Visit our newest sister site!
Hundreds of free aircraft flight manuals
Civilian • Historical • Military • Declassified • FREE!


TUCoPS :: Crypto :: cryptref.txt

Cryptography references




 ************
Topic 18        Sun Jan 21, 1990
NA5E Larry-SYSOP             (Forwarded)
Sub: Crypto books and references

Have you read a book or maagzine article or seen a film that talks about
cryptography or cryptology?  Share it with the rest of us.
14 message(s) total.
 ************
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 1         Sun Jan 21, 1990
NA5E Larry-SYSOP             (Forwarded)

David Kahn's book "The Code Breakers" is a classic.  It covers the history of
code breaking, emphasizing many of the breakthroughs made during World War II.
It discusses the National Security Agency, our nation's main agency for doing
such things, but the info is limited to 20 years ago.  Times have changed!

James Bamford wrote "The Puzzle Palace," in the mid-80's about NSA. It
includes comments from former employees and managers adding some sense of
authenticity.

Those who'd like to hack with their computers should check out George
Sassoon's "The Radio Hacker's Code Book."  It's an excellent source of
information about cipher types and their use on the radio. He gives lots of
examples and some basic algorithms for analysis. This book is hard to come by,
but it was last available from the Longwood Publishing Group, 27 S. Main
Street, Wolfesboro, NH  03894. ISBN is 0-7156-2068-1.
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 2         Sun Jan 21, 1990
A.COURTNEY [Lexington KY]    (Forwarded)

"The Radio Hacker's Code Book" used to be available through Gilfer
Associates. I don't know if it still is, as they failed to send me a catalog
this year.
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 3         Sun Jan 21, 1990
FRANK.DEIS                   (Forwarded)

I seem to recall several books and even a play about Alan Turing's work during
WWII.  Turing was a particularly brilliant mind with an unfortunately twisted
and tortured psyche.  Perhaps he was the perfect paranoid type to work in
codes and ciphers.  No titles come to mind at the moment.

                     Frank

 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 4         Fri Jan 26, 1990
MURREY [KB9BVN]              (Forwarded)

Where can I get a copy of The Puzzle Palace and a book called The
Codebreakers? I understand they are very good crypto books and I have all of a
sudden developed an interest in coding.
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 5         Fri Jan 26, 1990
NA5E Larry-SYSOP             (Forwarded)

I think both books are still in print in paperback form.  Take a look under
history or current affairs sections in your local Waldenbooks or similar.  And
the library might be able to help you, too.  Those of you who, like me, live
in the boonies should ask the librarian about inter-library loans, too.
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 6         Tue Feb 06, 1990
FRANK.DEIS                   (Forwarded)

Perhaps this doesn't belong here since it has nothing to do with Radio and
only a little to do with Cryptography, but the book I am reading now is

   The Cuckoo's Egg -- by Clifford Stoll

 What an INTERESTING BOOK!  Do yourself a favor and read it!!!

 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 7         Tue Feb 06, 1990
FRANK.DEIS                   (Forwarded)

AHA !  I finished The Cuckoo's Egg and realized why it should be here.  Part
of it deals with password decryption and NSA standards, and the bibliography
recommends:

  The Puzzle Palace by James Bamford
  The Codebreakers by David Kahn
  Deep Black by William E. Burrows (spy satellites)
  Cryptography and Data Security by Dorothy Denning
  Unix System Security by Wood and Kochan
  Defending Secrets, Sharing Data, U.S. Congress Office of Technology
Assessment, OTA-CIT-310.

