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TUCoPS :: Cyber Culture :: cc1.txt

"Time Out of Mind", a timeline of counterculture 1/3

A Work-In-Progress
Copyright 1993
Send comments, additions, corrections to:
and please use "sixties" or "timeline" in the e-mail title.

"I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing. . .
It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government. . .
God forbid that we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion. . .
        Thomas Jefferson (1780)

l l l.
1095-   1270    The Crusades
1132            Henry I of France grants charters of corporate towns
                protecting commerce and industry
1100s?          rise of guilds in medieval cities
1100s   late    Joachim de Flores:
1100s           Poor Men of Lyons (Fr) follow Pierre Wald, merchant who
                gave away all of his wealth to the poor.
                The Waldensians are exterminated in
                a bloody papal cruade in the early 1200s.
1209            Francis of Assisi (Italy) starts his brotherhood
                (the Franciscans) (he is 27)
1215            King John of England seals the Magna Carta at Runnymede
1229            The Inquisition in Toulouse forbids Bible reading by all laymen
1252            The Inquisition begins to use instruments of torture
1258            The first House of Commons in Britain
1260-   1327    Meister Eckhart (German preacher & mystic)
1200s   late    commercial and industrial boom in the north and central
                Italian cities; Florence becomes the leading European city
                in commerce and finance; beginnings of manufacturing industries
                Hanseatic League forms in Germany; Swiss League forms;
                many new European universities founded; Petrarch, Dante . . .
1347-51         Black Death devastates Europe (including 1/3 of English pop,
                a total of 75 million people) (Boccaccio: Decameron, Chaucer)
when?           Eng: theologian John Wyclif attacks the property of the church
1381            Eng: Peasants Revolt under Wat Tyler, who was inspired by
                Wyclif (John Ball)
1382            Wyclif is expelled from Oxford, doctrines condemned by
                London synod

                1300s-1400s Lollards: attack Church corruption,
                emphasize individual interpretation of the Bible

1396            Greek classics start to be taught in Ital
                --> revival of Greek literature in Italy
1400-   1500    EARLY RENAISSANCE
                (Florence under the Medici is the center; Leonardo da Vinci)
1398-   1416    Prague: Jan Hus, inspired by Lollards; Hussites & Taborites
1431            First German peasant revolt at Worms
1453            Gutenberg prints the bible at Mainz, Germany
1431-   1463    Francois Villon, "the first Bohemian"
1463            Orvieto, Italy: money loaned at interest to poor people
1481            Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition under joint direction
                of the state & the church (Torquemada)
1493            The first Bundschuh (peasants' revolt) in Alsace & sw Germany

1400s-  1500s   Enclosures in Britain
1445-   1501    35,000 books printed in 10 million copies from 1000 offices

1500-           HIGH RENAISSANCE
                Age of exploration & colonization of Asia, Africa, Cen & So Am
                rise of the centralized state
                (Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Shakespeare)
1501            Moors of Spain defeated/conquered   expelled?
1502            Peasants' revolt, Speyer, Ger
1509            restart of European slave trade; settlers bring Africans to S. 
1512            Copernicus states that the earth and planets revolve
                around the sun (1549 objection)
1513            Peasants' revolt: Wurttemberg and Black Forest
1514            Peasants' revolt, Hungary
1516            Sir Thomas More: Utopia (1551 translated from Latin to Eng)
1517            Martin Luther, inspired by the conservative Hussites,
                protests against the Church's sales of indulgences by posting
                his 95 theses on the door of the Palast Church, Wittenberg
                --> Reformation in Germany
1524-5          Peasants' revolt against landlords S. Ger. led by Thomas Munzer
                founder of the Anabaptist movement (& Austria) - defeated
1528            The weavers of Kent riot against Wolsey's policy to move
                English staple town for wool from Antwerp to Calais
1534            `Communist state' of Anabaptists under leadership of John
                of Leiden at Munster, Westphalia
1536            Church of England separates from the Pope
1536            first European newspaper: Gazetta, Venice  (& see 1566)
1547            Nostradamus (1503-66) makes first predictions
1550-           EARLY BAROQUE
1560            Huguenots (Fr) / Puritanism (Eng)
1566            Calvinist riots in Netherlands; Inquisition there abolished
1567            two million Native Americans in S Am die of typhoid fever
1579            St. John of the Cross: xxx
1600s           science, European wars, witch trials, dueling, slaving
1600            (ca) first thermometer
1606            Founding of Virginia colony starts the colonization
                of North America
1612            Last recorded burning of heretics in England
1615            Galileo faces the Inquisition for the first time
1630-   1680    HIGH BAROQUE
1648            Society of Friends (Quakers) founded
                1600s, Poland & Transylvania: Unitarians
1600s,  1700s   UK: Levellers & Dissenters (original Diggers?)
                Levellers: advocate religious and social equality
                1648 The Agreement of the People (pamphlet)
                1649 suppressed by Oliver Cromwell
1653            Peasants' revolt, Switzerland
1660            Cafe Procope opens in Paris
1665            Isaac Newton experiments on gravity
1670            First minute hands on watches
"1692"          Salem witch trials
1600s   late    to mid 1700s: dead period in art (court portraits, art)
1700s           industrialism, highways, canals, sidewalk paving
                first classical composers; quadrille, minuet, waltz
                encylopedias, museums; threshing machine, cotton gin
1700            first American protest against slavery: `The Selling of Joseph'
1712            Slave revolts, NY
1712            Last execution for witchcraft in England
1714            Prussia: witchcraft trials abolished
1715            Rising of Native American tribes in South Carolina colony
1720            First collective settlemen in Vermont (which is this?)
1727            Quakers demand abolition of slavery
(1728-          Freemasons start)
1733            First? [N. Eur.] conscription - Prussia
1752            Benjamin Franklin discovers electricity
1759            Voltaire: Candide
1762            Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract
1764            James Watt invents condenser, first step toward
                steam engine   1775 perfects   1782
1770            First public restaurant, Paris
1772            Inquisition abolished in France
1776            Adam Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the
                Wealth of Nations
1777            Cooperative workshop for tailors at Birmingham
1784            first mail by coaches (London to Bristol)
1787            Shakers found Mount Lebanon, NY (which lasts until 1947)
1789            William Blake (1757-1827): Songs of Innocence
1789            FRENCH REVOLUTION
                Goya (1746-1828)
1791            Thomas Paine: The Rights of Man
1792            Denmark becomes first nation to abolish the slave trade
                Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women
1793            start of Napoleonic wars??
1794            William Blake: Songs of Experience
1791-   1817    Goethe writing Wilhelm Meister  published 1795?
1794            Slavery abolished in the French colonies
                (including New Orleans? start of music?)
1795            First poor relief/dole in Britain
1797            J.M.W. Turner(1775-1851): Millbank, Moonlight  (he was 22)
1798            Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population (32)
                - - first generation to grow up after the French Revolution
                reaches their 20s - -
1800            Robert Owen (1771-1858) (29) takes over New Lanarck mills
                and starts social reforms
1802            atomic theory, biology
1802            Toussaint-L'Ouverture, Santo Domingo (Fr colony)
                slave revolt - surpressed
1803            New Orleans become part of U.S. (Louisiana Purchase)
1803            first passenger steamboat
1807            Ingres (1780-1867) 27: begins most famous painting
1808            Goethe writing Faust Part I - (1832 Part II)   but see 1773
1808            Rebellion against Napoleon? in Madrid
                inspires Goya's paintings of revolution
1808            Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain & Italy
1810?-          ROMANTICISM (Scott, Woodsworth, Byron, Shelley,
                Coleridge, Jane Austen, Keats, Hugo, Goethe?, Whitman)
1811            Luddite movement destroys industrial machines in N. England
1812            Grimms Brothers Fairy Tales (they were 26 & 27)
1812            Byron (24): Childe Harold's Pilgrimage tells of a hero
                who spent days similar to his own of 1808, when he
                had a skull found by his gardener on the grounds
                of Newstead Abbey polished and mounted as a drinking cup
                and gave a farewell party of drinking, masquerading as monks,
                romping with his tame bear, and entertaining his "Paphian girls
1813            Robert Owen: A New View {?Outlook} of Society (UK)
1793-   1814    Napoleon defeated and sent to Elba
1814            George Stephenson invents & constructs first practical
                steam engine, near Newcastle, England
1815            On returning from Elba, Napoleon sends press-gangs
                into the student quarter in Paris, trying to round up
                an army; most escape and the tradition of anti-monarchy,
                anti-enlistment is established among Parisian students
1815            Napoleon defeated at Waterloo
                Economic postwar crisis in England
when?           Byron, xx, Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792-1822, Mary  visit to xx
1816            Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley writes Frankenstein
1817            First gaslight introduced in London
1817            South American independence: Simon Bolivar in Venezuela,
                1818 Chile independence
1819            recession
                Maximum 12-hour work day for juveniles, England
                Freedom of the press in France
1820            Washington Colonization Society founds Liberia for repatriation
                of Negroes
1820s           word "slums" coined
1822            Charles Fourier (d. 1837): Traite  [accents] de l'association
                domestique-agricole (Theorie de l'unitie universelle) (Paris)
1825            first railway opened - London
1825            first U.S. Owenist community, New Harmony, Indiana, founded
                1757-1827 William Blake  (America, A Prophecy when pub?)
1827            sulfur friction matches introduced
                J.J. Audubon: Birds of North America
1828            first railroad built in U.S. (Baltimore & Ohio)
1828            Working Men's Party founded, New York
1829            First cooperative stores in America (Philadelphia and NY)
                Omnibuses become part of London public transport
1830    Feb 25  Victor Hugo's Romantic Army formed at opening of
                his play Hermani at Theatre-Francais, Paris.
                They call themselves "Young France".
1830            6,000 Parisians die in revolution barricades
                ending the post-Napoleonic Bourbon restoration
                Ladies skirts grow shorter; sleeves and hats larger;
                men begin to wear stiff collars
                Religious society of Mormons founded, NY
1831    summer  Hugo's followers (including poets Nerval, Gautier & Borel)
                [inspired by Byron]
                camp in tents around isolated rented Montmartre
                house, sleep on animal skins, and go naked, emitting
                animal howls; neighbors get landlord to drive them out
1831            Virginia slave revolt led by Negro Nat Turner
                Lyons, France uprisings by working class against wretched
                Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to popular reforms
1832    Jn 5-6  The poor of Paris, with their romantic allies,
                revolt against the new monarchy
1832            Parisian Saint-Simonian newspaper coins the word "socialism"
                Mass demonstrations in Germany
                New England Anti-Slavery Society founded, Boston
1833            Four Parisian artists, Gautier, Nerval, Houssaye, & Rogier
                create the first Bohemian house
1835            Alexis De Tocqueville: Democracy in America
                (published in Paris; published in US 1838)
                Hans Christian Anderson (1805-75) starts publishing fairy tales
                first negative photograph
                The expression "art for art's sake" comes into general use
1835-   42      Seminoles second war against the U.S. to avoid deportation and
                repel encroachment
1836            Working class movement, Chartism, founded in U.K.
                demand universal suffrage and vote by ballot
                Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte tries to bring about a revolt
                of the Fr? garrison at Strasbourg and is banished to America
                Ralph Waldo Emerson: Nature
                electric? telegraph invented by Wheatstone
1837            financial and economic panic in eastern U.S. (+?)  - revivals
1837-   1848    First modern industrial depression (U.K.)
1838            Cherokees sent on the Trail of Tears
                Chopin's liason with George Sand begins
1839            Voyage en Icarie by Etienne Cabet (1788-1856)
                (?describes socialist utopia)
                Daguerre invents his camera and takes first photograph
                first bicycle; first electric clock; Goodyear: vulcanization
                Louis Blanc: L'Organisation du Travail
                ("to each according to his needs, from each according to his
                Balzac uses the word "bohemian" for the first time
                to describe the new spontaneous, creative spirit
1840            Albert Brisbane: The Social Destiny of Man
                (follower of Fourier) published in U.S.
                Pierre Joseph Proudhon: "Property is theft"
                Penny post commenced, England
1840s           "the hungry 40s" in England as the depression continues
                also rapid industrialisation
                Connecticut, Mass, and Penn pass laws limiting hours of
                employement of minors in textile factories
                Chartist movement builds nearly 300 cottages in five settlement
                for supporters who wish to become independent smallholders
1841            Christ, Gothic, & Murger (Paris artists?) form a Bohemian
                cenacle, The Society of the Water Drinkers, living in poverty
                for art, often visited by the older Hugolaters
                U.S.S. "Creole" slave revolt
                Punch first regular humorous magazine, U.K.
1841-47         Community at Brook Farm, Massachusetts (became Fourierest)
1839-42         Britain wins Opium War, forcing Chinese to accept opium
                instead of silver as payment for tea and silk
1840s           Hashish introduced into Bohemian Paris by Gautier and others
1840s           Gautier and Flaubert develop idea of "art for art's sake"
1841            First university degrees granted to women in America
                Travel agent Thomas Cook arranges his first excursion -
                to a temperance meeting in England
1842            Britain Chartism movement stages general strike
                Riots and strikes in industrial areas of N. England
                Polka comes into fashion
1843            Dickens: A Christmas Carol
                Sunday drumming & dancing gatherings of ?slaves? in
                Congo Square, New Orleans, terminated by city authorities;
                rituals taken into the church (?gradually)
                First Amana commune (Ebenezer, NY) (re-organized to
                share-holder community May 1932; still continuing)
                First Fourierist community founded in U.S.
                Dorothea Dix reports shocking conditions in Massachusetts
                prisons and asylums
                Congress funds Morse to build first telegraph line
                (Washington to Baltimore)
                "The Bohemian Girl" - London, Drury Lane (is this important?)
                Samuel C.S. Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy (1755-1843)
1844            Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers (co-operative)
                Karl Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris
                (YMCA founded, England)
1845            Friedrich Engels: The Conditions of the Working Class
                in England", published in Leipzig
1845-47         Thoreau lives at Walden Pond
1846            Brigham Young leads the Mormons to Salt Lake City
                start of Irish potato blight famine: 5 million die over 1847-52
                from 1850-60  914,000 emigrate to US
                Sewing machine patented by Elias Howe
1847            British Factory Act restricts the working day for women
                and children between 13 and 18 - to 10 hours
1848            Oneida commune with complex marriage founded NY (to 1881)
                Revolution of 1848 by Parisian poor; 25,000 killed;
                socialist bourgeois republic created
                + revolts in Vienna, Venice, Berlin, Milan, Parma, Rome
                First socialist community founded in U.S. (Icaria);
                Texas, moves to Illinois, then Missouri, Iowa
                -- the generation born since the Paris revolt of 1830
                is in its 20s: Gustave Moreau 22 (when was art?), Jules Verne 2
0 --
                Dante Gabriel Rossetti 20, John Everett Millais 19, and William
                Holman Hunt 21, found Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, U.K.
                Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto
                Thoreau: On The Duty of Civil Disobedience
                John Stuart Mill: Principles of Political Economy (is this impo
                First Public Health Act in Britain
                Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.
                Discovery of gold in California starts the gold rush

