf- Unmanufactured.        Uxy- Unconstitution-
Ump- Umpire.                     ally.
Umy- Unanimously.           V- Of which.
Un- Until.                  Va- Virginia.
Und- Under.                 Vac- Vacate.
Ung- Young.                 Vad- Vacated.
Uni- United.                Vag- Vague.
Unj- Unjust.                Vak- Vacant.
Unl- Unless.                Val- Value.
Uns- Unsettled.             Var- Various.
Unu- Unusual.               Vax- Vaccinate.
Unuy- Unusually.            Vay- Variety.

	 
                   61
---------------------------------------------				  

Vb- Valuable.               Vsd- Visited.
Vby- Valuably.              Vsg- Visiting.
Vcd- Vindicated.            Vsn- Vision.
Vcg- Vindicating.           Vsr- Visitor.
Vcn- Vindication.           Vst- Visit.
Vct- Vindicate.             Vt- Vermont.
Vcv- Vindictiive.           Vtu- Vituperate.
Vcy- Vicinity.              Vtun- Vituperation.
Vdt- Verdict.               Vtuv- Vituperative.
Vet- Veteran.               Vu- View.
Vf- Verify.                 Vud- Viewed.
Vfn- Verification.          Vug- Viewing.
Vgc- Vengeance.[sic]        Vul- Vulgar.
Vgx- Vigorous.              Vus- Views.
Vk- Victor.                 Vx- Violate.
Vka- Victoria.              Vxd- Violated.
Vkm- Victim.                Vxg- Vialating.
Vkn- Vacation.              Vxn- Violation.
Vkx- Victorious.            Vy- Very.
Vky- Victory.               Vyj- Voyage.
Vkz- Victimize.             Vz- Venezuela.
Vlj- Village.               Vzn- Venezuelan.
Vlr- Volunteer.             W- With.
Vly- Voluntarily.           Wa- With a.
Vm- Vehement.               Wac- With a capital.
Vmc- Vehemence.             Wad- War Depart-
Vmy- Vehemently.                  ment.
Vnc- Violence.              Wam- Ways and means.
Vnq- Vanish.                Wat- Water.
Vnqd- Vanished.             Wav- With a view.
Vnqg- Vanishing.            Wb- Will be.
Vnt- Violent.               Wbh- Will be held.
Wny- Violently.             Wc- Welcome.
Vo- Vote.                   Wcd- Welcomed.
Voc- Vocation.              Wcg- Welcoming.
Vod- Voted.                 Wd- Would.
Vog- Voting.                Wda- Wednesday.
Vol- Volume.                Wdf- Wonderful.
Vos- Votes.                 Wdg- Wedding.
Wox- Voluminous.            Wdw- Withdaw.
Vp- Vice-president.         Wea- Weather.
Vpot- Vice-president of     Wek- Weak.
      the.                  Wg- Wrong.
Vr- Virtue.                 Wgd- Wronged.
Wtl- Wirtual.               Wgf- Wrongful.
Vru- Virtuous.              Wgg- Wronging.
Vry- Virtually.             Wgh- Weigh.
Vsb- Visible.               Wgn- Wagon.