                        Frank

 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 8         Tue Feb 06, 1990
M.CORDELLI [mike]            (Forwarded)

Did you see the guy who wrote Cuckoo's Egg when he was on whatever news show
Connie Chung has??? This is one strange guy, left over from Woodstock or
something.  It's no wonder hat nobody believed him.  BTW, I too loved the
book.
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 9         Sun Feb 25, 1990
NA5E Larry-SYSOP             (Forwarded)

 >From: HAVANAMOON@cup.portal.com (Havana - Moon)
 >Newsgroups: rec.radio.shortwave
 >Subject: Re: A question of numbers (2nd try)
 >Message-ID: <27058@cup.portal.com>
 >Date: 18 Feb 90 13:19:56 GMT
 >References: <1007.25dc2025@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu>
 >Distribution: usa,world
 >Organization: The Portal System (TM)
 >Lines: 101

 This material has been posted previously - but is a good
 basic introduction to "The Numbers" - so . . .


 In response to recent questions about the "Numbers"
 Stations, their origin and purpose, the following summary
 captures the high points.

 "Spy Numbers Transmissions" are a shortwave oddity which have
 been around for the last 25 years.  They are commonly heard
 in English, German, Spanish and the Slavic languages and take
 the form of four and five digit groups of numbers which are
 preceded by a three digit "identifier" and a "group count"
 which corresponds to the number of number groups transmitted
 in the crypt.  They are generally broadcast by a mechanical-
 sounding YL, although Morse code (CW) "cut number" transmissions
 are also frequently reported, as are phonetic alphabet trans-
 missions.  Several distinctly different formats have been
 noted.

 The "who" and "why" aspects of these transmissions are,
 for the most part, unknown.  Their mysterious nature has
 resulted in their common characterization as 'spy' trans-
 missions.  Information on the "where" aspects below.

 The spy theory has been enhanced over the years by the FCC's
 inconsistent position in response to numerous inquiries by
 the Shortwave Listening community.

 If you've never heard a numbers transmission, tune your
 radio to 11468 kHz any Saturday at 4pm EST (2100 UTC).
 You'll almost certainly hear a 'classic' numbers transmission
 which will run from 15-30 minutes.  The signal from this
 Saturday transmission is very powerful and can be heard
 across the United States.

 In regards the "where" - a number of sites have been identified
 in recent years, notably in Warrenton and Remington, VA and
 Miami, FL.  In addition, with the aid of sophisticated RDF
 (radio direction finding) equipment and the invaluable assist-
 ance of highly authoritative and professional resources, several
 new transmission sites have been positively identified over the
 past several months, including sites in Nicaragua, Honduras, El
 Salvador, Cuba and Cozumel.

 One particularly dangerous station has been interfering with
 air to ground traffic on 6577 kHz, a frequency allocated to inter-
 national aeronautical communications in the busy Caribbean sector.

 On at least one monitored transmission, the air traffic controller
 at ARINC moved the pilot to an alternate frequency as the numbers
 transmission was totally blocking the frequency from effective use.
 This regular transmission can be heard on Mondays at 0200 UTC
 (Sunday night local US time) across most of the US.

 A recently identified Cuban site (Guineo) is believed to ba a major
 transmitter site used by DGI (Cuban Intelligence).

 There has been some suggestion that the numbers are a form of
 'one-time-pad' - a crude but unbreakable form of encryption
 (unless you've got the key, that is) - if that's the case,
 it's very curious to note that the same five-digit groups are
 often seen to repeat over and over again in the very same
 crypt - and that the same transmissions are seen to
 repeat from week to week, and from month to month -
 so often, in fact, that tape breaks are sometimes noted.  When
 spliced back together, the sloppy handling sometimes results in
 truncated 5-digit groups - the end result being amixture of 4
 and 5 digit groups in the very same transmission!

 These facts would tend to point one away from the one-time-pad
 concept and support a couple of other theories - suggesting that
 the numbers are NOT a cipher, but rather a code unto themselves,
 and that much of this traffic is 'dummy' in nature - broadcast
 simply to keep a frequency open over a long period of time.

 In addition, most five-digit Spanish numbers transmissions are
 very badly over-modulated, resulting in numerous spurs up and
 down frequency.  When broadcast under such conditions, the
 numbers (6) seis and (7) siete are almost indistinguishable,
 making it impossible to copy a crypt without numerous errors.

