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TUCoPS :: Radio :: cb3faq.txt FAQ 3 of 4

Posted-By: auto-faq script
Archive-name: cb-radio-faq/part3 Frequently Asked Questions (Part 3: Communication)
[Last modified 3/15/92]

Questions discussed in Part 3: (dates indicate last modification)
* Which 10-codes are most commonly used? (7/91)
* What are the CB 10-codes? (7/91)
* Where are 10-codes used? (3/92)
* What are some of the more common Q-codes? (3/92)
* What are some tips for communicating with others on the CB? (12/91) Frequently-asked Questions-----------------------------Part 3--

* Which 10-codes are most commonly used?

When getting started, remember at least the following 10-codes:

10-1           Receiving Poorly
10-4           Ok, Message Received
10-7           Out of Service, Leaving Air (you're going off the air)
10-8           In Service, subject to call (you're back on the air)
10-9           Repeat Message
10-10          Transmission Completed, Standing By (you'll be listening)
10-20          "What's your location?" or "My location is..."
               Commonly asked as "What's your 20?"

and maybe also this one...
10-100         Need to go to Bathroom

Also, remember that 10-4 only means "message received".  If you want to say
"yes", use "affirmative".  For "no", use "negative".

* What are the CB 10-codes?

10-1           Receiving Poorly
10-2           Receiving Well
10-3           Stop Transmitting
10-4           Ok, Message Received
10-5           Relay Message
10-6           Busy, Stand By
10-7           Out of Service, Leaving Air
10-8           In Service, subject to call
10-9           Repeat Message
10-10          Transmission Completed, Standing By
10-11          Talking too Rapidly
10-12          Visitors Present
10-13          Advise weather/road conditions
10-16          Make Pickup at...
10-17          Urgent Business
10-18          Anything for us?
10-19          Nothing for you, return to base
10-20          My Location is ......... or What's your Location?
10-21          Call by Telephone
10-22          Report in Person too ......
10-23          Stand by
10-24          Completed last assignment
10-25          Can you Contact .......
10-26          Disregard Last Information/Cancel Last Message/Ignore
10-27          I am moving to Channel ......
10-28          Identify your station
10-29          Time is up for contact
10-30          Does not conform to FCC Rules
10-32          I will give you a radio check
10-33          Emergency Traffic at this station
10-34          Trouble at this station, help needed
10-35          Confidential Information
10-36          Correct Time is .........
10-38          Ambulance needed at .........
10-39          Your message delivered
10-41          Please tune to channel ........
10-42          Traffic Accident at ..........
10-43          Traffic tieup at .........
10-44          I have a message for you (or .........)
10-45          All units within range please report
10-50          Break Channel
10-62          Unable to copy, use phone
10-62sl        unable to copy on AM, use Sideband - Lower (not an official code)
10-62su        unable to copy on AM, use Sideband - Upper (not an official code)
10-65          Awaiting your next message/assignment
10-67          All units comply
10-70          Fire at .......
10-73          Speed Trap at ............
10-75          You are causing interference
10-77          Negative Contact
10-84          My telephone number is .........
10-85          My address is ...........
10-91          Talk closer to the Mike
10-92          Your transmitter is out of adjustment
10-93          Check my frequency on this channel
10-94          Please give me a long count
10-95          Transmit dead carrier for 5 sec.
10-99          Mission completed, all units secure
10-100         Need to go to Bathroom
10-200         Police needed at ..........

* Where are 10-codes used?

10-codes originated in the US and are, apparently, only used in English-
speaking countries.  However, no matter which codes are used in your country,
be aware that there are local dialects in every urban area and region.  You
have to listen to others to learn the phrases and codes in you area.

Be aware that the use of codes specifically to obscure the meaning of a trans-
mission is probably illegal in most countries.  The difference is this - codes
which are well known and make communications shorter or more efficient are
normally allowed.

* What are some of the more common Q-codes?

Q-codes are used in many kinds of radio communications, including CB sideband
but not typically on CB AM.  (If your radio doesn't have sideband, don't
worry about Q-codes.)  Q-codes originated with amateur radio but their use in
CB, even more so than 10-codes, can vary depending on who published the list.