1848-9          Murger publishes chapters from Scenes de la Vie
                de Boheme, which is translated into many languages
1849            Revolts in Dresden and Baden; Ger. National Assembly
                passes constitution
1850            The Vegetarian Society founded, Manchester
1851            or 53? Ruskin: The Stones of Venice (man can only be free
                if he is being creative, and industrialism destroys this)
1852            Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte declares himself emperor of France;
                Victor Hugo opposes this and flees into exile
                First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets, London
1853            Haussman begins redesign of Paris, creating boulevards
                through lower class areas for ease of moving the army
                around and to keep the middle classes from moving out
                Crimean War begins: xx die of cholera
                until Florence Nightingale introduces sanitation
                William Morris starts college, meets Edward Burne-Jones,
                and discusses John Ruskin's Modern Painters with him
                Saltaire model village built, ne of Manchester
1854            "War for Bleeding Kansas" between free and slave states
                Thoreau: Walden, or Life in the Woods
                First street-poster pillars erected in Berlin
1854/5          James Whistler, American artist, is one of many
                artists who flow into Paris after having read Murger's accounts
1856 +          Karl Marx living in London (observing cap sys) (when to when?)
1856?           Golden spike joins the west coast of U.S. to the east
1857            US-wide depression, & economic crisis throughout Europe,
                caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares
                Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) founded
                Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
                Pasteur shows that fermentation is caused by living organisms
                New Orleans legalizes licensed prostitutes
1858            Olmsted's design for New York's Central Park
when?           City Beautiful movement
1859            Darwin's Origin of the Species published
                John Stuart Mill (1806-73): On Liberty
                Internal combustion engine invented
                first self-help manual published (how to succeed in life)
1860            -- the generation coming of age with the revolt of 1848
                is in its 20s: Dore & Manet 28, Burne-Jones 27, Morris 26,
                Degas & Whistler 26, Cezanne 21, Monet & Renoir & Rodin 20,
                + Lewis Carroll 28, Twain 25, Ramakrishna 24--
1860s           Can-can becomes the rage in Paris
1861            Confederate states ?cesede; U.S. Civil War starts
                U.S. introduces passport system
                Pasteur's germ theory of fermentation
                First horse-drawn trams in London and first daily weather
                broadcasts in Britain
                U.K.: William Morris (27) starts design firm
                leading to the birth of the Arts and Crafts movement
                Paul Cezanne (22) arrives in Paris
1862            U.S.: Homestead Act opens free land for pioneers
                Victor Hugo: Les Miserables
                Founding of Red Cross proposed by Swiss humanist Dunant
1863?           U.S.: first Federal conscription  (for the Civil War)
                (including 300 dollar buy-out)
1863    July    five days: NYC Draft Riots, 105 killed, many Negro
1863            The "Salon de Refuses" in Paris:
                ?Edouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass exhibited?
                and many others
                London begins constructing Underground railroad
                U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery
1863-4          8000 Navajos captured by Kit Carson and interned for
                four years in New Mexico, then sent to a reservation
1864            Dostoevsky: Notes From the Underground
                Mark Twain 29, arriving in San Francisco, finds a
                vigorous literary movement called The Bohemians
                Massacre of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand
                Creek, Colo.
                First International Workingmen's Association founded by
                Karl Marx, London and New York
                Tolstoi: War and Peace
                Octavia Hill begins London tenement-dwelling reforms
1865            U.S. Civil War ends
                Thirteenth amendment to US Constitution abolishes slavery
                Many freed blacks turn to farming, xxx, & music (minstrel
                shows, etc.)
                Lewis Carroll: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
                Atlantic cable completed
                First oil pipeline (in Pennsylvania)
                Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.
                First railroad sleeping cars (designed by Pullman), U.S.
                First train holdup (North Bend, Ohio)
                1700 die in explosion of "Sultana", Mississippi River
                First carpet sweeper
                Commons Preservation Society founded, U.K.
1866            London's first department store
1866    (-67)   Dostoevsky: Crime and Punishment
                "Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange
1867            First socialist member of N. Ger. Reichstag elected
                Marx: Das Kapital vol. 1
                Paris Universal Exposition introduces Japanese art to the west
                and much more
                Straus: "Blue Danube" waltz
                first bicycles manufactured (France?)
                reinforced concrete patented
                gold discovered in Wyoming
                Mark Twain: The Jumping Frog . . .
                Baudelaire dies, the last of the old crowd?
1868            Painters begin to paint in Impressionist style:
                Claude Monet (28): The River (impressionist)
                Bakunin founds Alliance internationale de la democratie sociale
                plastic celluloid invented
                Nobel ?invents? dynamite
                End of Shogunate civil wars in Japan, establishment of
                young Meiji emperor, Japan starts to modernize
1869            U.S. National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago
                Red River Rebellion in Canada
                John Stuart Mill: On The Subjection of Women
                Bret Harte: The Outcasts of Poker Flat
                British debtors' prisons abolished
                First postcards, Austria
1840-   1870    Population of Paris nearly doubled: restaurants, cafes,
                theaters, hotels, department stores
1870s           U.K. agricultural depression: many move to cities
1870            Louis Napoleon dismisses Haussman & loses war to Prussia
                Revolt in Paris and proclamation of Third Republic;
                siege of Paris by Prussia
                "Old Europe disappeared" wrote Henry Adams
                1870s: all of west goes on the gold standard (to 1930s)
                U.K.: Education Act  ?establishes public education?
                -> literacy of masses [when established in US?]
                Jules Verne: Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
1871            A people's government, the Commune, holds Paris for two months
                Arthur Rimbaud, 17 arrives in Paris
                Fors Clavigera: Ruskin's anti-industry letters (explain)
                Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man
                Charles L. Dodgson: Through the Looking Glass
                first large modern luxury ocean liner launched
1872            First Intl Conf [of Socialism] the Hague:
                Rus anarchist Michael Bakunin defeated & expelled by Karl Marx
                Samuel Butler: Erewhon (explain)
                Cezanne and Pissarro at Auvers-sur-Oise
                first 8 hour day rule adopted in US -
                in NYC after six weeks of strikes in 3 of NYC's major industrie
                Jules Verne: Around the World in 80 Days
1873            Rimbaud (19) writes A Season in Hell
                (couldn't afford to pay printer, so it stayed in the
                cellar of the print shop until 1901 or 2)
                Normalcy returns to France; many of Haussman's projects finishe
                Financial panic in Vienna (May) and New York (Sept)
                US depression starts with closing of Jay Cooke's banking house
                (Knights of Labor formed) (-1878)
1874            First impressionist exhibition, Paris
                (named after Monet's painting: "Impression: Sunrise")
                James Whistler (living in U.K.): "Nocturne in Black & Gold"
                first Hutterites (350 year old European communal group)
                immigrate to U.S., found communes which still exist
                (in 1983: 33,000 members in 300 settlements, 100 of them in US)
1875            Theosophical Society founded by Helena Blavatsky, N.Y.
                Mary Baker Eddy: Science and Health
                first California community, Fountain Grove, founded,
                2 miles n of Santa Rosa, Calif by Swedenborgian (to 1900)
1875-6          Workers attending Mutual Improvement Class, Sheffield
                decide to call themselves communist and to start communal
                farm: St. George's Farm
1876            First planned railway suburb: Bedford Park, west London
                Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
                Degas: La Moulin de la Galette  also saw as Renoir
1877            In depths of the depression, railroad workers strike
                in a dozen U.S. cities
                American Socialist Labor Party formed
                first Farmers Alliance formed
                Compromise of 1877: Southern electoral votes support Republican
                Presidential candidate (Hayes) in return for financial aid
                and continuation of the Southern power structure
                William Morris gets involved in politics as a Socialist
                Monet: Gare Saint-Lazare
                first public telephones (U.S.)
                Thomas Alva Edison invents phonograph
                Third impressionist exhibition, Paris
                Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings founded
1878            Microphone invented by David Hughes
                first bicycles in U.S. manufactured (A.A. Pope)
                first electric street lighting - London
                Auguste Renoir (d. 1919): Le Moulin de la Galette
                (but see 1876 - is this another one?)
                Edgar Degas (-1917):The Glass of Absinthe, Prima Ballerina
                First popular musical comedy?? Gilbert & Sullivan:
                H.M.S.  Pinafore
1879            Henry George: Progress and Poverty
                Paul Cezanne (d. 1906): Fruit Bowl, Glass, & Apples
1880            Thomas Alva Edison and J.W. Swan independently invent
                incandescent lamp (=first practical electric light bulb) 1880?
                London's first telephone exchange
                canned fruits and meats first appear in stores
                Carnegie develops first large steel furnace
                Captain Boycott, land agent in Mayo, Ireland is "boycotted"
                for refusing to accept rents fixed by his tenants
                Vincent Van Gogh begins painting
1880s           -- first generation born after 1848 reaches its 20s:
                Van Gogh, Freud, Shaw, Baden-Powell, Seurat, Mahler,
                Steiner, Debussy, Delius, Much, Touluse-Lautrec, Yeats --
                First land-use zoning: Modesto, California: attempt
                to control the spread of Chinese laundaries
                bicycling clubs, U.K.
1881            first of all cabarets "Chat Noir" founded in Paris
                Icaria Speranza community founded, Sonoma County, Calif
                Tuskegee Institute founded by Booker T. Washington
                Rational Dress Society, U.K.
1882            Edison designs first hydroelectric plant, Wisconsin
                Manet: "Bar aux Folies-Bergere"
                Nietzsche (28): Beyond Good and Evil
                Cezanne: "Self Portrait"  (wasn't this sort of pre-cubist?)
1883            The Bitter Cry of Outcast London: Andrew Mearns
                The Fellowship of the New Life, U.K.
                Fabian Society founded, London; Shaw joins 1884
                Nietzsche: Thus Spake Zarathustra
                first synthetic fiber produced (Eng. scientist Sir Joseph Swan)
                first skyscraper built in Chicago (ten stories)
                Buffalo Bill Cody organizes "Wild West Show"
                Bismarck introduces sickness insurance in Germany
                Howard Williams: The Ethics of Diet popularizes
                vegetarian diet in U.K.
1884            new recession U.S.
                George Eastman: sensitized roll film
                Gottlieb Daimler: internal combusion engine = automobile
                Georges Seurat (25): Bathers
                Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (20) moves to Montmartre
                National Footpaths Preservation Society, U.K.
                Art Workers' Guild, U.K.
                first regular comic strip, U.K. (Ally Sloper's Half Holiday)
1885            Karl Benz builds single-cylinder engine for motor car
                Gottlieb Daimler: motorcycle
                first English electrical tram car (Blackpool)
1886    Feb 8   London: meeting of 3-5000 unemployed workers in Trafalgar Squar
                met by 600 police officers, goes into riot
1886            1400+ strikes (1881-85, average 500/year)
1886    May     U.S.: nationwide strikes for 8-hour day
                Haymarket strike for 8 hour day & bombing, Chicago
1886            Farmers Alliance joins with Knights of Labor to become
                Populist movement
1886    fall    Henry George, running as Independent Labor Party nominee
                for mayor of New York, comes in second
1886            Kaweah Colony, site of present Yosemite Natl Park, Calif (to 19
                American Federation of Labor founded
                Eighth and last Impressionist Exhibition, Paris
                Apache leader Geronimo surrenders, Apaches sent to ?p.o.w.
                ?camps in Florida and Oklahoma
1887            Allotment Act: Indian tribal holdings broken up into
                individual holdings
                Fabian Society (led by Sidney Webb & Bernard Shaw):
                Facts for Socialists
                Van Gogh: "Moulin de la Galette"  huh??
1887    Oct 23  London: huge crowds gathering daily in Hyde Park and Trafalgar
                Square to hear speeches turns into mob
        Nov 12  Trafalgar Square police defeat
                Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward
1888            "police battle unemployed dmnstrtrs, Trafalgar Sq (same?)
                Nikola Tesla constructs A.C. electric motor
                George Eastman perfects "Kodak" box camera
                J.B. Dunlop invents pneumatic tire
                William Burroughs: commerically practical adding-list machine
                first of all beauty contests held: Spa, Belgium
                "Jack the Ripper" murders six women in London
                Port Sunlight model village
                Charles Ashbee starts Guild & School of Handicraft, Whitechapel
                Paul Gauguin: "The Vision After the Sermon"
                Van Gogh: "The Yellow Chair"
1888-89         Burlington strike
1889            London Dock Strike
                Oklahoma is opened to non-Indian settlement
                Punch card system created by H. Hollerith
                Moulin Rouge opens (Place Blanche)
                Edward Carpenter: Civilization: Its Cause and Cure (U.K.)
                Abbotsholme School founded, Derbyshire  (explain)
                Jan Addams sets up Hull House in immigrant slums of Chicago
                Vincent Van Gogh: Wheat Field and Cypress Trees
1889-   90      Methwold Fruit Farm Colony, Norfolk
1890            Standard Oil becomes the first U.S. industrial `Trust'
                Sherman Anti-Trust Law
                Mississippi becomes first Southern state to draw up
                new constitution to control who could vote
                Sitting Bull, Sioux leader, assassinated, Sioux sought
                refuge at Pine Ridge
        Dec     (last Indian massacre) Wounded Knee, South Dakota:
                U.S. army kills 300 of 350
                Vincent Van Gogh dies (37!?)
                U.K.: William Morris: News from Nowhere (describes socialist ut
                Jacob Riis (Danish sociologist studying U.S.): How the Other Ha
lf Lives
                Sir James Frazer: The Golden Bough
                Healthy and Artistic Dress Union, U.K.
                "Comic Cuts" and "Chips" comic papers, U.K. (-1953)
1890s           -- first generation born after birth of modern Europe 187O
                reaches its 20s: Dreiser, Mann, Proust, Gertrude Stein,
                Jack London, Rilke, Robert Frost --  "the Gay Nineties"
                Classic Bohemian society in Paris's Latin Quarter;
                Four Arts Balls held yearly;
                Toulouse-Lautrec, Jarry, Bonnard, Gide, Mallarme, etc.
                Railways permit middle class to move to countryside around
                London (& start of Back To The Land movement)
                first public bathing place on the river at Cambridge (men only)
                (1890s: diptheria, typhoid, smallpox & dysentery epidemics)
                Racist legislation in New Orleans forces Creoles, among
                the prosperous families of the city, into social &
                occupational contact with blacks; leads to changes in the
                music, as Creoles are educated & could read music
1891            first(?) U.S. miners strike, Tennessee
1891-3          Gauguin settles and paints in Tahiti
1892            strikes all over the U.S.:  iron & steel workers;
                gen strike New Orleans; railroad strike Buffalo NY;
                miners strike Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; Homestead steelworkers,
                U.S.: Populist candidates in presidential and other elections
                Diesel patents his internal combustion engine
                First automatic telephone switchboard
                Bedales School, Sussex
                Home Colonization Society founded
                Monet begins series of paintings of Rouen Cathedral (-1895)
                Toulouse-Lautrec: "At the Moulin Rouge"
                first newspaper comic strips in U.S. newspapers (S.F. Examiner)
1893            Depression (worst in US so far), & riots in California
                U.S. adopts single gold standard, basis of capital centralism
                Henry Ford builds his first car
                George Poore, M.D.: Essays in Rural Hygiene: introduces
                earth closet in Britain
                Edvard Munch: The Scream
                ART NOUVEAU appears in Europe
                Buddy Bolden (14) is "king" of black Nola music
1894            Coxey leads mass march of unemployed to Washington
                Pullman Strike, Pres. Cleveland sends troops to put down;
                Eugene Debs, who helped organized it, sent to prison for
                six months
                Altruria community, Sonoma County, Calif (to 1895)
                Populist Party gets 40% of congressional elections vote
                Aubrey Beardsley (22) drawings for Salome
1895            Rontgen discovers x-rays
                Marconi invents radio (=wireless) telgraph
                Maryland Colony, Essex: first intensive agricultural
                coloney for city market (lasted 10+ years)
                Bouesville (ck spell) model village (Cadbury chocolate)
                first public film show, Paris (Hotel Scribe)
                H.G. Wells: The Time Machine
                Art Nouveau style predominates
1895-6          Bohemian "Les Jeunes" in San Francisco publish
                journal "The Lark"
1896            Supreme Court ruling against Homer Adolph Plessy for refusing
                to occupy a seat in the colored car of a Louisiana train
                sets up the "separate but equal" doctrine
                Populists enticed into Democratic Party to elect
                William Jennings Bryan, who lost anyway, to Republican
                William McKinley, supported by the first massive money campaign
                "La Boheme" - opera by Puccini based on Murger's work,
                opens in Turin, popularizes bohemian life
                "Die Jugend" & "Simplicissimus" Ger. art magazines, Munich
                Hearst starts first comics newspaper supplement
when?           discovery of gold in Black Hills of Dakota brings vast
                new influx of white settlers into Sioux territory
1896            Sioux and Cheyenne defeat Custer at the battle of
                Little Big Horn; later (when?) defeated at Tongue River Valley
1896-7          Purleigh Colony, Essex (commune) -1898
                Whiteway Colony, Cotswalds (proposed to be deeded to God) -1901
1897            Royal Automobile Club founded, London
                Vienna: Klimt, Schiele and others: first Secessionist exhibitio
                William Morris: Forecasts of the Coming Century (posth.)
                (get this)
                Henri Rousseau: "Sleeping Gypsy"
                In the wake of the opening of a large U.S. Navy base in
                New Orleans, Alderman Charles Storyville sponsors an
                ordinance to limit prostitution to one area of the city,
                bordered by the Mississippi River, Perdido & Basin Streets;
                it is nicknamed "Storyville" and becomes the center for
                the development of ragtime piano (Jelly Roll Morton, etc.)
1898            U.S. fights Spanish-American War
                photographs first taken using artificial light
                Paris Metro opened
                Ebenezer Howard: Garden Cities of To-Morrow proposes
                suburban planned developments with their own employment
                UK: Folk Song Society founded
                Aubrey Beardsley dies (26)
                H.G. Wells: The War of the Worlds
                Alfred Jarry: Ubu Roi
                The MacKintosh School of Art, Glasgow: art nouveau architecture
                Peter Kropotkin: Fields, Factories and Workshops (explain)
                First ragtime song published 1897, by twelve months later
                the first dance craze (?Scott Jopline's Maple Leaf Rag -
                sold 1 million copies in U.S. alone)
1899            first magnetic recording of sound
                London County Council buys land for first suburb, connected by
                electric railway (Totterdown Fields, opened 1903),
                meant to relieve crowding in inner city slums
1890-   1914    Invention of: the telephone, cheap camera, phonograph,
                rotary press & linotype, photoengraving, railroad
                air-brake & sleeping car, electric street car, skyscraper,
                suspension bridge, motor vehicles, airplane, typewriter,
                bicycle, electric light, motion picture, public library,
                scientific medicine, department store, ocean liner,
                refrigeration, elecvator, sewing machine, gas stove,
                steam heating, hot running water  + traffic light
                Also: Art Nouveau: Vienna, London, Paris,
                Munich, Barcelona, Glasgow, San Francisco
1900            Sigmund Freud: Interpretation of Dreams
                L. Frank Baum: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
                The Cake Walk becomes the most fashionable dance
                Silent Film era begins
1900-2          214 Negro lynchings
1900s           Start and growth of the Wandervogel movement in Germany
1901            First U.S. legislation to set up building codes,
                meant to improve living conditions in big city slums
                First London housing co-op founded: Ealing Tenants Limited
                Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall
                to Newfoundland
                William Maybach, technical director at the Daimler works,
                constructs the first Mercedes car
                J.P. Morgan organizes U.S. Steel Corporation
                Frank Norris: The Octopus  (exposes rr monopolies)
                Rudolf Steiner founds anthroposophy
                H.G. Wells: Anticipations predicts car-only motorways (get this
                Ragtime jazz develops in U.S.
1902            Coal strike in U.S., May-Oct
                William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience
                Enrico Caruso makes his first phonograph recording
1903            Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully fly a powered airplane
                (first manned flight)
                First Garden City started, built by co-operative association:
                Letchworth, England (north of London)
1904            War between Japan and Russia - first time U.S. gets
                involved as a world power
                economic recession
                New York City opens first subway segment
                10-hour work day: France
                first radio transmission of music (Austria)
                first practical photoelectric cell (Elster)
                first ultraviolet lamps
                Rolls-Royce Company founded
                first telgraphic transmission of photographs
                New York policeman arrests woman for smoking cigarette in publi
                Jean Jaures issues socialist newspaper "L'Humanite", Paris
                Ivan Pavlov wins Nobel prize (explain)  ?wrong?
                Freud: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
                Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
                James Barrie: Peter Pan
                Herman Hesse (27): Peter Camenzind (first book)
1905    June    Niagara Movement first meeting, called by W.E.B. Du Bois
        June    I.W.W. (Wobblies) founded, Chicago, by William Haywood,
                Mother Jones, Father Thomas J. Hagerty, Lucy Parsons,
                Daniel De Leon, & Eugene V. Debs and 200 others
1905            street fighting in Petersburg crushed by police
                Sinn Fein Party founded, Dublin
                Jack London runs for mayor of ??
                First Fauve exhibit (Paris) (Matisse, Roualt +)
                Bohemians of Carmel-by-the-Sea, Calif.: George Sterling,
                Jack London, Mary Austin, etc. roughing it
                Jack London: The Road - about hobo life
                Hermann Hesse: Unterm Rad
                first regular cinema established (Pittsburgh, Pa),
                Alternative schools start, U.K.: St. Christopher's
                (near Letchworth Garden City)
                Albert Einstein (26): Special Theory of Relativity
                first neon light signs
                Nipsell's Farm, Essex: intensive cultivation
                Debussy: "Golliwogs Cakewalk"