 It is worth noting that the four-digit Spanish and English
 transmissions do not reflect this same technical ineptitude.

 There are a number of reference materials available which provide
 detailed information about cryptography and cryptanalysis, in
 general, and numbers crypts, specifically.  I'd be happy to provide
 anyone interested with a list of books.

 Only two publications I know of are currently available which
 provide regular coverage of numbers, clandestine, pirate and
 other interesting transmissions.  The ACE Bulletin (monthly news-
 letter of the Association of Clandestine Enthusiasts - PO Box
 11201, Department KK, Shawnee Mission, KS  66207 $16/yr) and the Umbra
 et Lux Newsletter (a newsletter devoted to SIGINT, covert radio
 and related topics - 10606-8 Camino Ruiz, Department KK, Suite
 174, San Diego, CA  92126 $18/yr).

                                 Havana Moon
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 10        Wed Mar 07, 1990
NA5E Larry-SYSOP             (Forwarded)

For mathematically sophisticated readers, I can recommend "An Introduction to
Cryptology," by Henk C.A. van  Tilborg.  (1988 ISBN 0-89838-271-8 GR.)  It
covers the following subjects:

 Classical systems
 Shift register sequences
 Shannon theory
 Huffman codes
 Data Encryption Standard
 Public Key Cryptography
 Discrete Logarithm Problem
 RSA
 McEliece System
 Knapsack problem
 Threshold schemes

At $45.95 it isn't for everyone, but you order it from Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 101 Philip Drice, Norwell MA 02061.  (Tel 617- 871-6600)
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 11        Wed Jul 04, 1990
HAVANA.MOON                  at 08:42 EDT

  ___________________________________________________________________________

     Codes, ciphers, one-time-pads, numbers transmissions, spy communi-
     cations - they all conjure up intrigue and shadows.  There's lots
     of information out there on this topic, and while much of it is
     behind tightly closed doors, passwords and layers of armed
     guards, much can be learned from books that aren't devoted entirely
     to the technicalities of the subject.

     The following bibliography will provide anyone with an interest in this
     topic with an unusual mix of material.  Some of the reference sources
     are technical and deal exclusively with cryptographic/cryptanalytic
     technique, while others provide insight into real-world situations/
     applications of these techniques, and/or a historical perspective.
     While some of the titles referenced may seem to be off the topic,
     the careful reader will gain valuable insight from even those books
     which contain very little pure cryptographic material (marked with
     asterisks).

     I have attempted to select books that can be read easily by the
     beginner, although many of them may be extremely difficult to locate.
     Inter-library loan might be of valuable assistance in this regard.

     A word about my background - I spent several years in the military
     and US Intelligence community with specialties in telecommunications,
     traffic analysis, cryptography, cryptanalysis and counterintelligence.
     I've written a couple of books and hundreds of magazine articles using
     the pseudonym 'Havana Moon', which have dealt primarily with covert
     radio and 'spy' numbers transmissions.  I prefer to maintain my
     anonymity for obvious reasons, and write on other subjects using
     another name.

                                     Havana Moon
     _____________________________________________________________________


                          And ye shall know the truth
                       and the truth shall make you free
                                 John, VIII: 32

                 Inscription on the main lobby wall of the CIA

     _____________________________________________________________________

                             SELECTED READING LIST


     A HISTORY OF CODES, William Friedman (Aegean Park Press)

     ALAN TURING: THE ENIGMA, Andrew Hodges (Burnett Books)

     AN INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOLOGY, van Tilborg

    *A WORLD OF SECRETS.  THE USES AND LIMITS OF INTELLIGENCE, by Walter
       Laqueur (Basic Books)

    *AGENCY OF FEAR, Edward Jay Epstein (McGraw-Hill)

     AND I WAS THERE: PEARL HARBOR AND MIDWAY - BREAKING THE SECRETS, by
       Rear Admiral Edwin T. Layton, USN (Ret.)   (William Morrow)

    *ANTI-MATTER, by C. M. Stanbury (Dust Books)
       [This book borders on the lunatic fringe, but the careful reader
        will gain an interesting perspective].