                   62
---------------------------------------------				  

Wgt- Weight.                Wri- Write.
Wgy- Wrongly.               Wrn- Written.
Wh- Whiche.                 Wro- Wrote.
Whi- While.                 Wrk- Work.
Whl- Whole.                 Wrt- With regard to.
Wht- Wheat.                 Wrx- Works.
Whu- White House.           Ws- Was.
Wi- Will.                   Wsk- Whiskey.
Wig- Willing.               Wsn- Western.
Wik- Wicked.                Wsp- Warship.
Win- Within.                Wsy- Westerly.
Wis- Wisconsin.             Wt- What.
Wit- Witness.               Wtr- Whether.
Witd- Witnessed.            Wtv- Whatever.
Witg- Witnessing.           Wv- Vaive.
Wix- Wireless.              Wvd- Waived.
Wj- Wound.                  Wyg- Waiving.
Wk- Week.                   Ww- With which.
Wkm- Workman.               Wx- Wait.
Wkn- Workmen.               Wxd- Waited.
Wky- Weekly.                Wxg- Waiting.
Wl- Well.                   Wxr- Waiter.
Wld- World.                 Wy- Why.
Wlf- Welfare.               X- In which.
Wlh- Wealth.                Xac- Exact.
Wly- Wealthy.               Xag- Exaggerate.
Wn- When.                   Xas- Exacts.
Wnb- Will not be.           Xay- Exactly.
Wnc- Whence.                Xb- Exorbitant.
Wng- Winning.               Xby- Exorbitantly.
Wnr- Winner.                Xc- Excite.
Wnv- Whenever.              Xcd- Excited.
Wo- Who.                    Xcg- Exciting.
Wom- Whom.                  Xcm- Excitement.
Wos- Whose.                 Xcp- Except.
Wot- Without.               Xcpn- Exception.
Wp- Weep.                   Xd- Exceed.
Wpg- Weeping.               Xdd- Exceeded.
Wpn- Weapon.                Xdg- Exceeding.
Wq- Warrant.                Xdn- Extradition.
Wqd- Warranted.             Xdt- Extradite.
Wqg- Warranting.            Xdtd- Extradited.
Wqs- Warrants.              Xdtg- Extraditing.
Wqy- Warranty.              Xdy- Exceedingly.
Wr- Were.                   Xg- Legislate.
Wrd- Word.                  Xgd- Legislated.
Wrg- Writing.               Xgg- Legislating.
Wrh- Worth.                 Xgh- Extinguish.


                   63
---------------------------------------------				  

Xghd- Extinguished.         Xplg- Exploding.
Xghg- Extinguishing.        Xpln- Explosion.
Xgn- Legislation.           Xpm- Experiment.
Xgor- Legislator.           Xpn- Expedition.
Xgr- Legislature.           Xpo- Expose.
Xgv- Legislative.           Xpod- Exposed.
Xh- Exhaust.                Xpog- Exposing.
Xhd- Exhausted.             Xpon- Exposition.
Xhg- Exhausting.            Xpr- Expenditure.
Xhn- Exhaustion.            Xps- Expense.
Xhv- Exhaustive.            Xpt- Export.
Xj- Explain.                Xpv- Expensive.
Xjd- Explained.             Xr- Exercise.
Xjg- Explaining.            Xrd- Exercised.
Xjn- Explanation.           Xrg- Exercising.
Xjy- Explanatory.           Xrl- External.
Xk- Execute.                Xrn- Exertion.
Xkd- Executed.              Xrs- Exercises.
Xkn- Execution.             Xrt- Exert.
Xkr- Executor.              Xs- Exist.
Xkv- Executive              Xsc- Existence.
Xl- Excel.                  Xsd- Existed.
Xlc- Excellence.            Xsg- Existing.
Xlg- Excelled.              Iss- Exists.
Xlg- Excelling.             Xt- Extent.
Xlt- Excellent.             Xtd- Extend.
Xly- Excellently.           Xtg- Extending.
Xm- Extreme.                Xtn- Extension.
Xmt- Exempt.                Xtv- Extensive.
Xmtn- Exemption.            Xty- Extensively.
Xmy- Extremely.             Xn- Exclude.
Xn- Constitution.           xun- Exclusion.
Xnl- Constitutional.        Xuv- Exclusive.
Xnlst- Constititionalist.   Xxd- Cross examined.
Xnty- Constitutionality.    Xxg- Cross examining.
Xny- Constitutionally.      Xxm- Cross examine.
Xo- Exoonerate.             Xxn- Cross examina-
Xod- Exonerated.                 tion.
Xog- Exonerating.           Y- Year.
Xon- Exoneration.           Ya- Yesterday.
Yoy- Extraordinary.         Yaf- Yesterday fore-
Xp- Expense.                     noon.
Xpc- Experience.            Yam- Yesterday morn-      
Xpd- Expend.                     ing.
Xpg- Expending.             Yap- Yesterday after-
Xpi- Expedite                    noon.
Xpl- Explode.               Yav- Yesterday even-
Xpld- Exploded.                  ing.