1906            Nightshift work for women internationally forbidden
                First radio program of voice and music, U.S.
                First parkway started, Long Island: limited-access highway
                designed for private-car traffic only, and landscaped
                Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (Chicago stockyard)
                -> U.S. Pure Food and Drugs Act
                Jack London: The Iron Heel
                F.A. Morton: The Simple Life on Four Acres
                (fourth in Cottage Farm Series by simple-life publisher
                A.C. Fifield)
                Buddy Bolden, 28, the first "king" of New Orleans Storyville
                music, stops playing
1907            Depression(?) in US:
                Panic of 1907 causes run on banks stopped by J.P. Morgan's
                importation of $100 million in gold from Europe
                Pres. Theodore Roosevelt bars Japanese from immigrating to U.S.
                First suburb specifically based on the automobile:
                Country Club District, Kansas City (& at low density)
                Louis Lumiere develops process for color photography
                Alice B. Toklas & Gertrude Stein move to Europe
                First Cubist exhibition, Paris
                Pablo Picasso (25) : "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon"
                Claude Monet painting water lilies at Giverny
                Henri Rousseau: "The Snake Charmer"
                Montessori [explain]
                Baden-Powell founds Boy Scouts
1908    August  Springfield, Illinois: white woman's accusation of Negro
                rape (later retracted) sets off riot which destroys Negro
                businesses and ransacks Negro homes; Negro barber and
                84 year old Negro man, married to white woman 30
                years, lynched; 5000 militia sent in to suppress
1908            First steel and glass building (Berlin factory)
                General Motors Corporation formed
                Ford Motor Company produces first Model "T"
                Fauves works first shown in U.S.
                Matisse coins the term "Cubism"
                Gertrude Stein: Three Lives
                Isadora Duncan becomes popular interpreter of dance
                "Ashcan School" founded - realistic portrayals of life:
                Robert Henri, John Sloan, George Luks, William Glackens,
                George Bellows, Everett Shinn
1909            Commercial manufacture of Bakelite, to be used in plastics
                Spokane, Washington: 600 Wobblies arrested for free speech
                Futurist manifesto published, Italy
                Vassily Kandinsky's first abstract paintings
                Henri Matisse: Harmony in Red (Red Room)
                Sergei Diaghilev: first Ballet Russe presentation, Paris
1910            NAACP formed
                first Socialist elected to Congress
                Henri Rousseau: The Dream  (& dies)
                Erik Satie starts composing again
                Alfred Stieglitz's 291 Gallery, NY
                Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture becoming well known
                the "week-end" becomes popular in the U.S.
                South American tango popular in Europe and U.S.

1910s           Paris: Utrillo, Apollinaire, Braque, Modigliani, Derain,
                Picasso, Gertrude Stein, Andre Gide, Brancusi, Lipchitz,
                Legere, Soutine, Chagall
                The hobble skirt, which could daringly expose 5-8
                inches of ankle.