     BEYOND CLOAK AND DAGGER: INSIDE THE CIA, by Miles Copeland (Pinnacle
       Books)

     BROKEN SEAL, by Ladislas Farago (Random House)

     BURN AFTER READING, by Ladislas Farago (Pinnacle Books)

    *CIA: THE INSIDE STORY, by Andrew Tully (Fawcett)

     CLOAK AND CIPHER, by Dan Moore & Martha Waller (Bobbs-Merrill)

     CODES AND CRYPTOGRAPHY, Dominic Welsh (Oxford Science Publishers)

     CODES, CIPHERS AND COMPUTERS, by Bruce Bosworth (Hayden Books)

     COMPUTER SIMULATION OF CLASSICAL SUBSTITUTION SYSTEMS, by Rudolph
       Lauer (Aegean Park Press)

     CRYPTANALYSIS, by Helen Fouche Gaines (Dover Paperbacks)

     CRYPTANALYSIS FOR MICRO COMPUTERS, by Caxton Foster (Hayden Books)

     CRYPTOGRAPHY, by Laurence Smith (Dover Paperbacks)

     CRYPTOGRAPHY AND DATA SECURITY, by Dorothy Denning (Addison-Wesley)
     [This is a highly technical book, included here with a word of
      caution to the novice].

     CRYPTOGRAPHY: A PRIMER, by Alan G. Konheim (John Wiley)

     CRYPTOLOGY: YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW, C. Deavours, et. al (Reprints
       from Cryptologia, Volume I)

     CRYPTOLOGY: MACHINES, HISTORY & METHODS, C. Deavours, et. al (Reprints
       from Cryptologia, Volume II)

     DEADLY MAGIC, by Edward Van Der Rhoer (Scribners)

     DEFENDING SECRETS, SHARING DATA, US Office of Technology Assessment

     DEEP BLACK, William Burrows

     DOUBLE-EDGED SECRETS, by W.J. Holmes (Naval Institute Press)

     ELEMENTARY CRYPTANALYSIS, Math Association of America

     ELEMENTS OF CRYPTANALYSIS, by William F. Friedman (Aegean Park Press)

     EMBASSY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS HANDBOOK, by Michael Schaay (Universal
       Electronics)

     ENIGMA, W. Kozaczuk, University Publications of America

    *GERMAN MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, by Paul Leverkuehn (Weidenfeld & Nicol-
       son)

     GREAT MYTHS OF WORLD WAR II, by Karl Roebling (Paragon Press/Dyna
       Press)

     GUIDE TO EMBASSY AND ESPIONAGE COMMUNICATIONS, by Tom Kneitel (CRB
       Research)

    *HITLER'S SPIES, by David Kahbn, Ph.D. (Macmillan)

    *HOW TO TUNE THE SECRET SHORTWAVE SPECTRUM, by Harry Helms (TAB Books)

     INSIDE THE AQUARIUM, by Viktor Suvorov (Macmillan)

     KAHN ON CODES, David Kahn, Ph.D., (Macmillan)

     LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION TABLE, by N. Ingle (Technical Translation
       International)

     MACHINE CRYPTOGRAPHY AND MODERN CRYPTANALYSIS, by C.A. Deavours
       and Louis Kruh (Artech House)

     MILITARY CRYPTANALYTICS, Callimahos & Friedman (Aegean Park Press)

     NORMAL AND REVERSE ENGLISH WORD LIST, by US Department of Commerce,
       National Technical Information Service)

     PRINCIPLES OF MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS, by Don J. Torrieri (Artech
       House Books)

    *SPYCATCHER, by Peter Wright (Dell Paperbacks)