                   64
---------------------------------------------
Yd- Yield.                5- That the.
Ydd- Yielded.             7- That is.
Ydg- Yielding.            4- Where.
Yf- Yellow fever.
Yl- Yellow.               BASEBALL
Yo- Years old.            SUPPLEMENT
Yoa- Years of age.        Bas- By a score of.
Yoha- Year of his         Bob- Base(s) on balls.
      (or her) age.       Bts- By the score of.
Z- From which.            Ing- Inning.
Za- Sea.                  Ings- Innings.
Zc- Section.              Ivc- Invincible.
Zcl- Sectional.           Lob- Left on bases.
Zd- Said.                 Nbf- Now batting for.
Zlx- Zealous.             Ncf- Now catchinng for.
Zm- Seem.                 Npf- Now pitching for.
Zn- Seen.                 Sko- Score.
Snr- Senior.              Ump- Umpire.
&- And.                   Umps- Umpires.

                OPTION MONTHS
F- January        K- May         U- September   
G- February       M- June        V- October
H- March          N- July        X- November
J- April          Q- August      Z- December

A D D I T I O N S   T O   P H I L L I P S  C O D E

Acf- Aircraft               Kaq- King and Queen
Arj- Around                 Kmst- Communist
Asfd- Asphyxiated           Kmsm- Communism
Bcy- Bankruptcy             Ksr- Kaiser
Bdc- Broadcast              Mutn- Munition
Bul- Bulgaria               Nxk- Next week
Cats- Coused a tre-         Nql- Neutral
   mendous explosion        Ngly- Neutrality
Chf- Caused by fire         Ooo- Oath of office
Dap- Disappear              Prc- Pres. Coolidge
Dapc- Disappearance         Prh- Pres. Hoover
Dapd- Disappeared           Prr- Pres. Roosevelt
Dapg- Disappearing          Rdo- Radio
Ddk- Dedicate               Spktr- Spectator
Ddkd- Dedicated             Spktrs- Spectators
Dddkn- Dedication           Trs- There's
Dhg- Discharge              Trx- There is
Dhgg- Dicharging            Tsl- Translate
Fht- Fight                  Tsld- Translated
Fhtr- Fighter               Tslg- Translating
Fhtg- Fighting              Trpdo- Torpedo
Hun- Houston                Spn- Zepplin

[page]

             W I R E    S I G N A L S
			 
WIRE- Preference            25- Busy on anr wire			 
   over everything          26- Put on gnd wire
   except 95                27- Priority, very
1- Wait a moment                important
2- Important business       28- Do you get my 
3- What time is it?             writing?
4- Where shall I go         29- Private, deliver in
   ahead?                       sealed envelope.
5- Have you business        30- No more -end
   for me?                  31- Form 31 train
6- I am ready                   order
7- Are you ready?           32- I understand that
8- Close your key;              I am to .........
   ckt is busy              33- Car report (Also,
9- Close your key for           answer is paid for)
   priority business        34- Msg for all officers
   (wire chief, dspr,       35- You may use my
   etc.)                        signal to ans this
10- Keep this ckt           37- Diversion
    closed                      (Also, inform all
12- Do you under-               interested)
    stand?                  39- Important, with
13- I understand                priority on thru
14- What is the                 wire. (Also, sleep-
    weather?                    car report)
15- For you and             44- Answer promptly
    and other to copy           by wire
17- Lightning here          73- Best regards
18- What is the             88- Love and kisses
    trouble?                91- Supt's signal
19- Form 19 train           92- Deliver promptly
    order                   93- Vice pres. & gen.
21- Stop for meal               mgr's signals
22- Wire test               95- President's signal
23- All copy                134- Who is at the
24- Repeat this back             key?