1911            Taylor publishes book on "scientific management" of labor
                Fire at the unionized Triangle Shirtwaist Company, NY
                Thousands arrested in Fresno, Calif free speech fight
                and free speech fight in Aberdeen, Washington
                First 12 states pass workmen's compensation laws
                73 Socialist mayors & 1200 Socialist city officials in
                340 cities elected
                term "Expressionism" first used for Fauves
                T.S. Eliot: The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock
                Hermann Hesse: Journey to India
                Picasso & Braque start painting fragmented forms
                1910-11 First use of `jazz' to describe Nola music style
                Heyday of Nola jazz, including Freddie Keppard, Edward
                `Kid' Ory, and especially Joe `King' Oliver (26),
                who merged hot music with the smoothness of the Creole bands.
                Louis Armstrong (12) starts visits to Storyville to hear them.
                Sidney Bechet, age 14, starts to play publicly with Bunk
                Johnson's band.
        May 1   election of Socialist governments in over 20 U.S. cities
                (plus Eugene Debs gets 900,000 votes for President)
                Chinese Revolution - Sun Yat-sen becomes first president
1912    Jan-Mar IWW helps with American Woolen Company strikes, Lawrence, Mass;
                children sent to families in New York City to be taken care of
                San Diego Wobbly free-speech arrests
                Women Suffrage parades +
                79 Socialist majors & larger number of Demo & Rep reform
                mayors elected throughout the US
                Polish chemist coins the term "vitamine"
                Cloud chamber photographs detect protons and electrons
                S.S. Titanic sinks on maiden voyage: 1,513 drowned
                C.G. Jung: The Theory of Psychoanalysis
                Picasso & Braque start cubist collage
                Marcel Duchamp: "The Bride"
                Kandinsky (Munich) & Delauney & Kupka (Paris): abstraction
                Stravinsky: "Sacre du Printemps" (riot at ?Paris? premiere)
                Arnold Schonberg (Vienna): 12-tone ?scale?

1912    -17     Greenwich Village: John Reed, xx
                at Mabel Dodge's Wednesday evenings salons
                & ("before & after WWI") Gertrude Stein's Saturday
                gatherings in Paris: Sylvia Beach, Sherwood Anderson,
                Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, xx

1913    June    Paterson Strike Pageant at Madison Square Garden, NYC
        Sept    Colorado coal strike starts
1913            Henry Ford brings together techniques to begin first
                mass-production plant (for automobiles), Highland Park (Mich??)
                Federal income tax introduced in US through 16th Amendment
                Marcel Proust: first part of A la recherche du temps perdu
                Matisse invents the term "Cubism"
                Intl Exhibition of Modern Art at NY Armory introduces
                introduces modernism to US (cubists & futurists
                including Duchamp: "Nude Descending a Staircase";
                Marcel Duchamp starts creating "readymades" including
                the "Bicycle Wheel" and the "Bottle Rack"
                D.H. Lawrence (28): Sons and Lovers
                The foxtrot
                first Chaplin movies
                Albert Schweitzer opens hospital in Lambarene, French Congo
                Apaches allowed to move to reservations in Oklahoma & New Mexic

1914    April   Ludlow Massacre ends Colorado coal strike
                Irving Berlin  ?first pop?
                Giorgio De Chirico: "Mystery and Melancholy of a Street"
                Llano del Rio socialist community, Antelope Valley, Calif (to 1
                WORLD WAR I starts in Europe

1915            Joe Hill executed in Utah
                Negro migration from the south (some 90% still there) begins,
                as the war cuts off flow of immigration to the north
                and work is available in munitions and other factories
                First transcontinental phone call
                Patrick Geddes: Cities in Evolution - predicts megalopolis
                Margaret Sanger jailed for writing Family Limitation,
                first book on birth control
                Classic New Orleans jazz heyday
                Francis Picabia & Duchamp's first trip to US (NY);
                meet Alfred Stieglitz & Picabia & Man Ray: readymades
                Charlie Chaplin: The Tramp
                (Tetanus epidemics in the trenches)

1916    spring  Verdun
        summer  San Francisco Preparedness Parade bomb kills 9 people;
                Tom Mooney & Warren Billings arrested & spend 20 years in priso
                Margaret Sanger joins in opening first birth control clinic
                Jazz sweeps the U.S.
1916    Feb 5   Dada born as conscientious objectors meet in Zurich:
                Hugo Ball (German poet & philosopher); Tristan Tzara
                (Romanian poet); Marcel Janco (Romanian poet and painter);
                Hans Arp (Alsatian, later a sculptor) - first "Cabaret
                Voltaire" at Hollandische Malerei bar.
        Jun 23  Cabaret Voltaire shut down by public demand.
(1916           Rabindrnath Tagore visits US)
                James Joyce: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

1917            Socialist gains in elections
        Apr 6   US enters WORLD WAR I
        summer  Socialist antiwar meetings draw 5000, 10,000, 20,000
        June    Espionage Act
        July    First open urban riot ?involving black & white youths?: East St
        July 1  Boston: 8000 anti-war marchers
        when?   The Masses and other periodicals containing antiwar
                articles banned from the mails
                65,000 conscientious objectors; 900 imprisoned under
                Espionage Act; 450 arrested in Green Corn anti-draft Rebellion
        Sept    Dept of Justice raids on 48 IWW meeting halls;
                165 Wobblies arrested for conspiracy to hider the draft
        Nov     Russian Bolshevik/Communist "October" Revolution
        when?   Four women arrested for picketing White House for woman's
                suffrage sentenced to six months in jail
                I.W.W. demos against war result in raids on their offices
                New Orleans Storyville brothels section shut by Secretary of
                Navy; increases trend of blacks, including musicians, already
                heading north due to lynchings (3,600 in the south and
                parts of the midwest since the Civil War) and a southern
                economic depression; many wind up in Chicago & other
                northern cities. Sidney Bechet (20) joins a tour that goes thru
                Chicago and stays there.
                Original Dixieland Jazz Band (all-white musicians) opens in
                New York and first ever jazz recordings made by them

1918    early   Picabia in Zurich meets the Dadaists
        June    Eugene V. Debs sentenced to 10 years for violating the
                Espionage (and sedition) Act (commuted 1921)
        Oct-Nov street fighting in Berlin: November revolution -
                councils of workers, soldiers, intellectuals take over governin
                summer: Berlin Dada gives numerous performances trying
                to influence Germans to (not give in)  [Greil Marcus]
                but ?Weimer Republic ?gradually takes over
        Nov     WORLD WAR I ends: 8.5 mill dead, 21 mill wounded,
                7.5 mill prisoners and missing
                +worldwide influenza epidemic, kills 22 million by 1920

                Llano del Rio community, Louisiana founded (to 1938)
                Marcel Duchamp: Tu m'
                Aldous Huxley (24): The Defeat of Youth
                Pinero: "The Freaks, an Idyll of Suburbia" London  whaa?
                Joe `King' Oliver and Freddie Keppard join Sidney Bechet (21)
                in Chicago, at the Royal Gardens & the Dreamland Cafe;
                1918-20 Stravinsky writes 3 pieces based on black music

1919    Jan 5   Spartacists, led by Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg,
                lead revolt to renew November revolution - lasts 6 days
                (in Berlin); when? Rosa Luxembourg assassinated (49)
        Jan 16  Prohibition (18th amendment) ratified by 36th state (starts 192
        Feb     Seattle general strike
        when?   Eugene V. Debs and Scott Nearing tried under
                the Espionage and Sedition Laws for anti-war positions,
                Debs sent to penitentiary at 63 for 32 months (see 1918)
19      July 27 Chicago beach riot involving white & black youths: one of
                bloodiest in US history: 15 white, 23 Negroes dead; 537 injured
                [Jazz history book said "summer of black riots" - see below]
        Sept    Allegeny County (Penn?) steel mill strike
        Dec 21  Palmer Raids: 249 aliens rounded up and set to U.S.S.R.,
                including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman

                Recession(?) in U.S.
                Amer. steel strike til Jan 1920; NY dock workers strike
                Over 70 Negroes lynched, including 10 soldiers just back from
                the war; 25 riots in the summer (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,
                Georgia, Mississippi, Washington D.C., and Chicago - 13 day
                riot - first big Northern race-riot (36 killed, 536 injured)
                Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association has
                two million members
                [blacks, back from WWI, but still not treated as equals]
                League of Nations first meeting
                UK: Addison Act provides for building of millions of subsidized
                dwellings in suburbs, all dependent on London for employment
                Robert Goddard publication starts American rocketry
                First nonstop flight across Atlantic
                Jazz arrives in Europe: Sidney Bechet (22) makes first tour
                Hermann Hesse: Demian
                Proust starts publication of La Recherche du Temps Perdu
                Picabia & Duchamp to Paris; spread Dadaism to Andre Breton,
                Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Paul Eluard
                Bauhaus school of design founded, Germany

1920    Jan     4000 aliens arrested & deported
        spring  two friends of man among those arrested in January
                arrested for carrying guns in self defense: Sacco & Vanzetti
                imprisoned for 7 years, electrocuted Aug 1927
        Aug 26  19th amendment, giving women the vote, ratified

1920            KKK revived and spread North
                unemployment drops
                wealth concentrates to the wealthiest
                Bomb explosion in Wall St kills 35, wounds 130
1920            The Great Red Scare
1920??          1921?? immigration to U.S. cut off
1920            Unemployment insurance introduced in U.K. and Austria
                Adolf Hitler announces his 25-point program in Munich
                First  (?hmmm) commercial radio broadcasts
1920            Sinclair Lewis: Main Street
                Bertrand Russell: The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism
                Jan: Picabia & Tristan Tzara to Paris
                Big Year of Dada, & breakup (ended 1922)
                First Intl Dada Festival, Berlin, including
                Duchamp's Mona Lisa with beard & goatee; Max Ernst +
                ["Visitors to exh of Dadaist Art in Cologne are allowed to
                smash paintings"]
                Duchamp returns to NY
                First blues recorded (by Mamie Smith)

1920s           US: flappers, Isadora Duncan (d. 1927)
                U.S.: for the first time suburbs growing faster (2x as fast)
                than, and by almost as many people as, cities
                & transit systems for first time report
                falling ridership and loss of profits
                1920-25 Half of US literature written in Greenwich Village
                Paris: Hemingway, Stein, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Anderson +
                First (Freudian) psychiatric clinic opened (Berlin),
                International Journal of Psycho-Analysis started

1921    May     Race-riot, Tulsa, Oklahoma (50 whites, 200 Negros killed)
                Saccho and Vanzaetti found guilty of murder
                KKK activities become violent throughout southern U.S.
                German reparation payments set; rapid fall of Ger mark,
                inflation starts; Hitler's storm troopers (SA) begin
                terrorizing political opponents
                First fast-food outlet (White Castle chain, Kansas City)
                Swiss physician M.O. Bircher-Benner recommends the intake
                of more uncooked foods in The Fundaments of Our Nutrition
                Summerhill School founded (explain)
                Ulysses trial (US v The Little Review) - lost, but
                The Little Review continues publishing excerpts anyway
                D.H. Lawrence: Women in Love
                Aldous Huxley (27): Chrome Yellow
                Pablo Picasso: Three Musicians

1922            Stockmarket "boom" starts in US after depression
                New KKK, assuming the name of the post-Civil War organization,
                gains political power in U.S.
                Gandhi sentenced to six years prison for civil
                disobedience  (for what was this?)
                Mussolini's March on Rome & forms Fascist government
                Dr. Marie Stopes holds mtgs in London advocating birth control
                Joe `King' Oliver calls Louis Armstrong (22) to join his band i
n Chicago
                T.S. Eliot: The Wasteland
                e.e. cummings: first book of poetry
                James Joyce: Ulysses [written 1914-21];
                Sylvia Beach publishes in Paris, banned in U.S. & U.K.
                ["U.S. Post Office burns 500 copies upon arrival in U.S."]
                Hermann Hesse: Siddhartha
                (Charleston dance first seen in a show "Liza" in Harlem)

1923            Teapot Dome oil scandal
                World's first car-based shopping centre started:
                Country Club Plaza in Country Club District, Kansas City
                U.S. traffic congestion in some cities so bad that there is
                talk of barring cars from downtown streets
                First birth-control clinic opens in NY
                200,000 attend tri-state conclave of KKK, Kokomo, Ind.;
                martial law established in Oklahoma for protection from KKK
                Value of German darks drops against dollar;
                Hitler attempts coup d'etat
                "Bix" Beiderbecke organizes jazz band in Chicago
                (?including Tommy Dorsey)
                (April) first recordings by a black jazz band:
                Joseph "King" Oliver's band; also "Jelly Roll" Morton records
                Louis Armstrong leading the start of The Jazz Age in Chicago
                (Edna St. Vincent Millay poetry - Pulitzer Prize)
                Duchamp returns to Paris, stops doing art (-> chess)
                Cotton Club opens, NYC's Harlem (by white gangsters for
                white after-theater guests): 142nd St & Lenox Ave.

        July    Dada ends with a performance of Tristan Tzara's play
                "Le Coeur a() Gas in Paris when a battle erupts
                between the followers of Tzara & the followers of Breton,
                and police are called in.
                [Associated w Dada: Kurt Schwitters, Francis Picabia,
                Philippe Soupault, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Man
                Ray, and Andre Breton - besides the founders.)