     STATISTICAL METHODS IN CRYPTANALYSIS, by Solomon Kullback, Ph.D.
       (Aegean Park Press)

    *THE ANATOMY OF TWO TRAITORS, by Wayne Barker and Rodney Coffman
       (Aegean Park Press)

     THE AMERICAN BLACK CHAMBER, Herbert O. Yardley, Bobbs-Merrill, 1931

    *THE BIG SECRET, by William Poundstone (William Morrow)

    *THE CIA AND THE US INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM, by Scott Breckinridge
       (Westview Press)

     THE CODE BOOK, by Michael Marotta (Loompanics Unlimited)

     THE CODEBREAKERS, by David Kahn, Ph.D. (Macmilllan)

    *THE CRAFT OF INTELLIGENCE, by Allen Dulles (Harper & Rowe)

    *THE CUBAN STORY, by Herbert Matthews (Braziller)

    *THE CUCKOO'S EGG, Clifford Stoll (Doubleday)

    *THE DOUBLE-CROSS SYSTEM, by J.C. Masterman (Yale University Press)

    *THE GAME OF THE FOXES, by Ladislas Farago (McKay)

     THE HUT SIX STORY, Gordon Welchman (McGraw-Hill)

     THE NIGHT WATCH, by David Atlee Phillips (Atheneum)

     THE PUZZLE PALACE, by James Bamford (2nd edition, Penguin Paperbacks)

     THE RADIO HACKER'S CODE BOOK, George Sassoon (Longwood Publishing Group)

    *THE SECRET WAR REPORT OF THE OSS, by Anthony Cave Brown (Berkley
       Medallion Press)

    *THE TOP SECRET REGISTRY OF US GOVERNMENT RADIO FREQUENCIES, by Tom
        Kneitel (CRB Research)

    *THE ULTRA AMERICAN: THE US ROLE IN BREAKING NAZI CODES" by Thomas
        Parrish (Stein & Day)

    *THE ULTRA SECRET, by F.W. Winterbotham (Dell Paperbacks)

    *THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM, by Barbara Tuchman (Viking)

     WAR SECRETS IN THE ETHER, by William Flicke (Aegean Park Press)


    ______________________________________________________________________

    The following organizations frequently publish material on cryptog-
    raphy/cryptanalysis, some of it quite expensive.  I believe they all
    have catalogs available, so I've provided their addresses.  A word
    of caution, many of the titles in the Loompanics Catalog are offbeat
    enough to cause one to rethink the right to freedom of expression
    and freedom of the press.

    . Loompanics Unlimited              . Aegean Park Press
      PO Box 1197                         PO Box 2387
      Port Townsend, WA  98368            Laguna Hills, CA 92654

                   . American Cryptogram Association
                     18789 W. Hickory Street
                     Mundelein, IL  60060

     For an excellent real world perspective on the use of cryptographic
     techniques, don't forget your shortwave radio.

    ______________________________________________________________________

    Footnote

    The following publications provide fairly regular coverage of
    similar topics.  Their inclusion in a comprehensive listing of
    reference material is important, but I wish to indicate clearly
    that I have an interest - and/or publish regularly - in many of
    these books/magazines/newsletters, and would hope that their
    inclusion here not be misconstrued as an attempt at solicitation.

    . The Umbra et Lux Newsletter, published by DX/SWL Press, edited by
      Harry Helms - 10606-8 Camino Ruiz, Suite 174, San Diego, CA 92126
      $18/year - $2.00/sample copy.

    . The Numbers Factsheet, published quarterly by MoonBeam Press,
      compiled and edited by Havana Moon.  PO Box 149, Briarcliff, NY 10510
      $16/year domestic, $25/year international.  $5.00/sample copy

     . Popular Communications Magazine, 76 North Broadway, Hicksville, NY
       11801

     . The A*C*E Digest, PO Box 11201, Shawnee Mission, KS 66207
       $16/year - $2.00/sample copy.