[page]

             SERVICE AND TRAFFIC
            DEPARTMENT   MESSAGES 
			
Address             Ads   Herewith            Hw
Addressee Left            Hurry Answer        Ha
  City               Lc   Make                Mk
Answer              Ans   Message            Msg
Concel & File             No Record           Nr
  Our (Yours)       Caf   No Such Address    Nsa
Charges            Chgs   No Such Street     Nss
Check                Ck   Not at Home         Nh
Collect            Coll   Not at Home-
Confirmation        Cfn     Left Notic      Nhln
Copy                 Cy   No Telegraph
Deliver             Dlr     Office Advise
Delivered           Dld     Disposition   Notoad
Destination        Dstn   Office             Ofs
Disregard Former          Original          Ognl
  Services          Dfs   Our Msg Date       Our
Duplicate           Dup   Reads              Rds
Filing Time         Flt   Release            Rel
>From                 Fm   Reply Paid          Rp
Get Better                See Our Service    Sos
  Address           Gba   See Your Service   Sys
Get Quick                 Service            Svc
  Answer            Gqa   Signature           Sg
Give Some                 Signed             Sgd
  Address           Gsa   Word                Wd
Guaranteed          Gad   Your Message
Hangs Till Morn-            Date             Ymd
  ings Your         Hta
  
[page]

                 MARKET  SUPPLEMENT

Abnqh- Active, but        Clog- Closing
 not notably              Cda- Canada
 higher                   Cfr- Closed Firm
Acah- Active and          Chn- Channel
 higher                   Cng- Change
Acv- Active               Cnr- Consolidated
Advc- Advance              net receipts
Afh- Active, firm         Comn- Common
 & higher                 Cr- Clear rib
Aga- Against              Crs- Clear rib sides
Advt- Advancing           Cs- Clear sides
 tendency                 Cde- Crude
Aobfwos- Absence of       Crub- Crude in
 business for want         barrels
 of stock                 Cqas- Closed quiet
Aqad- All qualities        & steady
 slightly declined        Cn- Corn
Asdph- A speculative      Cat- Cattle
 demand; prices           Chs- Cheese
 higher                   Cm- Cut meats
 Ash- Active and a        Cnm- Corn meal
  shade higher            Cof- Coffee
Axd- Asked                Cot- Cotton
Bxs- Boxes                Dy- Daily
Bhrs- Butchers            Dlbl- Deliverable
Bwn- Brandywine           Dul- Dull
Byt- Buoyant              Dm- Demand
Bsqh- Business small;     Dro- Drovers Joernal
 quotations higher         reports
Bsql- Business samll;     Dub- Bouble
 quotations lower         Dwal- Dull, weak &
Bzs- Business small        lower
Bnqh- But not quot-       Dmf- Demand fair
 ably higher              DaD- Dull &
Bnql- But not quot-        declining
 ably lower               Dau- Dull &
Ba- Barley                 unchanged
Bfh- Beef hams            Dapa- Demand active;
Bcn- Bacon                 prices advancing
Bm- Bulk meats            Dgfp- Demand good
Bag- Bagging               at full prices
Csh- Cash                 Dgfa- Demand fair,
Ch- Choice (if date,       prices advanced
 Chicago)                 Dlhf- Demand light;
Clr- Clear                 holders firm

[page]

Damu- Demand dull         Gd- Good
 & mkt unsettled          Gdm- Good demand
Dhats- Dull; holders      Gdun- Good demand,
 anxious to sell           but unsettled
Dsth- Dressed hogs        Gdsh- Good demand
Exa- Extract               & a shade higher
X & C- Export &           Gt- Great
 consumption              Ha- hay
Eaw- Eastern &            Haw- Heavy & weak
 western                  Hdl- Home demond
Esy- Easy                  limited
Ear- Easler               Herdam- Heavy re-
Egs- Eggs                  ceipts depress mkt
Ero- Early rose           Hgs- Hogs
Exg- Exchange             Humc- Holders un-
Fr- Fair                   willing to make
Frts- Freights             concessions
Fac- Fairly active        Ina- Inactive=
Faf- Fairly active        Inal- Inactive & lower
 & firm                   Idm- Improved
Fas- Fairly active &       demand
 steady                   Igd- In good demand
Fashr- Fairly active      Ifd- In fair demand
 & shade higher           Ir- Irregular  
Fam- Family               Im- India mess
Fd- Fair demand           Ld- Light demand
Fdf- Fair demand;         Lms- Little more
 firmer                    steady
Fmr- Firmer               Lma- Little more
Frl- Freights to           active
 Liverpool                Lr- Lower
Ftd- Fair trade           Lb- Lower, but
 demand                   Lac- Less active
Flw- Fluctuations         Lga- Lower grades
  wide                     advanced
Fah- Firmer & higher      Lrd- Lard
Fpabnd- Full prices       Lc- Long clear
 asked, but no            Lhg- Live hogs
 demand                   Lhr- Leather
Fiq- Feeling is           Ls- Long & short
 quieter                  Lm- Low middling
Fadbalr- Fair demand      Lmc- Low middling
 but at lower prices       close
Flr- Flour                Minn- Minnesota
Gdfp- Good demand         Mdls- Middles
 at full prices           Mdg- Middling
Gs- Generally steady      Mo- Middling New
Gb- Great Britian          Orleans