1924            U.S. bill limits immigrants, excludes all Japanese
                J. Edgar Hoover appointed director FBI
                Hitler sentenced to 5 years; released after 8 months
                Gandhi fasts to protest Hindu/Moslem feuds
                Le Corbusier: The City of Tomorrow  (saw as 1929 also)
                Insecticides used for first time
                Big Year of Surrealism (First Manifesto): led by Andre Breton,
                w Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Paul Delvaux, Joan Miro, Rene Magritt
                (Black Bottom dance first seen in show: `Dinah' in Harlem)
                Mid-day dresses/skirts

1925            (John T.) Scopes trial, Tennessee (H.L. Mencken &
                Clarence Darrow - vs. William Jennings Bryan)
                First woman governor - Nellie Tayloe Ross, Wyoming
                Hitler reorganizes Nazi Party (27,000 members), publishes
                Mein Kampf vol. 1
1925    Aug     A. Philip Randolph heads new Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porter
1925            La Revue Negre, with Josephine Baker (20), starts new
                Paris jazz rage: "Jazz, Chicago style, arrives in Europe"
                The Charleston (invented ca 1904, 1907) seen by whites in
                Broadway show "Runnin Wild" & becomes dance craze
                [or at least at the Cotton Club, intro'd by Eleida Webb; - 1927
                Charlie Chaplin: The Gold Rush; Garbo
                Franz Kafka: The Trial  published (posth.) (d.1924)
                F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby
                Benton MacKay: `The New Exploration' in Survey magazine
                predicts that America will have to become more European;
                also develops the idea of the townless highway, or `motorway'
                Scotch inventor John Logie Baird transmits recognizable
                human features by television

1925-   1950    Golden Age of Radio

1926            Goddard fires first liquid fuel rocket
                Werner Heisenberg further develops the quantum theory
                (is this the uncertainty principle?)
                First vitamin (B) isolated in pure form
                Kodak produces first 16mm movie film
                Supreme Court establishes constitutionality of zoning
                Fascist youth organizations in Italy & Germ founded
                (co-opting Wandervogel movement?)
                Jelly Roll Morton's and Duke Ellington's first records appear
                Black Bottom dance seen in Broadway show "Scandels of 1926"
                Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises
                Franz Kafka: The Castle published (posth.)
                A.A. Milne: Winnie the Pooh
                Duchamp's The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors Even
                shown at the Brooklyn Museum in a "definitive stage of incomple

1927            Sacco and Vanzetti executed
                "Black Friday" in Germany: economic system collapses
                Socialists riot in Vienna/general strike following
                acquittal of Nazis for political murder
                Building 85% of world's cars, US has 1 for every 5 Americans
                or 1 for approximately 2 families (?= half families had cars?)
                (is this the height of 20s car ownership?)
                Lindbergh flies "Spirit of St. Louis" monoplane, NY to Paris
                I.P. Pavlov: Conditioned Responses
                Josephine Baker is Parisian star
                The first talkie film (Al Jolson in "The Jazz Singer")
                Hermann Hesse: Steppenwolf
                Kafka: Amerika  (posth.)
                Sinclair Lewis: Elmer Gantry
                Upton Sinclair: Oil!
                Marcel Proust: A la recherche du temps perdu (posth.)
                Isadora Duncan dies
                Edward Hopper: "Manhattan Bridge" (Amer. modern)
                Slow fox trot

1928            First suburb planned with clustered housing in neighborhood
                units unbroken by traffic streets: Radburn, New Jersey
                Planner Edward Bassett coins term `freeway' (New York Times)
                Margaret Mead: Coming of Age in Samoa
                G.B. Shaw: The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Soc & Cap
                Aldous Huxley: Point Counterpoint
                (Gershwin: "An American in Paris" - NY)
                D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover published
                in Italy but banned in U.S.
                Georgia O'Keeffe: "Nightwave" (Amer. abstract painting)
                Dali to Paris & joins Surrealists (main work 1929-34)
                First Mickey Mouse films (Disney)
                First color motion pictures exhibited by Eastman
                First scheduled television broadcasts (NY)  (? see 1939)
                J.L. Baird demonstrates color t.v.
                First restricted use of teleprinters & teletypewriters
                Amelia Earhardt is first woman to fly across Atlantic
                Charleston is "worldwide" dance craze
1928-33         New housing construction drops 95%

1929            St. Valentine's Day Massacre: six notorious Chicago gangsters
                machine-gunned to death by rival gang
        spring  textile strikes through Carolinas and Tennessee
        Oct 28  U.S. Stock Exchange collapses (Black Friday)
                starting Great Depression, world economic crisis
        Oct 29  N.Y. Stock market drops xxx points (Blue Monday);
                U.S. securities lose 26 billion dollars in value
                First Howard Johnsons (Massachusetts)
                Talkies kill silent films
                Ernest Hemingway: A Farewell to Arms
                Eric Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front best seller
                Robert Graves: Goodby to All That (important?)
                Second Surrealist Manifesto
                Virginia Woolf: A Room of One's Own
                Georgia O'Keeffe: "Black Flower and Blue Larkspur"
                End of 1920s- NY Harlem (Negro) ballrooms: Small's Paradise,
                the Renaissance, the Savoy: Lindy Hop - start of r&r rhythms & 
fast tempo
                Cab Calloway is a hit at NYC's (Harlem) Savoy Ballroom

1930            Photoflash bulb; picture telegraphy service Brit-Germ
                Hermann Hesse: Narcissus & Goldmund
                Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt (Nobel Prize)
                Sigmund Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents
                Henri Matisse: "The Dance" (Fr expressionism) (reck: started
                much earlier)
                Paris: Alberto Giacometti (Swiss) creates first Surrealist
                object `Suspended Ball'
                Bunuel & Dali: L'age d'Or (film)
                Piet Mondrian (i.e.)
                Skirt hemlines plunge to 8 inches from the floor (mid-calf)

1930s           Paris: Miller, Nin  +     Durrell??
                San Francisco: Black Cat Cafe
                (Marx Brothers)
                when? Duke Ellington & then Cab Calloway hit at Cotton Club

1931            Bankruptcy of Ger. Danatbank leads to closure of all Ger banks
                Ger millionaires support Nazi Party (800,000 members)
                Al "Scarface" Capone, gangster, jailed for income tax evasion
                First woman elected to U.S. Senate- Hattie Caraway (D-Ark)
                Empire State Building completed, NY
                Dali: "Persistence of Memory"
                Clark Gable begins Hollywood career
                Chaplin: "City Lights"
                Edward Hopper: "Route 6, Eastham"
                Sidney Bechet settled in Paris

1932            330 self-help organizations in 37 states, with 300,000 members
                Ger elections: Nazi Party majority in Reichstag
                Hitler quote   get this
        MyJn    Bonus March on Washington, troops drive out
        Nov     FDR ?elected, but Communist Party candidate gets more than a mi
llion votes
                Reconstruction Finance Corporation est by Congress to lend
                to rebuild US economy: 1.5 billion by year's end [before FDR?]
                Japan begins undercutting world market prices
                Hermann Hesse: A Journey to the East
                Black Elk Speaks: John Neihardt
                Brave New World: Aldous Huxley
                Louis-Ferdinand Celine: Voyage au bout de la nuit
                Childbirth Without Fear: Grantly Dick-Read
                Giacometti: The Palace at 4 A.M. created
                Calder: mobiles exhibited
                Shirley Temple's first film
                Amelia Earhart first woman to fly solo across Atlantic

1933            worst? year of Great Depression [when do soup kitchns etc start
                Hitler - Ger Chancellor; book-burning, concentration camps,
                boycott of Jews
                FDR's hundred days of legislation: Agr Adjustment and Fed Emerg
 Relief Acts,
                National Recovery Act and Farm Credit Act,
                Public Works Administration (PWA),
                Home Owners Loan Corporation (first low interest mortgages
                - to stem farm foreclosures),
                US Securities Act: requires more info provided to investors
        Apr 19  US goes off gold standard
        Dec 5   Prohibition repeal ratification completed (21st amendment)
        Dec 6   James Joyce's Ulysses finally declared legal
                and publishable in U.S.
                Dorothy Day & others start Catholic Worker newspaper,
                New York City; House of Hospitality opened "soon after"
                C.G. Jung: Modern Man in Search of a Soul
                Ralph Borsodi: Flight From The City
                Kandinsky and Klee leave Ger for Fr & Switz respectively;
                60,00 other artists (authors, actors, painters, musicians) leav
e Ger 1933-39
                George Orwell: Down and Out in Paris and London
                Gertrude Stein: The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
                Mae West: "She Done Him Wrong"

1930s   early   Hollywood Production Code drives sex off the screen (after?)

1933-   42      Alan Lomax records Leadbelly, Jelly Roll Morton, Sonny Terry
                & Brownie McGhee, many other folk & jazz musicians

1934    Jan 1   Prohibition ends in US
                US Fed Farm Mortgage Corp; Civil Wks Emerg Relief Act
                FDR's Emergency Relief Appropriation Acts
                Federal Housing Authority (FHA) - powers to insure long-term
                mortgage loans by private lenders for home construction
        spring  West Coast longshoremen's strike
                General Strikes: San Francisco, Minneapolis
        fall    Southern textile workers strike spreads throughout U.S.
                Upton Sinclair runs for governor for California + EPIC
                [and explain about worker co-ops]
1934            Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer published ?in Paris
                (by Jack Kahane, Obelisk Press) but banned in the U.S.
                Jean Cocteau: La Machine infernale  important?
                Lindy Hop takes to the air with swing music

1935    Mar 19  Harlem uprising
        April   Resettlement Administration given power to use eminent
                domain to buy land for build new cities
                Wagner Act sets up National Labor Relations Board
                U.S. Social Security Act; Wealth Tax Act
                Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized by John L.
                Wilderness Society founded
                William `Count' Basie introduces Kansas City music at the
                Apollo Theatre in NYC: Jazz becomes `swing': easy,
                uncluttered, rhythmically flexible
                The Village Vanguard opened by Max Gordon in a cellar at
                178 Seventh Ave, NY as a jazz center

1936            48 sit-down strikes, beginning with Akron Firestone plant, Flin
t Fisher Body plant
                (Boulder/Hoover Dam completed)   & what else big projects?
        July    SPANISH CIVIL WAR to 1939
                (Keynes - which is his important work?)
                London & NY Surrealist shows, including "Object",
                a fur-covered cup/plate & spoon by Meret Oppenheim
                Kenneth Patchen: first book (of poetry) published
                Chaplin: Modern Times
                Salvador Dali: Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition
 of Civil War
                Mondriaan: "Composition in Red and Blue"
        Aug     Benny Goodman debuts at the Palomar Ballroom, NY:
                swing music really takes off
                "Professor Longhair" invents rock & roll beat one night,
                while playing in New Orleans' Vieux Carre

1937            US: 477 sit-down strikes; gov statistics: half mill Amers
                involved in sitdown strikes bet Sept 36-May 37
                Bonneville Dam & Golden Gate Bridge opened
                SPANISH CIVIL WAR cont.
                Japanese start skirmishes which lead to war with China
                US Sup Court rules in favor of minimum wage law for women
                First jet engine built
                UK: BBC starts offering regular television programming
                to 14,000 initial subscribers
                Sartre (age): La Nausee
                Richard Wright: Black Boy
                Picasso: "Guernica" (mural for Paris World Expo)
                Robert Johnson, legendary blues musician, dies (25)

1930s   late    Village Vanguard: Leonard Bernstein, Burl Ives, Pearl Bailey +

1938            SPANISH CIVIL WAR cont.
                Hitler invades Austria (Mar 14) [and Czechoslovakia ??]
                Nov. 10 Kristalnacht pogrom
                Recession in US (starts with Wall Street decline in 1937)
                Congress passes Fair Labor Standards Act, national child
                labor law - first to be upheld by the Supreme Court
                (?=?) Forty hour work week established in US
                US Sup Court rules U of Missouri Law School must admit
                Negroes because of lack of other facilities in the area
                International Exhibit of Surrealism, Paris
                Jean Paul Sartre: Nausea  [must be the Eng translation]
                Antonin Artaud: The Theater and Its Double
                Radio production by Orson Welles of H.G. Wells'
                War of the Worlds causes panic
                Benny Goodman's band brings new style of jazz (heyday 1938,39)
                Lambeth Walk - fashionable dance
        Dec     Cafe Society opened at 2 Sheridan Square, NYC by Barney
                Josephson as first integrated night spot
                Billy Holiday (24) opened it and remained nine months
                20,000 television sets in service in NY City

1939            Stalin-Hitler non-agression Pact
        when?   SPANISH CIVIL WAR ends
        Apr 30  "First scheduled telecast" - US: FDR speaking at NY World's Fai
r opening
                but within months, television devpmt stopped for 7 yrs due to t
he war
1939    Sept 1  Hitler invades Poland
        Sept 3  Britain and France declare war on Germany: WORLD WAR II starts
1939            Pan American Airways begins regularly scheduled commercial
                flights between US and Europe
                Marion Anderson, barred from singing at the Daughters of the
                American Revolution Hall, Washington DC, is invited by Eleanor
                Roosevelt and others to sing at the Lincoln Memorial; 75,000 at
                James Joyce: FInnegans Wake
                John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath
                Yves Tanguy to US
                (movies: Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind)
                Pete Seeger drops out of Harvard, entertains striking
                dairy farmers, meets Alan Lomax and Woody Guthrie

1930s           Negro lynchings average fifty a year
1930s           US births, dropping lower and lower since industrialization
                drop to the lowest ever (only 7.3% increase in
                population of US 1930 to 1940, including .5 mill immigrants)
                US pop 1940: 132 million      (Start to rise 1940-43)

1940            WORLD WAR II:Hitler invades Denmark, Norway, Holland (May), Bel
gium, France
                US: Smith Act criminalizes advocating to overthrow the
                government by force and violence
        when?   Selective Service bill introduced
                First big birth rise: 9 months after introduction
        Sept?   Selective Service Act passed
        Sept 27 FDR meets with A. Philip Randolph, president of
                Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; Walter White, executive
                secretary NAACP; and T. Arnold Hill, acting secretary
                of the National Urban League to discuss employment
                discrimination, particularly desegregation of the
                armed forces. Army: 5,000 Negroes out of 269,023;
                Navy: 4,000 out of 160,997 - employed as messboys and labourers
        Nov     FDR re-elected, in first election with significant Negro voters
                First U.S. inter-city motorway: Pennsylvania Turnpike
                & LA builds first motorway: Arroyo Seco Parkway
                (now part of Pasadena Freeway) (opens Dec)
                Duke Ellington becomes know as composer and jazz pianist
                Ernest Hemingway: For Whom the Bell Tolls
                Arthur Koestler: Darkness at Noon
                Thomas Wolfe: You Can't Go Home Again (posth.)
                Eugene O'Neill: Long Day's Journey into Night" written - import
                Salvador Dali to NY
                Chaplin: "The Great Dictator"
40      when?   Bertrand Russell judged unfit to teach at New York's City
                College due to such unorthodox views as those published
                in his Marriage & Morals (1929); appointed to
                William James lectureship at Harvard University anyway
                Pete Seeger forms Almanac Singers with Lee Hays and many
                others; Woody Guthrie joins in June
                Cotton Club closes
                1940-42 Thelonius Monk (23) joins Kenny Clarke's house band
                at Minton's in NYC; w Charlie `Bird' Parker (20 (sax), of Kansa
                City, and Dizzy Gillespie (23) (horn), who dropped in after
                finishing at the Cotton Club, invents Modern Jazz: created
                complex variations on chords to scare away no-talent jammers.
                Meanwhile, Kenny Clarke (26), the drummer, starts created
                the bop rhythm which freed the soloists.
                "Bop" was unlike the polished, sweet sounds of the Big Bands.