     . UNO, DOS, CUATRO: A GUIDE TO THE SPY NUMBERS STATIONS, by Havana Moon,
       (Tiare Publications)

     . LOS NUMEROS: THE NUMBERS STATIONS GUIDE, by Havana Moon, (Tiare
       Publications)

     . LOS NUMEROS ON-LINE, a full-featured electronic shortwave magazine,
       with a dedicated "Crypto Vault"








  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
 |     This File Was Downloaded From Havana Moon's "Los Numeros" On-Line     |
 |               A Full Featured Electronic Shortwave Magazine               |
 |              Based on Portal* - The Affordable On-Line System             |
 |              For Information, Call 408-973-9111 (9-5 Pacific)             |
  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 12        Wed Jul 04, 1990
HAVANA.MOON                  at 08:46 EDT

[Note:  This file in its entirety is available for download (File #1385)


                              ENIGMA.LBR


                             [==========] The  ENIGMA  cipher machine was used
by the German armed forces during WWII. The history of its interception,  and
the breaking of the code  have become legend,  and a synopsis of that history
will be found  in the accompanying .DOC file.  In July 1981, an article
authored by  Marian Rejewski  appeared in  "Annals of the History of
Computing", a quarterly publication of  AFIPS (American Federation of
Information Publishing Societies, Inc.).  Published with that article  was a
simulation program in BASIC language which illust- rated the operation of the
ENIGMA.  The program was authored by  C.Deavours of the Math Dept., Kean
College of NJ.  Of course, that issue  (vol 3, # 3) was copyrighted by AFIPS.
The original program was modified, and was later translated to IBM/PC BASIC,
by  J.E.Eller, Va.Beach, VA.  ENIGMA.EXE is the result  of that history.   All
rights are reserved.  Permission  to use the original source material  was
granted by AFIPS, on condition that credit be given to the source,  and that
copying and distribution  would not be used for direct commercial advantage.
Therefore, this library of files, includ- ing  ENIGMA.EXE, ENIGMA.DOC, and
READ_ME.1st, may be distributed ONLY AS-IS without alteration or deletion, and
may not be used in any commercial manner.



                                    ENIGMA
                                 [|========|]
                           WWII German Cryptograph

        Enigma, Ultra,  cyclometer, bombas, bombes,  Bletchley, Banbury,
     Turing, .., .., . The list of names associated with the solution of
     the code is endless.  There is  certainly  no intent to slight here
     the effort of any nation(s) or individual(s)  by omitting them from
     this list.  Indeed, there is equally no intention of extending this
     paper  into the area,  where angels fear to tread,  of  the several
     controversies  which have arisen, as they always do around legends.
     Rather, the intent of this paper, and indeed this library of files,
     will be to present, on a very small scale, the Enigma  as a device,
     and the technical factors involved in interceptions.

        A few of those points  WILL  be simply mentioned now, to put the
     entire issue in perspective, by associating the legends.
        1) The question of which nation took  what part, at which stage,
     and under what constraints, in the monumental effort.
        2) The relative impact of the project  on the conduct or outcome
     of World War II, from "winning the war" to "incidental".
        3) The often repeated, but unsubstantiated, questions  surround-
     ing the bombing of Coventry in 1940.

        Actually, one controversy may be of interest  in computer terms.
     It has been reported that  Great Britain,  which in 1943  developed
     the  "world's first electronic computer"  (referring, of course, to
     COLOSSUS,  though  even  that title  is disputable),  did so  as an
     outgrowth of the earlier (electromechanical) bombas and bombes, and
     applied it to the solution of Enigma traffic.  This report has been
     questioned, on the grounds that the COLOSSI were used to attack the
     German  Geheimschreibers  (secret writers),  more complex  than the
     Enigma.

