AOH :: WATERGAS.TXT|
Current experiments in hydrolyzing water to produce 'Brown's Gas'
| File Name : WATERGAS.ASC | Online Date : 11/18/95 |
| Contributed by : Mike Randall | Dir Category : ENERGY |
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The following is a report from Mike Randall on his experiments currently being
done with 'Brown's gas', the hydrogen/oxygen mix produced when water is
Yull Brown and his lawyers have requested that people NOT use his name for
this gas unless it is in conjunction with machines he has constructed. To
that end, we have called this WATERGAS since it comes from water.
2nd Judicial District
c/o PO Box 1028
Sierra Madre, California
November 1, 1995
Enclosed is the information on my work on an electrolyzer design based on
George Wiseman's book "Brown's Gas, Book 1" that I have been working on for
the past two months. Sorry for the delay, I am still working on this project
daily and have not had the time to write this up.
Summary to Date 10/15/95
Verification of the following unique water electrolysis process:
1. Large volumes of gas produced at little power input.
2. No heating of electrolytic cell.
The third unique feature, the analyzing of the gas and its ignition into a
flame, have not been tested as yet. See Ref.1 for a good description of this
gas called Brown's Gas, in honor of Yull Brown. Yull Brown did most of the
pioneering work to show that this stoichiometric gas mixture is a safe gas
with many unique properties.
Observations of Experiment:
The purpose of the experiment was to reproduce an electrolyzer as described in
Ref. 1 and observe what happened. A complete electrolyzer design and
procedure are given in Ref. 1 and will not be repeated in this paper.
Tested two power sources to the same electrolytic cell of parallel plate
electrodes connected in parallel. The capacitor power design (A), as
described in Ref.1, and also a variable transformer design (B), both DC
The electrolytic cell voltage across the (22) parallel plates (1"X4"X1/16"
thick at 1/8" min. spacing) was between 1.75 to 2.2 volts DC and was dependent
on amount of current and electrolyte (NaOH - sodium hydroxide) used. The more
electrolyte used the less voltage required for electrolysis. The more current
pushed through the electrolyzer unit the higher the resistance.
The spacing between plates needed to have room for the gas bubbles to rise to
the surface otherwise it would increase resistance by blocking the
electrolyte. The gases also need surface area to escape from, so a shallow
depth and wide cell design is preferable to a tall skinny cell design.
A) Capacitor Power Design: The rectified AC current was dependent on
capacitor size used. At each 24 mf AC capacitor, 1 amp flowed across to
the plates. Used three 24 mf AC capacitors in series for a total of 72 mf
AC, and got three amps. to flow. Could not find larger AC capacitors so
this power design experiment was limited to 3 amps.
B) Variable Transformer Power Design: Used a Variac (140 VAC, 15 amp.),
without capacitors, to the 300 VAC, 25 amp. full wave bridge rectifier and
got 15 amps flowing. The Variac was adjusted (2.75 to 3.5 VAC) so as to
provide 1.75 VDC to 2.2 VDC out of the bridge rectifier. Could not test
over 15 amps due to circuit breaker rated at 15 amps. Again, the cell
voltage was dependent on the amount of electrolyte used.
Observed the electrolyzer gases evolving from stainless steel electrode plates
through the clear polyethylene (PE) container. In one set of plates, 75% of
the gases formed at the edges of the plates. Electrons liked to flow to edges
and sharp pointed surfaces. So then made groove cuts in a cross-hatched
pattern on flat surfaces of electrodes and found that lots more gases were
created for the same electrode plate area. The gases generated in the cell
came in steady pulses of bubbles. By visual observation estimate, the gas
volume from the electrolytic cell through the flashback (PE) container were as
A) Capacitor design at 3 amps:
- sized each bubble at 1/2" to 3/4" cubic inch (CI)
- counted a gas bubble every 5 to 7 seconds
B) Variable transformer design at 15 amps:
- sized each bubble, 3/4" to 1" (CI)
- counted a gas bubble every 1 to 3 sec.
Calculation for (B) Design:
2.2 VDC cell voltage X 15 amps= 33 watts per hr.
3/4 CI per 3 sec X 20 per min. X 60 min.= 900 CI per hr.
= 14.7 liters/hr.
16.8 liters per Faraday (26.8 amp/hr.)
2.2 VDC X 26.8 amps = 58.96 watts per hr.
at 33 watts = 9.4 liters/hr.