1941?   June??  Second big birth rise: 9 months after S.S. Act passed
        June    Hitler invades USSR
1941    June 25 A. Philip Randolph's (president Brotherhood of Sleeping
                Car Porters) calls off Negro march on Washington planned for
                July 1 when FDR agrees to issue Executive Order 8802 banning
                racial discrimination in defense industries and government
                employment (creates Fair Employment Practices Committee)
        Dec 7   Japanese attack Pearl Harbor: US enters WORLD WAR II
                Jeannette Rankin, US Rep, casts sole dissenting vote in Congres
                against declaration of war against Japan
        when?!  Manhattan Project (intensive atomic research) begins
        when?   US Sup Court upholds Federal Wage and Hour Law restricting
                work of 16- and 18-year-olds and setting minimum wage for
                business engaged in interstate commerce
1941            [record] Talking Union (?Almanac Singers ?w Pete Seeger?)
                Eric Fromm: Escape From Freedom
                Kenneth Patchen: Journal of Albion Moonlight
                Orson Welles: "Citizen Kane"
                Max Ernst to NY (then to Long Island & Sedona, Arizona)
                Bop/Jump & Jive dance, contests  [at least among blacks]

1942    June    Japanese lose battle for the first time: Midway Island
        Oct     Third big birth rise (10 months after Pearl Harbor)
1942            First electronic computer developed, US
                Magnetic recording tape invented
                Duchamp back to NY
                Intl Surrealist Exhibit, NY, including the first
                `Happening': Duchamp's maze of twine (to involve the viewer)
                Peggy Guggenheim opens Art of This Century Gallery (surrealism)
                by then Surrealists Breton?, Masson, Man Ray, Kurt Seligman,
                and Matta from Chile, plus Chagall, Fernand Leger,
                Piet Mondrian, and Jacques Lipchitz are all in U.S.
                Camus: The Stranger
                Erich Fromm: The Fear of Freedom  (is this the same?)
                Wilhelm Reich: The Function of the Orgasm
                Gilbert Murray founds Oxfam
                Skirts shorten (wartime rationing)

1943    Apr 19  Dr. Albert Hofman at Sandoz in Basle, Switzerland,
                resynthesizes LSD-25 in a search for a cure for
                migraines, & has visions (first synthesis 1938)
        summer  anti-Negro riots in Detroit and Harlem, cities whose labor
                population has been added to by influx of southern blacks
        June    Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded
        when?   US War Labor Board orders coal mines to be taken over by
                the govt when .5 million miners strike

1943            "Bop" becoming known;
                Rhythm & blues syncopated rhythm starts to emerge
                Lindy Hop yields to jitterbug
                Sartre: Being and Nothingness
                Hermann Hesse: The Glass Bead Game
                Zoot suit becomes popular attire among US hepcats
                (Infantile paralysis epidemic kills almost 1200 in US,
                cripples thousands more)

when?           43,000 draftees refused to fight, 6000 imprisoned;
                Conscientious objector camps established on West Coast,
                especially Walport, Oregon; many visit SF on leave

1944    July 15 Mrs. Irene Morgan arrested for not giving up Greyhound
                seat to white passenger on a ride from Virginia to Maryland
                (leads to 1946 Supreme Court anti-segregation decision)
        Nov     FDR re-elected for fourth term
        when?   Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. elected to Congress
                Cost of living in US rises almost 30%
                Bluesman Arthur "Big Boy" Cruddup records "Rock Me Mama"
                ?using? the first electrified guitar, created by him 1940
                Sartre's No Exit opens in Paris
                T.S. Eliot: Four Quartets   (when was The Hollow Men)
                Jack Kerouac (22), Allen Ginsberg (18), William Borroughs (30)
                meet around Columbia University
                Bop recordings on the market.

1945    April   Allied forces attack Berlin; Hitler commits suicide
        May 7   Germany surrenders
        July 16 First atomic bomb explosion, Alamogordo, New Mexico
        Aug 6&9 Atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima, Nagasaki
        Sept 2  Surrender of Japan; WORLD WAR II ends
        when?   Republic of Vietnam proclaimed; French invade
                World Bank founded
                Henry Miller: The Airconditioned Nightmare
                George Orwell: Animal Farm

1946            First of 23 nuclear explosions 46-58, Bikini atoll
                first year of the Baby Boom (46-64) Postwar birth rise
                (1945: 2,873,000; 1946: 3.5 mill; 1947: 3.75 mill)
                [Storming Heaven p.94 sez Baby Boom height 54-64
                4 mill babies born/year]
                [1950s "baby boom in every industrialized country" - Hall)
        June    Dr. Benjamin Spock: The Common Sense Book of Baby & Child Care
                Start of the boom in sales of television sets (under 6000 manuf
                Xerography process invented
                ENIAC electronic brain built at Pennsylvania University
                Arthur Koestler: Darkness at Noon   earlier?
                Franz Kafka: Amerika   earlier?
                "Existentialists" center, St. Germain-des-Pres, Paris (1945-50)
                Buckminster Fuller designs Dymaxion House
                Pacifica Foundation founded
                Kerouac and Ginsberg meet Neal Cassady in New York City
                Pete Seeger moves to NY after getting out of the military,
                starts "People's Songs" (whatis)
                Josh White playing at Cafe Society Downtown (Sheridan
                Square, Greenwich Village) and Leadbelly around NY also

1946 -          Lynchings in the south approach 1918 levels as Negro
                G.I.s return, talk of getting the rights they fought for

1947            CIA chartered
                HUAC investigations into Hollywood; Hollywood 10 blacklisted
                Taft-Hartley Act restricts rights of labor unions
                Transistor invented
                "Flying saucers" reported in US
        Ap 9-23 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsors interstate
                bus ride to test June 3, 1946 Supreme Court ruling that Negro
                passengers could not be forced to sit at the back;
                Bayard Rustin, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Igal
                Roodenko, and Joseph Felmet serve 30 days on a chain gang
                Over 1 mill vets enroll in colleges under GI Bill of Rights
                Malabar Farm: Louis Bromfield
                The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
                Jackson Pollock starts action painting (Abstract Expressionism)
                Dior's ankle-length dresses protested, ?but went back to long?
                Leon, brother of Barney Josephson, owner of Cafe Society, NYC,
                subpoened by HUAC; Columnists Westbrook Pegler & Walter Winchel
                attack Barney & club business drops; forced to close 1948

1947-57         series of Chicago riots as whites left inner city to Negroes

1947-50         Kerouac & Cassady make cross-country trips
1947-51         Marshall Plan: US farms and industries gear up to feed Europe
1948    Feb?    Gandhi assassinated
        Feb     Truman, in first `civil rights' message to Congress,
                asks for anti-lynching law
        June    Drs. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, & William P. Schockley
                of AT&T announce invention of the semiconductor transistor
        when?   UN? adopts "Human Rights ?Resolution" - US never adopted
        when?   USSR stops road and rail traffic bet Berlin and the west
        when?   House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
                investigates Alger Hiss (of State Dept) case
        when?   Month-long strike by soft coal miners, US; injunction
                prevents nationwide rail strike; first escalator clause
                basing wage increases on cost-of-living inde in GM-UAW contract
        when?   Truman signs Selective Service Act, creating US's first
                peacetime draft, and universal military training (includes ROTC
        when?   US sends troops to Greece to support dictator
        when?   General Somoza's military take-over of elected
                Nicaraguan government (with US support?)
        when?   Tito of Yugoslavia breaks away from USSR Communist Party
        when?   Supreme Court knockdown of Texas white primary;
                750,000 Negroes register to vote in 12 southern states
1948    Nov     Truman re-elected (vs. Dewey)
                Levitts begin construction of first mass-produced suburb:
                Levittown, Long Island
                Huh? Fed rent control bill passed in US
                First McDonalds drive-in (San Bernardino, California)
                Long-play record invented (US)

                Nat King Cole's record of eden ahbez's song "Nature Boy" is a b
ig hit
        July    Oriole's first record & the first "r&r", tho called r&b
                "It's Too Soon to Know" starts playing on Negro music radio sta
                Mechanization Takes Command - Siegfried Giedion
                B.F. Skinner: Walden Two
                George Orwell writes 1984 (originally titled 1948)
                Alfred C. Kinsey: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male
                Ed Sullivan television show starts
                Pete Seeger, Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman & Ronnie Gilbert, singing
                in the Almanac Singers since the early 1940s, start The Weavers
                Summer: Ginsberg has mystical vision of Blake's flower +
                Malcolm Little, in prison, first hears about the teachings of E
lijah Muhammed
                Lee Strasberg becomes Artistic Director of the Actors
                Studio, starts giving classes in the Stanislavsky "method"

1949            11 US Communists found guilty of conspiracy to overthrow govt
                NATO formed
                U.S. begins urban renewal with Housing Act
        Oct 1   People's Republic of China founded
                USSR tests its first atomic bomb
                Pacifica Foundation (founded 1946) starts first
                radio station, KPFA in Berkeley (April 15 - first show)
                Miles Davis: The Birth of the Cool album starts cool jazz
                Aldo Leopold: A Sand County Almanac
                Thomas Merton: The Seven Storey Mountain
                Nelson Algren: The Man with the Golden Arm
                T.S. Eliot: The Cocktail Party
                Joseph Campbell: The Hero with a Thousand Faces
                Arthur Miller: Death of a Salesman
                Weavers at Village Vanguard 6 months: NY discovers folk
                Josh White, Burl Ives, Earl Robinson "discovered"

1949-   54      Fats Domino, Ray Charles, Little Richard: first records

1950    start   military budget 12 billion out of total 40 billion U.S.budget
        Feb 9   Senator Joseph McCarthy announces he has a list of
                205 State Department employees who are Communist Party members
        when?   Alger Hiss convicted of lying & spying for USSR
        when?   Truman instructs US Atomic Energy Comm to dev hydrogen bomb
        June 25 North Korea invades South Korea
                U.S. sends troops to Korea (until 1954)
        when?   US recognizes Vietnam, supplies arms and send mission to
                instruct their use, signs military assistance pact
        summer  Rosenbergs charged with espionage and prosecuted
        Oct     China occupies Tibet
        when?   McCarran Act restricts and requires registery of Communists,
                forbids entry into US of aliens who have belonged to
                totalitarian organizations

                "Cool jazz" develops from bebop
                TV: You Bet Your Life
                Akira Kurosawa: Rashomon
                Nelson Algren: The Man with the Golden Arm (anti-hero)
                Erik Erikson: Childhood & Society
50              Bertrand Russell awarded Nobel Peace Prize for Literature
                Einstein: General Field Theory
                Apr: Kerouac writes first version of On The Road
                "People's Songs" becomes "Sing Out"; Weavers sell out Town
                Hall concerts (Dec); Seeger creates Hootenanny record label
                L. Ron Hubbard wrutes Dianetics; the modern science of
                mental health, a handbook of dianetic therapy
                Miltown comes into wide use in US as tranquilizer
                UN: 480 of the 800 million world's children undernourished
50              which country? becomes second (after US) with mass car ownershi
                (Germany?? - Volkswagon)
                All About Eve     ?Bardot starts? is this her/when?
                How St. Germain was ended
                1.5 million television sets in US

50s-60s         Anarcho-pacifist poets group meets almost weekly at
                home of Kenneth Rexroth-San Francisco [250 Scott St]
50s             early: car ownership, level thru 1930s and WWII, starts rise
                above late 1920s level
"after          WWII": new housing/construction starts - rise above ditto

1951            Korean War continues
                Pres. Truman starts college draft deferment
                Suburbs starting to spread
                15 million (sic) television sets in US, huge jump from 1950
51      June    Cleveland d.j. Alan Freed ("Moondog") notices white teenagers
                starting to respond to r&b, starts first r&b radio show
        Sept    First transcontinental television broadcast
        Oct 14  11 Irish musicians meet in Dublin to form the Comhaltas
                Ceoltoiri Eireann, start of the modern Irish folk music revival
                1951: first Flea Cheoil - Mullingar (Whit week-end)
                ?W.E.B. DuBois hauled manacled into federal court for
                advocating peace talks in Korea
                Color television first introduced (US)
                Electric power produced from atomic energy
                Army begins detonating nuclear bombs in Nevada desert
                By winter, radioactivity detected in Rochester, NY snowfall
                Ferlinghetti leaves NY for SF
                Weavers blacklisted by HUAC
                Leadbelly dies

                TV: I Love Lucy
                Brando in A Streetcar Named Desire (the movie)
                J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye is an "instant success"
                among college students
                David Riesman: The Lonely Crowd (ck - also saw as 1950)
                [Storming Heaven p.95: "other-directed" -> conformity]
                C. Wright Mills: White Collar
                John Clellon Holmes: Go (first beat generation novel published)
                Rachel Carson: The Sea Around Us

1952            Korean War continues
                Nixon's "Checkers" speech
        Apr 22  First atmospheric bomb test - Yucca Flat, Nevada
        May     CORE holds first sit-ins in U.S. history
                Charlie Chaplin's US visa revoked
        Nov 6   First hydrogen bomb exploded on Eniwetok Atoll by US
                = Thermonuclear bomb
                Eisenhower defeats Stevenson (ending 20 yrs of Dem presidency)
                First Holiday Inn motor hotel (Memphis, Tennessee)
                Standardization of McDonalds design
                First contraceptive pill produced
                Albert Schweitzer awarded Nobel Peace Prize
                Polio epidemic - 58,000 cases (1400 die, thousands in
                wheelchairs or steel braces)
                L. Ron Hubbard founds Scientology
                George Jorgenson goes to Denmark for the first sex
                change operation, becomes Christine G.