        The origin during the 1920's, of the Engima as we know it was as
     a commercial device, sold to  German industrial and business users,
     and indeed  in the 1930's  to other nationalities  as well.  Poland
     first  became aware  of the device  about  1927,  through a weekend
     incident in Polish Customs  involving a shipment made in error to a
     German firm in Poland.  Later, Poland openly purchased one from the
     German manufacturer.  The effort more often attributed to the Poles
     was the capturing of a  military version  by the underground  early
     in the war.   In any event,  several  European  nations,  including
     Great Britain, Poland, and France  were involved  during the 1930's
     in deciphering messages using the Engima,  with little cooperation,
     yet  with  considerable success.   Indeed, an early,  non-plugboard
     version was used in the Spanish Civil War.  Of course, the military
     version differed in some respects, notably that the reflecting drum
     was immovable in it, but the point here is that  the Enigma concept
     had been studied by the Allies long before 1939, the war's opening.

        Physically, the external case of the original device resembled a
     portable typewriter,  though  the ratio  of the length of its sides
     differed, being long and narrow.  It contained a 26-letter keyboard
     with  (flashlight-like) lamps in place of the typebars, a plug-type
     switchboard  (which actually exchanged letter pairs), a battery for
     power, and, finally, its most important part, a shaft holding three
     drums (rotors), together with  a fourth "reflecting" drum.  On each
     drum  was a ring,  on which  were engraved  the  26 letters  of the
     alphabet,  and  which could be rotated  with respect to the rest of
     the drum.  The center of each drum  was an insulating disk, with 26
     stationary contacts on one side  connected irregularly to 26 spring
     contacts on the other side.  The drums had  toothed gears, to allow
     relative turning of one by the next one.

        When a key was pressed,  the rightmost drum  rotated  1/26th  of
     its circumference, and current flowed  through the key, through the
     three drums  to  the reflecting drum, then back  again  through the
     three drums,  through  the plugboard,  to light the proper lamp for
     the enciphered letter.  As encipherment continued,  each successive
     drum  in turn  rotated  according to a plan  much like an odometer.
     Actually,  in certain positions,  the second drum  might rotate two
     positions  for one complete rotation of the previous one, unlike an
     odometer.

        As this  description  indicates,  a number of factors influenced
     encipherment :
        1) the connections of the drums, a factor of manufacture,
        2) the daily key, including  the setting of the rings, the order
     of the drums on the shaft, the plugboard settings, and others,
        3) the  message key, the name applied to  the initial setting of
     the drums, with which the current message began.
     It should be noted that, in early usage, the  daily key was changed
     on a somewhat extended schedule (perhaps once each month for some).
     As the war progressed, they were changed with increasing frequency,
     until finally, it became apparent  that the Germans suspected their
     traffic was being handled  with some degree of success.  As the war
     ended, a new cipher machine was being introduced on the line.

        Clearly, the intent of such a device  relies  less on the device
     itself  than on the management of its several factors.  The Germans
     decided  that each military  message originator  would randomly set
     his own message key, transmitting it in three enciphered characters
     at the beginning of each message.  Because of the  unreliability of
     military communications  at that stage, they were transmitted twice
     in succession.  Thus, the first six characters of each message were
     the message key, i.e. the initial settings of the drums.

        To  illustrate  the complexity  of the  problem,   the number of
     possible  unique interconnection sets  of enciphering drums is 26!,
     or  403,291,461,126,605,635,584,000,000 , and  the number of unique
     reflecting drum connections is  7,905,853,580,025.  However, from a
     practical point of view, all military machines  would have the same
     set of connections,  to insure  universal  military communications.
     This, then, is the importance of capturing a military unit, without
     the enemy's  certain  knowledge.   Clearly,  the replacement of ALL
     military  units  (estimated at 100,000 to 200,000)  during the war,
     would be a monumental  logistic task,  to be avoided unless totally
     necessary.