[page]

Modm- Moderate            Ps- Prime steam
 demand                   Ptc- Prime to choice
Mdt- Moderate             Pun- Prices unchanged
Mq- Market Quiet          Pvns- Provisions
Mol- Molasses             Qaf- Quiet & firm
Maas- More active         Qas- Quiet & steady
 and a shade .......      Qaw- Quiet & weak
Mosa- Moderate sales      Qbm- Quotations bare-
Mwdc- Mkt without          ly maintained
 decided change           Qod- Quoted
Msbu- Mkt buoyant,        Qns- Quotations
 but unsettled            Qoy- Quotably
Mswamd- Mkt steady        Qu- Quiet
 with moderate            Qun- Quiet & 
 demand                    unchanged
Mafab- Mkt favors         Rb- Railroad bonds
 buyers                   Rct- Receipts
Mopfac- Mkt opened        Rf- Refined
 firmer, but fell         Rjd- Rejected
 at close                 Ro- Rose
Mosby- More sellers       Rosn- Rosin
 than buyers              S- Sales
Mb- Market bare           Sca- Scarce
Mdy- Moderately           Scy- Scarcely
Mdyac- Moderately         Sg- Spring
 active                   Spt- Spot
Nom- Nominal              Stdy- Steady
Num- Nominally            Sug- Sugar
 unchanged                Spms- Shipments
Ned- No export            Sb- State bonds
 demand                   Saf- Scarce & firm
Opd- Opened               Saw- State & Western
  -- Offered              Sbf- Slightly in
Ofbcd- Opened firm,        buyer's favor
 but closing dull         Sbpun- Small business
Oljod- Only limited        prices unchanged
 jobbing demand           Sgd- Steady, good
Odca- Opened dull,         demand
 but closed active        Shah- Shade higher
Ofav- Opened firm,        Sho- Shoulders
 advanced                 Smb- Small business
Ory- Ordinary             Sog- Stock of grain
Pb- Peachblows             on hand
Pet- Petroleum            Sq- Steady & quiet
Pir- Prices irregular     Stg- Strong
Pkd- Packed               Strd- Steam rendered
Pno- Prices normal        Sum- Sales unim-
Pots- Potatoes             portant
				 
[page]

Tal-       Tallow         Upwty- Upward
Tb- Tierce Beef            tendency
Tdw- Tending              Unxvl- Unexpected
 downward                  arrival
Tup- Tending upward       Unudm- Unusual
Tny- Tendency              demand
Tur- Turpentine           Wht- Wheat
Uns- Unsettled            Wir- Winter
Ugd- Unchanged            Wsh- Whiskey
Upt- Unimportant          Wdc- Without de-
Uad- Ungraded              cided charge
Unw- Unwashed             Wic- Without import-
Ugl- Unsettled, gen-       ant change
 erally lower             Wc- Without change
Upic- United Pipe         Xcd- Excited
 Line certificates        Xpt- Export
Unu- Unusual              Xdm- Export demand
Upw- Upward               Yl- Yellow
Unx- Unexpected           Ylg- Yearlings


             THE PHILLIPS CODE
		  BI-CENTENNIAL EDITION
		  
Sponsored byt the Toledo Morse Telegraph Club, 
this reprint of the Phillips Code (1925 edition),
was produced and financed by Bro. Harwell
E. West as a service to the fraternity of former
press telegraph operators.

