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TUCoPS :: Hardware Hacks :: trunk.txt

The Down-Low on Trunking




From bagelbyte311@hotmail.com Wed Nov 21 22:17:18 2001
Newsgroups: alt.phreaking
Subject: The Down-Low on Trunking, by BaGeL
From: bagelbyte311@hotmail.com (BaGeL)
Date: 21 Nov 2001 22:17:18 -0800

Sup all?  I just finished this article on trunked systems for Zine 2
of the 13370 phr34k0 h34d5... enjoy!

-BaGeL              





              MHzKHzGHz-=-=--=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=zHGzHKzHM
              +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
	      +++++++++ The Low-Down on +++++++++++++    11/20/01
              ++++++++++++ Radio Trunking Systems +++
              +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
              MHzKHzGHz-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-zHGzHKzHM
                                
                               bY: BaGeL
                         13370' phr34k0 h34d5 2001

IIIINNNNNNNNNN
X   INDEX    D
XEEEEEEEEEEEED

I.   Conventional vs. Trunked
II.  Types of Trunked Systems
III. Trunking Frequencies
IV.  Trunking Equipment
V.   Disadvantages of Trunking 
VI.  Conclusion

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I. Conventional vs. Trunked

	In the wide world of radio scanning, there are two essential types of
radio systems: conventional and trunked.  Conventional radio systems. 
In a conventional system, only one conversation can be taking place on
one such frequency, or channel, reguardless as to how many that
corporation, company, police department, or booze-bag owns.  For
example, lets take a police department.  Let's say they own 5
channels, or frequencies.  Only ONE conversation can be taking place
on EACH channel at a time.  This can be extremely inefficient.  This
is where trunked systems fall into place.  A good example on how a
trunked system works came from a manual I was reading is as follows:
"At most banks, everyone stands in the same line. At the front of the
line the customer goes to whatever window is empty.  The next customer
in line probably goes to a different window.  Doesn't matter, the
service is still the same."  So, instead of all users trying to
transmit messages via one VHF/UHF repeater, the users of one
corporation/po-po department transmit on whatever frequency is open
and currently not being used or is not as busy as the others.
Therefore, all repeaters are being used at the same time, with the
same amount of users on each.  Still don't understand?  One more
example, if you don't understand it by now, you are a booze bag.
                   Conventional System:  A bank with only one teller
window.  Everyone has to                                            
wait their turn, and everyone gets what they need at a                
                          very slow and inefficient pace.
                        Trunked System:  A bank with five teller
windows.  Everyone gets served                                        
  as each window opens up.  Customers get in and out very             
                            quickly and efficiently.

II. Types of Trunked Systems

	There are two main types of trunked systems.  These are Motorola and
G.E. Ericsson (EDACS).  The Motorola trunked systems can be classified
into three types:

                                   Motorola (I) - Motorola type I
				   Motorola (II) - Motorola type II
                                   Motorola (IIi) - Motorola type IIi

	The more common and popular one out of the two is the Motorola
system.  However, there is another type of trunking system besides
Motorola and Ericsson, and that is LTR.  LTR equiptment is available
from a number of manufacturers, and has been used for many years.  In
LTR systems, there is no control channel, instead, a central-computer
is used to control the channels/users.  A new type of LTR system is
being used by a small amount of public safety agencies under the name
"MultiNet".


III. Trunking Frequencies

	The majority of trunking systems operate on the infamous "800" band. 
However, this is just "one of those things".  In other words, trunking
systems can also be used on the UHF band such as 406-420MHz (yes,
ic0n... 420!). But overall, you will find 9 out of the 10 trunked
systems operating on the "800" band.
	
	Below I will list nationwide, United States Government trunked
systems.

Motorola Systems used by Federal Government
Group 1: 406.350  407.150  407.950  408.750  409.550
Group 2: 406.750  407.550  408.350  409.150  409.950
Group 3: 406.550  407.350  408.150  408.950  409.750
Group 4: 406.950  407.750  408.550  409.350  410.150
  
Ericsson Trunked Systems (EDACS)
406.000  406.100  406.150  406.200  406.225
406.350  406.550  406.750  407.150  407.175  407.250
407.325  407.350  407.375  407.425  407.450  407.475
407.525  407.575  407.950  408.025  408.050  408.150
408.175  408.425  408.475  408.525  408.550  408.575
408.625  408.750  408.950  409.025  409.125  409.150
409.225  409.300  409.325  409.350  409.475  409.550
409.600  409.725  409.750  409.850  409.950  410.000


IV. Trunking Equipment

	Well, in case you havn't noticed, the average 90 dollar scanner is
NOT trunking capable.  Conventional scanners do not have trunking
capabilities and/or do not cover the "800" band in their frequency
range.  So you have to spend the extra 50 bux and go and get a
trunking-capable scanner.  Personally, unless your a hermit and do not
explore outside of your house, getting a portable trunking capable
scanner, such as myself.  I have the Radio Shack PRO-94 1,000 channel,
Dual Trunking scanner.  I got it cheap ($149.99) because of the time I
bought it (a month before Christmas), when all the prices go down. 
Also, make sure you get a DUAL trunking scanner, so you can listen to
both Motorola and Ericsson (EDACS) systems.  You WILL be limited to
ANALOG systems, trunking scanners cannot interpret digital trunking
signals, but you will not really have to worry about that, thus
digital trunking systems are even more expensive than analog systems. 
I recommend picking up "Police Call, 2002 Edition" for 20 bucks at
Radio Shack, which has a huge list of trunking frequencies, including
the ones listed above.


V. Disadvantages of Trunking

	Like everything in life, trunking has its disadvantages also.  The
advantages certainly outweigh the disadvantages.  One disadvantage of
trunking is that it is expensive.  It costs alot more to purchase and
operate an analog trunking system, including the radios that go along
with users on that trunk, than a conventional system and radios.  The
other disadvantage is that scanners (us), need to save up our b00ze
money to buy a trunking scanner.... BAH!  One more disadvantage is
that all users aren't really "trunking-compatible" if you know what I
mean.  In other words, not everyone understands trunking and how it
works.


VI. Conclusion

	Well, like every tutorial, I hope this has helped you understand the
concept of trunking, how it works, what you need to use trunking, some
frequencies and types of trunked systems, and some disadvantages of
trunking.  Until next time...... BaGeL, I'm out.

-----------
Shoutoutz: |
-----------

Shoutoutz to all my boyz in cDp, I lub you guys.
Also to all muh b00ze-bagz in lph... w00t w00t.
Another shout-out to the JC's... JUGGALO COMMANDOS

Guy_SJS... clean that house!
HardW1r3... we go waayyy back.
Flow... wherever you may be.
Bizurke... faaayyyyyyygoooooo
SupaKilla... juggalo I got yah back
ic0n... what time is it ic0n??
Xenocide... This thing came up and said, you've... you've got a virus.
deepdish... you b00zzee bag.
angel... "shuddup bitch"... hahaa, im jus kidden hun, I lub yah.
Dark_Archon... did your grandfather die yet so you can get his
scanner?
eslut... nice work w/ the confs  ;)
Reaver423... sup d00d, happy belated birthday
locutus126... you are a big booze bag d00d, get help.
MaddJimBeam... muh MA phreaker
GameZ... thanks for the help w/ the IRCd bro, and the baker is NOT
home
newbie... chillen in Argentina
halo... you dissappeared but yah still cool
gaijin... wassssssssaaaaaahhhhhhhhhhh

If I missed ne1 sorry, I still love you... lol.



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