        Yet, even the keys presented no small problem.  Each enciphering
     drum  can be set  26 different ways.   Even  with only three drums,
     this means  17,576  possibilities.   And,  since their order on the
     shaft  can be changed,  the combination of the two  yields  105,456
     possibilities.  Add to this  the plugboard variations (the original
     6 pairs of letters  was later increased to 10 pairs, leaving only 6
     self-steckers of the 26 letters), and the problem increases.  Then,
     note that, as early as 1939, some parts of the German military used
     a selection of eight drums  from which to draw their three, and the
     U-boats later used a  4-drum  device.  Each of these  geometrically
     increased complexity.

        The task at hand was statistically a gigantic one, but one which
     could  be solved  with sufficient  resources,  both  mechanical and
     human.  These were applied during the war in a number of locations,
     mostly in England   ...   from Alan Turing's organisation, with its
     statisticians  and other specialists  to "the girls" of Banbury, as
     they were known,  the scores of young women  who daily prepared the
     "Banbury sheets".   These were  laboriously punched forms  of daily
     message  traffic,  from which  repeat patterns were derived,  using
     "weights of evidence".  And,  as history  knows,  it WAS solved, to
     the great benefit of the Allied war effort.

     I sincerely hope that this writing,  though  perhaps too simple for
     those  with an interest  in cryptoanalysis,  has  provided you with
     some knowledge of the nature of the  Engima,  and the project which
     the British called Ultra.

     The program  included  in this library  illustrates  the techniques
     described  here.  There are  a number of  papers  and books  on the
     subject  for those  who wish  to pursue it, including  the one from
     which part of this material was drawn.  That article, which  itself
     contains  some bibliography, appeared  in the Annals of the History
     of Computing,  Vol 3, # 3,  copyright  July 1981,  AFIPS  (American
     Federation  of  Information Processing Societies) .   Permission to
     excerpt  was granted  on condition  that it not be used  for direct
     commercial advantage, and notice of copyright be included, as it is
     here.  Therefore,  the  several files  of this library  must not be
     separated, and this notice must be left intact.

     J. E. Eller    536 Caren Dr    Va.Beach,VA 23452    (804)340-3848


  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
 |     This File Was Downloaded From Havana Moon's "Los Numeros" On-Line     |
 |               A Full Featured Electronic Shortwave Magazine               |
 |              Based on Portal* - The Affordable On-Line System             |
 |              For Information, Call 408-973-9111 (9-5 Pacific)             |
  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


File #1385 in the Radio & Electronics IBM Software Library contains the full
set of three files referenced here.  This text file has been extracted simply
to provide a detailed pointer to the full Enigma file.  /HM
 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 13        Sun Aug 26, 1990
FRANK.DEIS                   at 23:18 EDT

Hello All,

    On page 110 of the Fall issue of Whole Earth Review, there is an article
called "Clandestine Access" by Robert Horvitz.  Numerous publications are
reviewed including "The Ace", "Umbra et Lux", "The Numbers Factsheet" (all of
which have published articles by Havana Moon) as well as "Pirate Pages",
"Clandestine Radio Broadcasting", etc. etc.!!  Interesting reading!

    If you can't find Whole Earth Review, write to Box 38, Sausalito CA 94966.

                                Frank

 ------------
Category 3,  Topic 18
Message 14        Sat Sep 29, 1990
A.COURTNEY [Allan]           at 09:46 EDT

The Winter 1987 issue of the Whole Earth Review was known as the "Signal"
issue and had a couple of articles of interest. Bob Horvitz wrote "An
Intelligent Guide to Intelligence" which had a definitie radio bent, with
sidebars on Foreign News Monitors and News via Radioteletype.

There was also an article called "H-Bomb Truck Watch: Citizen Intelligence
Activism" about efforts to track DOE truck convoys between US Nuclear
facilities. These convoys CAN be monitored on the HF bands.

This issue of WER was rereleased as a full-scale book in late 1988 or early
1989 and should still be available at your local bookstore.

Allan

 ------------




TUCoPS is optimized to look best in Firefox® on a widescreen monitor (1440x900 or better).
Site design & layout copyright © 1986-2014 AOH