                TV: Dragnet
                James Baldwin: Go Tell It on the Mountain
                Invisible Man: Ralph Ellison
                Fellini: The White Sheik
                Nikos Kazantzakes [accent]: Zorba the Greek
                Samuel Becket: Waiting for Godot
                Simone de Beauvoir: The Second Sex (or is it 53?)
                John Clellon Holmes: "This is the Beat Gen" NYT (Nov 16)
                Weavers give up, stop touring; Pete Seeger begins touring
                college campuses

1953            Korean War (on television ends
                U.S. consumers start buying binge, biggest since the 20s
                Stock market soars, economic indicators very good
        when?   Stalin dies, Khrushchev becomes First Secretary

        Mar     Twenty nuclear tests have occurred in Nevada; sheep
                dying in Utah, 7 yr old boy dies of leukemia in Carson City
        Apr 13  MK-ULTRA, drug investigation program, started by CIA
        Apr 16  President Eisenhower warns of guns vs. butter
?               when was military-industrial complex warning?
?               when was govts get our of the way for peace?
        May 4   Aldous Huxley (58) takes mescaline
        Jun 19  Rosenbergs executed
53      summer  Baton Rouge bus boycott by Negroes (lasts two weeks)
        when?   Shah of Iran reinstated to power, Mossedagh removed
                television production at 7 million/year
        when?   USSR explodes hydrogen bomb

                TV: Danny Thomas
                Fellini: I Vitelloni (The Young & The Passionate)
                Salt of the Earth (movie about New Mexico's
                Mexican-American miners strike of 1951)
                produced by blacklisted Hollywood filmmakerrs
                Marlon Brando in The Wild One
                Marilyn Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes

                B.F. Skinner: Science and Human Behavior
                Alfred C. Kinsey: Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
                James Baldwin: Go Tell It on the Mountain
                Arthur Miller: The Crucible
                Saul Bellow: The Adventures of Augie March
                Hefner starts Playboy
                I.F. Stone starts The Weekly (to 1971)
                Pacifica Foundation starts second station: KPFK in Los Angeles
        June    Ferlinghetti opens City Lights Bookstore in SF
                Allen Ginsberg visits Neal Cassady in SF & stays
                John Lilly invents sense isolation tank and starts experiments
                with it at the National Institute of Mental Health (til 58)
                Lung cancer reported attributable to cigarette smoking

1954            The US contains 6% of world's population, but 60% of cars,
                58% of telephones, 45% of radios, 34% of railroads
        Apr -   Television covers Army-McCarthy hearings, with
                Edward R. Murrow; McCarthy is censured by Senate
        May 17  Brown v Bd of Education of Topeka: Supreme Ct strikes down
                `seperate but equal' doctrine, outlawing segregation in public 
        May 8   Dien Bien Phu: French defeat in Vietnam
        June    Guatemalan President Arbenz overthrown by military
        July 21 Geneva agreement divides Vietnam
        Oct     Eli Lilly Co? succeeds in artificially synthesizing LSD
        Dec     Fess Parker plays Davy Crockett on Disneyland television show
                -> to 7 month sales boom in coonskin caps & other Crockett item
        when?   US tests hydrogen bomb at Bikini
                Concern in Europe & US about fallout & disposal of radioactive 
                Albert Einstein dies
                Indian Relocation program sends Indians to the cities
                Microchip & tv dinner invented
                Fender introduces Stratocaster guitar
                Thorazine invented - first major tranquilizer
                200,000+ join the Cub Scouts for the first time

1954            Hank Ballard & the Midnighters: Work With Me Annie a closet hit
                Bill Haley & the Comets: Rock Around the Clock released
                July 5 Elvis Presley records That's All Right [Mama]
                (by Arthur (Big Boy) Crudup) & Good Rockin Tonight
                (but they don't get on the charts yet) (Sun sessions)
                Leadbelly's songs first released on record
                First Newport Jazz Festival (July)

1950s   mid     Chuck Berry live shows

1954            TV: Disney, Father Knows Best, Lassie
                Marlon Brando in On the Waterfront
                Fellini: La Strada
                Kurosawa: Seven Samurai

                Franz Kafka: The Castle
                Lord of the Flies - William Golding
                Tolkien: Lord of the Rings
                xxx: Blackboard Jungle
                Aldous Huxley: Doors of Perception
                Helen & Scott Nearing: Living the Good Life

1955            military 40 billion out of total U.S. budget of 62 billion
                First national marketing of McDonalds (by Ray Kroc at Des Plain
es, Illinois)
        Jan 1   U.S. begins training South Vietnamese army
        Jan 22  First Poets' Follies, San Francisco
        Mar 12  Charlie "Bird" Parker (34) dies (NY apartment of Baroness
                Rothschild "heart attack" - now say pneumonia)
        Apr     29 countries meet in Bandung, Indonesia to form the
                Non-Aligned Movement (first use of "third world")
        spring  Kerouac: "Jazz of the Beat Gen" in New World Writing
        May     Davy Crockett song (Bill Hayes version) tops best seller charts
                other versions also in Top Ten
        June 23 NY folk/calypso singer Harry Belafonte first time on television
        Jn 29   Gordon Wasson eats psilocybin mushrooms in Oaxaca
        Jn 29   Bill Haley (29) & the Comets Rock Around the Clock
                and Shake Rattle n Roll
                becomes No. 1 hit (for eight weeks) (released Jan 1)
                (former hillbilly singer from Penn, cutting discs in the
                teenage idiom since `Rock The Join' 1952; inspired by Hank
                Williams (c&w) and Louis Jordan (r&b)
        June    Weavers reunion sells out Carnegie Hall, Vanguard releases lp
        summer  Fats Domino: Ain't That a Shame #1 r&b charts, 11 weeks
        July    Ferlinghetti publishes first book of poems
                (Pictures of the Gone World)
55      Aug     Pete Seeger called before HUAC, refuses to testify
        Aug 28  Emmett Till lynched, Mississippi (explain)
        summer  Kerouac writes Mexico City Blues in Mexico City
        Sept 14 Little Richard records Tutti Frutti
        Sept 30 James Dean dies in Porsche crash on Hwy 101;
                East of Eden is out, but Rebel, Giant not even released yet
        fall    Ginsberg takes peyote, has vision of Moloch as America
        fall    Kerouac, 33, meets Gary Snyder, 25, who has been
                studying Japanese and Zen Buddhism U.C. Berkeley
                in preparation for going to Japan as a Zen monk
55      fall    Anais Nin takes LSD as part of Oscar Janiger's studies (LA)
        Oct     Mickey Mouse Club starts on television
        Oct     Pat Boone's cover of Fats Domino's "Aint That a Shame"
                hits pop charts (Boone's ?first? hit)
        Oct 13  Ginsberg organizes poetry reading at Six Gallery, SF
                (featuring also Michael McClure, Philip Lamantia, Gary Snyder,
                Philip Whalen, Kenneth Rexroth) and brings down the
                house by reading "Howl" publicly for the first time
        Nov     RCA signs Elvis Presley (20) from Memphis
                and Carl Perkins (23) from Tennessee
55      Dc 5    Rosa Park's refusal to give up her bus seat on Dec 1
                starts year-long Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott by
                30-40,000 Negro riders (out of a Negro population of 50,000),
                of which Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., 26, is appointed leader
                (to Dec 21, 56)
        Dec 24  Aldous Huxley takes his first LSD

                DJ Alan Freed moves to WINS, NY
                7 of 15 pop best sellers are rooted in r&b, produced
                originally for the black music market
                Little Richard first record
                Chuck Berry first record (Maybelline)
                Charlie "Bird" Parker (35) dies

55              Disneyland opens
                TV: 64,000 Dollar Question, Gunsmoke
                James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause, East of Eden
                The Blackboard Jungle: links Rock Around the Clock
                with juvenile delinquency,
                and comics also come under fire for causing j.d.
                Ingmar Bergman: Smiles of a Summer Night

                Family of Man - exhibit & book (Edward Steichen
                for Museum of Modern Art, NY)
                Joseph Heller: Catch 22
                J.P. Donleavy: Ginger Man
                Mad Magazine starts
                Why Johnny Can't Read - Rudolf Flesch
                (The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit - Sloan Wilson)

1956            Federal-Aid Highway Act: Congress authorized 41,000 miles of
                interstate highways - really begins freeway suburbanization
        Jan     The Platters - black r&b group reach Top Ten pop chart with
                Only You and The Great Pretender; first time
                white buyers prefer original to cover version by whites
        Jan 26  MLK arrested for the first time
        Jan 30  MLK home bombed
        Feb 1   Eisenhower asks first class postage stamp price be
                raised from 3 to 4 cents
        Feb 1   MLK's Montgomery Improvement Association files suit in
                federal court against Alabama for segregation of buses
        Feb 4   white student riot at University of Alabama against
                court-ordered admission of first Negro student
        Feb     U.K.: `Free Cinema': first of a series of programs
                at the National Film Theatre
                -> theatre renaissance (including `Look Back in Anger'
                from John Osborne's book)
56      ?Feb 11 Elvis Presley's first appearance (full length) on
                Dorsey Brothers Show, singing Heartbreak Hotel)
                [first tv was Mar 24 - was that when it was played??]
                Heartbreak Hotel goes to Top Twenty
                Pat Boone also on charts with Little Richard's Tutti Frutti
                & Bill Haley with "See You Later Alligator"
                & Carl Perkins with own song "Blue Suede Shoes"
        May 27  Tallahassee bus boycott
        June 5  Elvis on Milton Berle tv show singing "Hound Dog";
                causes commotion about his hip action
        July    Pete Seeger cited for contempt (for HUAC silence)
        when?   Khruschev's anti-Stalin speech  /  20th Congress CP
56      when?   USSR invades Hungary
        when?   revolt in Poland
                US Communist party membership drops to 5000 by year's end
                (from 60-80,000 during and after World War II,
                and 43,000 as late as 1950)
        when?   First C.N.D. Aldermaston march, UK
        fall    Brigette Bardot movies the rage in the U.S.
        Nov     Eisenhower defeats Stevenson again

                (John Wayne, Agnes Moorehead, Susan Hayward shoot
                "The Conqueror" in Utah downwind of Yucca Flats,
                where 11 nuclear bombs were exploded in 1955 -
                By 1960, 90% of the 220 cast & crew had contracted
                cancer & 43 die of it)
                -- Percentage of white collar workers surpasses blue collar --
56??            Third Avenue El removed, opening up Cooper Square in
                NY's Greenwich Village (explain)

                "Rock and Roll" officially used by whites first time
                by Alan Freed, NY dj
                Elvis: Heartbreak Hotel & Blue Suede Shoes
                & Don't Be Cruel with Hound Dog (5 gold records)   MEMPHIS!
                James Brown first record
                Little Richard: Tutti-Frutti & Long Tall Sally
                top r&b (not pop) charts
                Gene Vincent: Be-Bop-A-Lula (first?)
                Belafonte: first album

56              TV: Price is Right
                Fellini: Nights of Cabiria
                Fr: Roger Vadim's first film: And God Created Woman
                (Brigette Bardot's first)

                John Osborne (UK): Look Back in Anger
                William Whyte: The Organization Man
                C. Wright Mills: The Power Elite
                Franz Kafka: The Trial  (posth.)
                Aldous Huxley: Heaven & Hell
                Abraham Maslow publishes first paper on peak experiences
                Rise of the French existentialists      huh?

