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TUCoPS :: Hardware Hacks :: radargun.txt

About radarguns

I will assume for now, due to lack of any SOLID evidence 
supporting the restriction lift, that those are the only two in operation. 
Police radar 'beams' are similar in shape to a flashlight beam.  They begin 
with a thin width and cone outwards with distance. Most guns operating at   the
X-band level have a range of about 2000 ft., although high power units  can
exceed 2500 and 3000ft., and K-band guns fall shorter at about 1200 ft..  At
1500ft., the radar beam becomes about the width of four highway lanes, so  for
practical purposes radars range is around 1700 ft..  A radar signal  transmitted
from the 'Radar Gun's' transmitter, (called the oscillator) will  bounce off a
object and return to the radar receiver (or antenna).  If the  object is moving,
the frequency of the beam will be altered as it bounces.  This is most easily
visualized watching water ripples.  Assume now that I  have just dropped a
pebble in a pond, and the ripples are moving outward,  assume also for purposes
of simplicity that the ripples are moving at  1 foot per second, and that they
are one foot apart.  The ripples are   therefore also one second apart.  Upon
bouncing off a stationary object  the ripples will return weakened, but at the
same interval and speed   <Not really the same speed, but let's not complicate
things>.  Now let  us assume that a toy boat is traveling in the water at .5 ft.
per second,  1/2 the speed of the ripples, away from the point which I dropped
the   pebble.  Assume the first ripple has hit the boat and is traveling back. 
The second ripple now traveling at 1 foot per second is only gaining on the 
boat by .5 feet per second <1 ft. per second - .5 ft. per second>.  This means 
that the ripple is one foot away from the boat, as the ripples are one foot 
apart.  The ripple will take 2 second to reach the boat, as the closure speed 
is .5 ft. per second and the distance is 1 foot.  The ripple strikes the boat 
and bounces back two seconds after the first ripple.  The process works  
inversely for an object moving towards the pebbles point of impact.    As the
distance between the ripples can be determined by the speed, on the  other side,
the speed can be determined by the distance between the ripples.  Police radar
works in the same way with microwaves.  The microwave signal  bounces off a
moving vehicle and returns altered in frequency.  In this way  the radar unit
determines the speed of the object.  Radar is only accurate  when the object is
moving directly at, or directly away from the gun,  although some modern guns
will account for this 'COSINE error', most won't.  Cosine error can be defined
as this:  When a radar signal bounces off an  object at an angle from the
objects direction of travel it will return a  portion of the objects speed
computed by the cosine of the infraction  angle.  If the angle of the objects
direction and the radars direction is  20 degrees the speed returned by the
radar is 93.97% of the objects  actual speed.  cos (20) = .93969262 * objects
speed = returned speed.  For example:  A car is traveling at 75 m.p.h..  The
state trooper, in his  infinite wisdom, decides to "Clock" the automobile in
hopes of meeting his  quota for the month. Picking up his handy radar gun, he
aims, and fires  an invisible beam of microwave energy.  The officer however,
being the rookie  he is, leaves a high angle between the cars direction and his
beam of 45  degrees.  Cos (45) = .707106781  .707106781 * 75m.p.h. = 53.03300859 
 53 m.p.h. is displayed on the officers screen.  Lucky motorist.  Sorry 40
column users.  

         | \
         |  \        - Cosine Error -
         |   \
         | 45 \
         | deg.\ - radar beam
         |      \ 
         |       \
         v        \
    Direction of   \
     cars travel    \
                      X - state trooper.

         Part 2: Application

                   In 1986, over 15 million speeding tickets were issued, and
experts estimate that over 25% of them were in error.  Police have been using
radar for speed control for many years, and as the technology has become more
complex and accurate, so has the ability to get away with the slight infractions
of the speed limits set by the government become more difficult.  In recent
years, the three most damaging advances to motorists in radar technology
include:  A> Instant on radar.  B> K-band radar. and C> Cosine error correcting
radar units.

                   Instant on radar.
                             With the increase of radar receivers, or
"Detectors" on the roads, police have attempted to bypass the motorists first
line of defense.  The most damaging advance in the war against speeding
motorists is instant on radar.  The idea behind instant on radar is to make the
radar detector useless to the motorist by making his warning too late to react
to.  Instant on radar was developed in early 1983, but never marketed  until
late 1984 when the michigan state troopers were equipped with the first instant
on radar guns.  It operates by deactivating the oscillator until  triggered by
the officer.  When used properly and under the right traffic conditions, it is
indefensible.  It works like a camera, the officer operating the radar will
position himself behind a blind corner or over a hill.  When the approaching car
crests the hill or rounds the corner, the officer will activate the oscillator,
taking a "snapshot" of your car. As microwaves travel at the speed of light, any
attempt at slowing down is futile, the officer behind the gun has your speed in
less than a tenth of a second.