Bro. West is editor and publisher of the Brass 
Pounders' Gossip, nationally known publica-
tion of the Toled Morse Telegraph Club.

Bros. E. Stuart Davis and George t. Secrist
were very helpful in preparing this very com-
plete edition of the Phillips and other teleg-
raphic codes.

  Copies of this Bi-Centennial edition may
              by obtained from
			  Harwell E. West
			  Box 152, Orland Park, Il 60462
			         Price: $5.50 postpaid


[Rubber Stamped in Red Ink:]
 
               National Telegraph Office
           	1149 Weber St., Union, NJ 07083





[rear cover: no printing on buff colored paper
 same as front cover.  Book binding: Dark 
 brown Plastic device with 11 holes. 
 Approximate Size of book: 3" Wide by 6" High ]

[------The Phillips Code Book transcription is completed-------]



The Phillips Code

K2AVJ's notes about Dr. E.Stuart Davis

[Transcriber's note:

   I first met Dr. Davis (hereafter referred to as "Stu", which
was his handle on 40 CW in the early fifties) around 1953.  He
was living in Newark, NJ at the time, still up "north" on some
"temporary" assignment.  He worked in the area of psychological
counselling -- I never found out what he did in detail.

  It was a shock (for me, a teenager) to meet him.  He had a
badly hunched back, which I believe was the result of an accident
that happened early in his life.  I think he said it was a
boating accident.  He had owned a boat in Florida, and may have
been a Florida native.

  He came over by subway ,although between Newark and Jersey City
the "tubes" travelled above ground.  My mother fixed a nice
dinner and we all had a nice chat with Stu.  I supposed we
retired to "the shack" for a while to talk shop.  I believe I had
an SX-28A (hallicrafters) at the time, and Stu must have had a
few things to say about that!  But I do not recall anything
specific.

  I have forgotten his call.  It was not the call he originally
had -- i think it was a K4.../2.  Then he changed his call to a
"2".

  After I got married, I still kept in touch with Stu, and by
this time he was established in his "Telegraph Office" in Union,
NJ.  I visited him several times.  Stu had a leased line from the
phone company, and he and several cronies had it hooked up to
keys and sounders.  They used the American Morse, which I
unsuccessfully tried to learn ( perhaps I got to 5 wpm?).

  Stu had quite a collection of early telegraph equipment, sorry
I can't recall the details, but I am sure it was a collection of
"gems".

  He had a collins receiver, and I believe a collins transmitter
also.  Naturally, he was CW only.  Perhaps that's why we got
along so well. Even if I was a young squirt, I wasn't too far off
the beam, communication wise, in his opinion.

  He had a friend, Commander Quimby, whom he introduced me to,
and we ( Stu, Cdr. Quimby, my friend Andy Dlinn, WA2FFY, and
myself ) all had lunch at the Governor Morris, the most august
Inn and Restaurant in the very august town of Morristown, NJ.  I
believe Qimby had a home in or near Morristown, and Stu prevailed
upon him to give me a tour of the place.  It was sheer
fascination to listen as these two ... two .... what?  Raconteurs
? ... as they discoursed during the luncheon.?  Stu told me that
Quimby was responsible for preserving the "Delta Queen" -- the
last of the operating Mississippi river paddle wheelers.  I was
gratified to hear Quimby's name mentioned watching a recent TV
show about the "Queen".  Took me back to that luncheon, and Stu.

  Quimby's place was just MAGNIFICENT.  Where does one get the
*money*?  He had salvaged an old theatre organ and had it
installed in his foyer and main entrance.  There were two "wings"
off the entrance where Quimby had installed the pipes.  And then
in a room of to the left, he had installed all the drums,
mechanical clarinets, violins, and other instruments that were
all controlled by the organist, whom, I believe was Quimby's
wife.  She was not present to give us a demonstration, so
Commander Quimby played the organ for us a little, but apologized
for the fact that it was not completely hooked up.  It sounded
"hooked up" TO ME!