1957            "Since 1957 the birth rate has been going down" - Wm Whyte
                "nuclear fallout in Nevada in newspapers" - Hettie Jones

        Jan?    Atlanta nonviolent (Negro) bus demo
        Jan 10  Bombings of four Montgomery churches & two Negro leaders' homes
        J 10-11 Southern Christian Leadership Conference founded
                by MLK & 60 other Negro church leaders meeting in Atlanta
        Mar 5   British Gold Coast becomes Ghana, first independent nation of
                sub-Saharan Africa
        Mar     Pete Seeger indicted for contempt of court (for HUAC silence)
        Mar 25  US Customs seizes second printing of Howl by City Lights,
                US District Attorney decides not to pursue, and
                printing released
        May 17  MLK leads Prayer Pilgrimage to Washington D.C. - 30,000
                (Third anniversary of Brown vs. Bd of Ed decision)
        July    Account of Gordon Wasson's mushroom experience
                published in Life Magazine
        July    Alan Freed gets television rock and roll show
        Aug 8   American Bandstand with Dick Clark (27) starts on national tele
        Aug     SF Police Juvenile Dept raid City Lights & charge Ferlinghetti
                with obscenity for selling copies of Howl
57      Aug 29  Civil Rights Act (first civil rights legislation since 1875)
        Sept    On The Road finally published and becomes bestseller
                (6 weeks on the bestseller list)
                (almost titled The Beat Generation)
                Kerouac refuses television series; instead Route 66 started
                Herb Caen coins term "beatnik" (Hettie Jones: "after Sputnik")
        Sept    Howl obscenity trial: ruled not obscene on Oct. 3
        Sept    Russians launch first satellite Sputnik; US responds with
                increased emphasis on science education in schools [but see Oct
        Sept 4  Little Rock, Arkansas: nine Negro students try to attend
                Central High; Governor Orval Faubus orders National Guard to pr
event them
1957    Sept 25 President Eisenhower sends Federal troops to Little Rock;
                they remain for the entire school term
        Oct 4   USSR launches Sputnik, first satellite
        Oct     Nuclear accident (fire) at Windscale nuclear plant, England
                releases 600 times more radioactive radio-iodine
                than Three Mile Island (covered up)
        Nov     USSR launches second Sputnik, with dog inside

                Britain explodes thermonuclear bomb in central Pacific
                Atomic bomb air raid drills
                Strontium 90 detected in cow's milk around the US
                (radioactive isotope which lodges in bone & causes cancer)
                Explosion at nuclear weapons site in Ural Mountains, USSR
                (completely covered up)
                SANE (Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy) founded (see 1958)
                Teamsters Union is expelled from AFL-CIO when Jimmy Hoffa
                refuses to expel criminals & union refuses to expel Hoffa
                Height of the Baby Boom - 4.3 million births
                Bag/Sack dresses ("mumus")
                Use of Milltown tranquilizer rises to 150 million dollars
                Poetry and jazz at The Cellar on Green Street, SF
                Greenwich Village women wearing black dancer's tights
                instead of stockings

57              Frankie Avalon, Paul Anka, Fabian
                Elvis: Jailhouse Rock
                Everly Brothers: Bye Bye Love & Wake Up Little Susie
                + At the Hop
                Jerry Lee Lewis: Whole Lot of Shakin' Going On
                        & Great Balls of Fire
                Buddy Holly first records: That'll Be The Day, Peggy Sue
                        (& w the Crickets on Ed Sullivan)
                Sam Cooke first record

                TV: Have Gun Will Travel, Maverick, Perry Mason, Real McCoys,
                Leave It To Beaver (57-63)
                Dick Clark's American Bandstand starts
                West Side Story (the play?)
                Bergman: The Seventh Seal, and Wild Strawberries
                Becket's End Game plays in London

                Arthur Frommer's first Europe On Five Dollars A Day
                Miller: Big Sur and the Oranges of Hieronymous Bosch
                The White Negro - Norman Mailer (Dissent magazine)
                (used `hipster' to describe the Beats)
                Vance Packard: The Hidden Persuaders
                (manipulative advertising)
                Malcolm X starts Muslim newspaper "Mohammed Speaks"
                Ayn Rand: Atlas Shrugged

1958    when?   10,000 students join school desegregation march, Wash DC
        early   SANE (Student National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy)
                founded (after newspaper ad about bomb tests in late 1957)
        Jan 20  Elvis inducted into ?army? (until March 3, 1960)
        Mar??   U.K.: Thousands march on Aldermaston nuclear base (first)
58              (Direct Action Committee, Bertrand Russell)
        May     V.P. Nixon motorcade booed in Uruguay, Argentina,
                Bolivia, Peru, and Venezuela
        May     Elvis Presley goes into the army
                (rock calendar sez enters Mar 24, 59)
        May 11  Last Poet's Follies, SF
        spring  Partisan: The Know-Nothing Bohemians - Norman Podhoretz
        May     Art D'Lugoff opens Village Gate on Bleeker St.
                National attention on beats,
                tour buses start touring North Beach
when?           Mort Sahl, Bill Cosby at hungry i + Shelly Berman?
58      June    Paul Robeson finally gets a passport
                8 years after it was taken from him,
                some said for being a Communist Party member?,
                allowing him to tour abroad again (explain)
        Sept    MLK stabbed in Harlem department store
                Alan Watts takes LSD (at Huxley's invitation)
                (this is while doing his radio program)
                -> LSD intro to Ginsberg & Bohemia
        Oct     Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and 20 others arrested in
                Birmingham, Alabama protesting bus segregation;
                Reverend William Holmes Borders launches boycott in
                Atlanta which ends segregated busing
        when?   Bayard Rustin organizes Youth March for Integrated Schools
                which sparks sit-ins in Oklahoma City and Wichita
        when?   Fidel Castro begins "total war" against Batista govt, Cuba
        when?   VP Nixon, on tour of S.Am., recd w hostility; Eisenhower
                sends troops to Caribbean
        when?   US artificial earth satellite Explorer I launched
        when?   USSR Sputnik III launched
        when?   US launches first moon rocket; fails moon but 79,000 mi

                Recession; US almost 5.2 million unemployed
                hula hoops
                The Beatnik mvmt spreads thru US and Europe
                UK: Teddy Boys, started appearing earlier in 50s, "die out"
                Synanon founded
                John Birch Society founded

58              Everly Brothers: Hey Bird Dog, All I Have to Do is Dream
                Chipmunks Song, Purple People-Eater, Lollipop, Tom Dooley
                Coasters: Yakety Yak
                Jackie Wilson: Lonely Teardrops (first?)
                James Brown: Try Me
                Chuck Berry: Johnny B. Goode
                Johnny Otis: Willie and the Hand-Jive
                Stereophonic recordings come into use

                Bobby Darin: Splish Splash (first?)
                Phil Spector starts producing records (?= start of Motown?)
                Kingston Trio: Tom Dooley
                Theodore Bikel Town Hall concert, NY
                John Coltrane: first album

58              TV: Seventy-Seven Sunset Strip
                Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

                The Ugly American - William Lederer
                John Kenneth Galbraith: The Affluent Society
                Ferlinghetti: The Coney Island of the Mind
                Kerouac: Dharma Bums and The Subterraneans
                Paul Krassner starts publishing The Realist
                Lorraine Hansberry: A Raisin in the Sun

1959    when?   Ken Kesey, majoring in writing at Stanford,
                living in Perry Lane, Palo Alto w Robert Stone +
                (Vic Lovell - who had introduced Alpert to mj)
                take psilocybin, LSD, etc at Menlo Park Veterans
                Hospital (under CIA's MK-ULTRA program)
        when?   Wyatt Walker leads Richmond, Virginia CORE march
                of 2000 to protest school segregation
        Apr 29  CORE lunch counter sit-in in Miami
        Jan 2   Cuba: Batista's army defeated by Fidel Castro's guerillas
59      Feb 3   Buddy Holly (22) , The Big Bopper [J.P. Richardson, 29],
                & Richie Valens (17)
                killed in plane crash nr Mason City, Iowa (5 mi n of Clear Lake
                -> rock music lull
                UCBerk: SLATE wins end to discrim in frats & sors
        March   SLATE holds forbidden rally to support Berkeley
                housing discrim initiative
        March   Uprising of Tibetans against the Chinese,
                Dalai Lama flees to India with others
        May     US? sends two monkeys up in a rocket
        May 25  Billie Holiday's last performance (44) [dies 1959]
                First Newport Folk Festival: Joan Baez performs
        (summer Kesey, working at hospital & writing)
1959    July    Khruschev visits the U.S.
        July    SCLC, CORE, and FOR sponsor first conference on
                non-violence, at Spelman College, Atlanta
        July 21 D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover
                finally ruled not obscene & legal for publication in U.S.
                after U.S. Postmaster General tries to ban it from the mails
        Sept    Bob Zimmerman enters University of Minnesota
        Sept 26 Highlander Folk School raided & closed down (Tennessee?)
        late    TV program on Elijah Muhammed's Nation of Islam
                draws first national attention to his Muslims
        fall    U.C. Berk: protest over expulsion of student who had gone
                on a hunger strike to protest U.C. making ROTC compulsory
        Oct     Kerr Directives prohibit UC student governments from
                taking positions on "off campus" political issues;
                in response, SLATE sends letter to protest firing
                of professor at Univ Illinois
        winter  Kerouac on Steve Allen television show
59      when?   Carl Jung & his work get first widespread exposure on televisio
        when?   USSR launches rocket w two monkeys aboard
        when?   US artificial planet Pioneer 4 at Woomera
        when?   USSR Lunik reaches moon; Lunik II photographs moon
        when?   Pres Eisenhower invokes Taft-Hartley Act to halt 116-day-old
                steelworkers' strike; longshoremen's strike halted same way

                Thalidomide children (Better Living Through
                Chemistry's first failure)
                First Barbie dolls
                Radio Station KPFK started in Los Angeles [see earlier]
                San Francisco Mime Troupe founded

                "rock music lull"
                There Goes My Baby, Climb Every Mountain,
                Put Your Head on My Shoulder, A Teen-Ager in Love,
                He's Got the Whole World in His Hands, My Favorite Things
                Bobby Darin: Dream Lover, Mack the Knife
                The Twist becomes #1 record  [must be wrong - see 1960]
                Limelighters, The Brothers Four
                Tom Dooley

                TV: Bonanza, Rawhide
                Some Like It Hot (Marilyn Monroe)
                Bergman: The Virgin Spring, Wild Strawberries
59              Fellini: La Dolce Vita
                Hiroshima mon amour (Alain Resnais)
                Eugene Ionesco: Rhinoceros
                A Raisin in the Sun (play)
                French New Wave cinema boom: 67 new directors make
                first feature films in the next two years
                (24 in 1959, 43 in 1960)
                including Truffaut: The Four Hundred Blows
                and Jean Luc Godard: Breathless
                (Goldfinger w Ian Fleming)
                (Philip Roth: Goodbye, Columbus)

                William Burroughs: Naked Lunch (Paris publication)
                Kerouac: Dr. Sax, Mexico City Blues, Maggie Cassidy
                Lawrence Lipton: The Holy Barbarians
                A Seperate Peace: John Knowles
59              Common Sense & Nuclear Warfare - Bertrand Russell
        ?       Hawaii: James ?Michenor
                (The Manchurian Candidate - Richard Condon
                about search for mind-control drug?)
                Erving Goffman: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
                Norman O. Brown: Life Against Death
                Saul Bellow: Henderson the Rain King

                Yves Saint Laurent's skirt hems at knees doesn't go

1960            military budget 45.8 billion, 49.7% of U.S. budget
                ?? Jane Jacobs organizes first successful urban renewal revolt
                (over West Greenwich Village, NYC)
        Feb 1   Greensboro, N. Car.: first day of Woolworth counter "sit-in"
                by four freshmen college students from North Carolina A & T
                (Joseph McNeil, 18; Ezell Blair, Jr; Franklin McCain;
                and David Richmond)
                (after 16 similar demonstrations in the previous 3 years);
                [teachers: *Douglas Moore, George Thomas]
                arrests include: Diane Nash, John Lewis, James Bevel;
                By Feb 16 sit-in's have spread to 15 cities in
                North & South Carolina, Florida, Virginia, & Tennessee
                By Feb's end, 31 Southern cities in 8 states
        Feb     Media discovers that Tennessee Negro sharecroppers who have bee
                evicted from their farms for registering to vote are forming
                "Freedom Village" tent cities
        Feb 13  France becomes the fourth nuclear power
        Mar     Montgomery, Alabama: denied ability to join sit-ins for
                fear of jeopardizing the state support of their college,
                half the student body of Alabama State sing the
                Star-Spangled Banner on the state capitol steps &
                march back to campus; their leaders are expelled
1960    Mar     Sit-in's at lunch counters in northern cities
                also 40 new cities in Georgia, W.Va., Texas, Arkansas
        Mar 19  South Africa: Sharpeville Massacre (at new pass law demo):
                police open fire on South Africans burning id. cards;
                63 shot in the back, 13,000 jailed
        Apr     to Apr 61: Eleven African countries declare independence
        Apr 2-3 Nearly 100 student sit-in rs from 19 states attend
                workshop at Highlander School; Guy Carawan teahces them
                1930s labor songs: We Shall Not Be Moved, Keep Your Eyes
                on the Prize, This Little Light of Mine, We Shall Overcome
        Apr 8   Odetta at Carnegie Hall
        mid Apr 50,000 students have participated in sit-ins
        Apr 15  Nearly 150 students from nine states meet in North Carolina
                with Ella Baker, James Lawson & MLK & form SNCC ("Apr 17")
        Apr 28  Alan Haber & SLID/SDS host first conference on Human Rights
                at the University of Michigan; Farmer & Harrington speak
        April   California: Protests against the death sentence for
                Caryl Chessman (he is executed May 2)
        May 1   Francis Gary Powers shot down in U-2 over USSR
                (public discovers spy flights have been routine)
        early   May: all 160 million Americans participate in the seventh
                national air-raid alert
60      May 6   Civil Rights Act signed by JFK
        May 9   First oral contraceptive, Enovid, licensed
        May 13  during SLATE sit-in against non-admission to
                HUAC hearings (SF City Hall) police attack 200 protestors
        May     Payola Scandel (radio)


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