                   K-band Radar.
                             When radar detectors were first marketed by the
markers of ESCORT, there was only one type of radar.  X-band. In an attempt to
increase the dwindling speeding ticket revenue, K-band  was brought to life.  K-
band is a different frequency that could not be picked up by the primitive
detectors of the age.  However, as the  frequency got out, the detectors
adapted, and now any detector worth a dollar will detect both X and K bands.  K
band is more dangerous as most K-band guns are instant on and they have less
'Splash' and range than X-band guns. This means that a K-band signal is probably
closer to you.

                   Cosine error correcting guns.

                             Cosine error was a major falling of radar in the
judicial system, all readings were under question in court, the result was a gun
which will correct for cosine error by determining the angle which the radar
beam "impacts" with the car.  Also new in correcting cosine error were guns with
'Speed lock on' in which the highest speed reading received by the gun is locked
in and displayed.

                    Moving radar guns.
                             Until new developments, all radar units had to
remain stationary as radar measures only closure speed, and not actual speed. 
Moving radar ended this trend.  Moving radar works like this.  First the radar
gun determines the patrol cars speed by clocking a sign or fixed object.  The
closing speed of the patrol car to the sign is subtracted from the now taken
closing speed to the target car.
                             Patrols speed - 60 m.p.h.
                             Closing speed to car - 120 m.p.h.                   
          120 m.p.h. - 60 m.p.h. = 60 m.p.h..

         Part 3: Defense
                   From the dawn of speed enforcement, motorists have sought to
defeat the laws, starting with detectors, continuing to jammers and topping out
with the new 'CHiPs detectors'  The unfortunate conditions now favor the police
and law enforcement officials with the introduction of new radar technologies
such as instant on radar.


                          The simple radar receiver is the first line of defense
from radar.  Varied in operation and features, the radar detectors of today are
designed to provide high sensitivity and low rates of false alarms.  Good
detectors will measure signal strength and type <K or X> and have an effective
range of about 3000 ft. and a probable range of well over a mile.  Sensitivity
tops out around 110.5 dBm/cm^2 for X band and 108 dBm/cm^2 for K band <Both set
by the passport>.  A detector can give you an excellent advantage over radar by
alerting you it's there.  Detectors become especially useful in chicago where
instant on radar is not typically used.
                             Radar jammers are essentially units that transmit
microwaves at a frequency dictating a certain speed.  The result is regardless
of your speed, the police radar unit will display the speed you set the jammer
to transmit.  Jammers are highly illegal and will be confiscated if discovered,
expect a stiff fine.
                   Chip's detector.

                             This is a new device, which is really a scanner on
the police radio band.  It takes advantage of a signal transmitted by the patrol
cars in some states as part of their dispatch system.  The signal  carries for
about three miles, and the Chip's Detector will alert you if you are within that
range of a highway patrol unit.  It also allows scanning of police radio

         Last words.

                   Radar is a basically accurate instrument, when used properly,
it can be deadly.  As I have said before instant on radar is impossible to avoid
when there is no other traffic around, regardless of a detector.  The only thing
that comes close is a Radar Jammer, which  will most likely not serve you well
unless it is WELL hidden.  Radar jammers are dangerous with the introduction of
the HAWK, a radar unit by Kustom Signals, which DETECTS radar jammers in the
hold mode.                    Aside from radar, VASCAR
                  <Visual average speed computer and recorder>                   
is a new danger to motorists.  It is basically a stopwatch used to time your
movement between two point of which the interval distance is known.  Using the
formula    Average velocity = distance / time, the state trooper can determine
your speed without setting off your detector.                    Instant on
radar defense.

                             The only real defense for instant on radar is
traffic.  Traffic will cause the trooper to activate his radar gun more often,
cluing you into his presence.   A jammer well hidden will help, but the best
technique is to follow a car making good time.  Any police units in the area
will clock him first, and legally they have to ticket him, unless you're too

    Do not speed, it is a dangerous practice, and I can not be responsible    
for any injury, or action due to this file, it is for informational     purposes
only.  The state troopers enforce speed limits for your     safety.

                   Radar guns: Models.

                             Radar guns are manufactured by many different
companies, but the primary ones are Kustom Signals, M.p.h. Industries, and
Decatur.                              The deadliest gun now available is the
HAWK manufactured by Kustom Signals.  It is the first gun capable of clocking
cars moving the SAME direction as the patrol car.  It has two antennas, one 
forward, and one back.  Like I stated before, it is also the first gun capable
of detecting radar jammers.  These run about 2000$

                             This gun is a two piece model which uses a weak
pulse signal in the moving mode to determine the patrol car's speed  while not
triggering detectors.  This gun permits a faster clocking time for  instant on
moving radar, it runs about $1200

                             This is a hand held gun operating on K band Small
and compact it is preferred among law enforcement radars. It runs about 600$

                             Hr-4 Hr-8 Hr-12
                             400,500,750$ respectively, these are hand held
radar guns made by Kustom Signals

                             All these units are available to you via me for
less than the troopers pay for them.  For prices, and statistics,  call my
board at (312) - 787 - 2174 or send me mail at Ripco (312) 528-5020

                             Prices for radar units range from 250-2000$         
                    I personally enjoy harassing that 911                        
     who barrels by at 95 with a detector.

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