  Down in Commander Quimby's cellar was another surprise!  A
large scale model railroad.  Similar in size to the old
largest-gauge sets that Lionel used to make (much bigger than "O"
gauge) -- but this set looked like it was all custom made.  A
very complicated and detailed set up, which just about filled the
basement. I think Stu was proud to have Commander Quimby as a
friend.

  One time Stu and I got on the subject of old movies, and Stu
asked me "Did you ever see a 'smart' telegrapher in a hollywood
movie?" I said I could not think of ever seeing one: the ones I
saw were usually portrayed as kind of stupid.  Stu said he felt
this was a conspiracy by the hollywood crowd: that someone had
been snubbed by a telegrapher, or something of the kind, and as a
result, the hollywood telegraphers were invariably portrayed as
Neanderthals.  He told me that telegraphers were actually an
elite group, and that the telegraphic art used to be taught only
to sons, close relatives and some especially favored individuals.

  He also asked me why was it that everyone "smoked" in the
movies?  He felt that also was the result of some type of
influence peddling that had infiltrated the hollywood industry.

  Stu loved to talk, yet there was one subject about which he
would *not* talk -- even at such a late date (in the late '70's)
-- it was of his experience during the second world war.  Stu was
FDR's personal telegrapher, and wherever FDR went, Stu also went.
He told me "I could tell you things ..." -- but he never did,
even though I more than once tried to get him to tell of himself
and FDR.  Perhaps he was sworn to secrecy, as I can see no other
reason for him not do discuss the trips with FDR.  I am sure some
very sensitve messages had passed over his key.

  In recognition of his services during the war Stu was given an
honorary Doctorate -- I don't recall if he even told me from
where.

  He was a batchelor when I knew him; I don't know if he was ever
married: he never said.  He did complain about the costs of the
leased line, and told me he didn't know how long it would be
before he would have to give it up (for financial reasons).

  He got to be quite frail.  He loved his cat, who, naturally,
had the run of not only the house, but of the National Telegraph
Office also.  He suffered more and more from breathing problems.
I lost touch with him, possibly not too long before he died.  It
was depressing to see him in such a physical condition, having to
fight for breath.

  He loved to play the piano, and he loved Verdi and Wagner.  He
had no love for Puccini.  I recall his most vocal and negative
reaction when I mentioned Puccini's name to him. (But,
nevertheless, I still love Puccini -- although I never admitted
it to Stu.)

  I wish I knew to whom he bequeathed his museum, as I would like
to visit it and recall how Stu explained the various pieces to
me. I know he did *not* bequeath his museum to the Smithsonian,
as Stu was quite upset about the items that institution kept in
their store-rooms, hidden away from public view. I am sure he was
upset about their treatment of their early telegraphy
equipment. I think he said his collection would be going to some
friend in Canada. 

Since I wrote the above paragraph it has come to my attention
that Stu did *not* bequeath* his Telegraphy Collection to a
Canadian friend, but it was sold to a private collector in
Massachusettes, who does not show it to the public.

  He wanted to "loan" me a 2-meter rig, but for some reason I
just couldn't accept it.  He gave me two copies of the book: The
Phillips Code.  It is the only physical thing I have from him.
I'm surprised I still have it: I once went through my
"collection" like the grim reaper, but the Phillips Code book
survived (along with Courant's "Differential and Integral
Calculus").  Some things I guess we can't bear to part with.

If anyone can add anything to these fragmentary snapshots of
Dr. E.Stuart Davis, I would be most happy to hear of it and
incorporate it in these recollections of Stu.  ]
					 

[ Thank you for your interest.

Best Regards,

Joe Hartmann      Tel: (603) 863 6073
K2AVJ -issued     email: joeh@sugar-river.net
    1951          home-page: http://www.sugar-river.net/~joeh
--------------------------------------------------------
First Student at the:

    Linux University in the Sunshine Town of Newport, NH

Thanks to RMS, Linus, and other contributors of free software
--------------I grant this to the public domain---------
]


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