The following is an abbreviated list of Q-codes borrowed from amateur radio:
QRM  man made noise, adjacent channel interference
QRN  static noise
QRO  increase power
QRP  reduce power
QRT  shut down, clear
QSL  confirmation, often refers to confirmation cards exchanged by hams
QSO  conversation
QSX  standing by on the side
QSY  move to another frequency
QTH  address, location

The following is from a list of Q-codes used by the X-Ray Club (a sideband-
users club headquartered in Paradise, California):
QRL  Busy, Stand By
QRM  Man Made Interference
QRT  Stop Transmit or Shutting Down (same as 10-7 on AM)
QRX  Stop Transmit or Standing By
QRZ  Who is Calling?
QS   Receiving Well
QSB  Receiving Poorly
QSK  I have something to Say or Station breaking
QSM  Repeat Message
QSO  Radio Contact
QSP  Relay Message
QSX  Standing By (same as 10-10 on AM)
QSY  Changing Frequency
QTH  My Location is...  or  What's your location?
QTR  Correct Time

Q-codes may be used to ask questions (QTH?) or to answer them (QTH is 5th &
Ivy Streets.)

The ARRL Handbook and the ARRL operating guides have more complete listings
of those used for amateur radio.  (ARRL is an amateur radio organization.)
Historically, the Q signals were instituted at the 'World Administrative Radio
Conference' (WARC) in 1912.  Because of their international origin, Q-codes
may be more accepted outside English-speaking countries than 10-codes are.

* What are some tips for communicating with others on the CB?

The following is a list that is generally considered proper procedure or
polite when using a CB radio.  It can also be considered a beginner's survival
guide.  This list was compiled from common problems that have plagued beginners
since CBs first became popular.

- When two people are talking, essentially they temporarily "own" the channel.
US regulations say that they have to give other people opportunities to use
the channel if they're going to use it more than several minutes.  But it is
not up to an outsider to "take" the channel from them.

- Take care not to "step on" other units (i.e. transmitting at the same time
as they are, thereby making both your transmissions unreadable.)  This usually
means that you should adjust your break squelch level so that you can hear the
other unit and then only begin to transmit when you can't hear anyone else.

- NEVER deliberately key over someone else.  Nobody likes that.

- If you hear one unit break for another unit, give some time for the unit
to respond before you say anything yourself.  (Keep in mind that they may have
to fumble for a microphone in a moving car or dodge furniture enroute to a
base station.)  Remember, the calling unit has the channel.

- If you want to talk on a channel that is in use, it is very likely that your
initial transmissions will accidentally "walk over" someone elses.  So you must
keep them short.  The word "break" is generally accepted.  Try to time it in
a pause in the conversation.

- Even when your "break" has been recognized, keep your next transmission
short.  For example, "Break one-seven for Godzilla" if you're on Channel 17 and
looking for someone whose handle is Godzilla.  If Godzilla doesn't answer in
a reasonably short amount of time, it doesn't hurt to say "thanks for the break"
to the units that stopped their conversation for you.

- If you break on an open (unused) channel, you don't have to be as brief.  For
example, "Break 17 for Godzilla.  Are you out there Godzilla?".  However, the
short form is perfectly acceptable, too.  Use what fits your style.

- If someone speaking to you gets "walked over" so that you can't understand the
message, you basically have two options.  You can tell the person you were
listening to, "10-9, you were stepped on", or you can find out what the breaker
wants, "Go ahead break", before returning to your original conversation.  You
should eventually recognize the breaker and find out what they want.

- If two people are talking and you would like to interject a response, you
will probably just walk over someone.  Use the procedure above to properly
break into the conversation.

- If someone doesn't answer your breaks after two or three attempts.  Stop and
wait for several minutes or, in mobile units, for several highway miles or 
city blocks.  Others may have their radios on and don't want to listen to the
same break more than three times in succession.

- In other circumstances, improvise.  Take into account other people's points
of view.  Give people proper access to the channel and try not to do anything
to annoy other units.

- If you make a mistake in any of the procedures above, don't waste air time on
a busy channel by apologizing.  (If the channel isn't busy, it's your choice.)
Just try to do it right in the future.  Everyone takes a little time to learn.

OK, now you know how to conduct yourself on the radio.  However, there are and
will probably always be units that don't.  Be patient.  You don't have auth-
ority to enforce any rules so don't break any by trying.

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