Gas Volume Efficiency:
156.8% in worst case, 2.2 VDC and a 3/4 CI bubble very 3 sec.
In both power designs no heat increase of the electrolyzer unit was felt for
voltage under 2.2 VDC. The electrolytic cell was running for over a thirty
minute period with no heat being generated either in the fluid or electrodes.
Future Verification 3:
With ignition of pure electrolytic gases a flame is created that has unique
properties, such as an open air flame temperature of 127 to 132 C, to over
6000 C when welding certain materials (see Ref. 1).
Have not yet made containers vacuum tight, for the electrolytic cell or
flashback container, to evacuate the air in these containers. If air is
present in these containers and mixed with the electrolyzer gases generated,
then ignition of this combination causes an explosion. Verified this in the
flashback container. This is also how you run a car engine with this gas
Observed more gas was generated than with conventional water electrolyzer
design. This would mean that a portion of the gas was atomic moles, which is
twice the volume of di-atomic moles for the same amount of water electrolyzed.
Also no heat was generated in the electrolyzer which means that it was an
endothermic (energy added) reaction only. Conventional electrolyzers get hot
due to the forming of di-atomic bonds to H2 and O2 which is an exothermic
reaction and releases large amounts of heat.
The more current flowing the more gas was generated and the lower the voltage
the less power used and therefore the higher the efficiency. The more edges
and cut groove cross hatches on the plate surface the more gas was generated.
To increase the design for more gas, series connected electrolyzer cells would
be more practical with low current and high voltage like the typical building
At 15 amps and 125 VAC (2.1 VDC X 60 cells = 125 VDC) that is bridge rectified
to DC, a series connected design can be plugged right into the wall without a
transformer. This would have maximum power input of 1,875 watts. And for
even higher gas generation, 220 VAC could be used with 110 separate cells in
Questions and Theory:
Why the atoms do not recombine to form di-atomic atoms while still in the
electrolyzer is unknown due to the lack of research. One theory is it could
be due to the DC pulsing action (120 pulses/sec.) of the full wave bridge
rectifier of the 60 hertz AC waveform to the electrodes. There could be a
'best pulse' rate, and this is an area still to be explored.
1) "Brown's Gas, Book 1", by George Wiseman. Published by Eagle Research,
Box 145, Eastport, ID 83826 USA.
(The following is from conversations with Mike over the past few months.)
Mike Randall wanted to do 'Something!' and figured this should be worth
investigating. His first experiments in hydrolysis were along the lines of
Garrett as in the 1935 successes with the operation of a four cylinder
automobile using gases generated by the 'hydrolytic carburetor'.
Garrett (a father and son team) claimed they could produce sufficient volume
of hydrogen and oxygen, combined with outside air to not require storage of
the gas. Since no one wants to drive a 'highway Hindenburg', this 'on demand'
system thus offered a lot of promise. All details, including the patent are
listed online as GARRETT1.ZIP.
One of the major keys to the Garretts claimed successes were the use of 25%
battery acid mixed with incoming water. This increased conduction of the
current for a much greater gas production. Mike tried it, using the gases
produced to drive a 5HP Briggs and Stratton engine. Not only did the
electrolyte get very hot because of the high DC, but the gas production was
insufficient to keep the motor running.
So, Mike began looking at other systems, ranging from Dr. Henry Puharichs'
claims that a 600 cycle alternating current would produce the greatest
efficiency in water dissociation to Stanley Meyers claims of electrical
discharges which could 'fraction' the water molecule. He then began looking
at the work of Yull Brown with Browns Gas and ended up ordering a small $10
pamphlet from the International Tesla Society called 'Brown's Gas #1', written
by researcher George Wiseman. The number is 240007, they take credit cards
and you can contact the ITS to order your own at FAX (719) 475-0582, or via
mail at ITS, PO Box 5636, Colorado Springs, CO 80931.
According to Mike, he is very enthusiastic because this technique has produced
the greatest amount of gas thus far. He is going ahead with designs and
experiments to produce ever greater volumes of gas. The initial application
is for welding and is intended to require from 300 to 500 amps. Secondary
application is for driving an internal combustion engine. Mike says he has
been able to drive the 5HP engine with 30 amps of current at about 2 volts
supplied to the electrodes.
A TV documentary was shown in Australia showing inventor Yull Brown driving an
automobile powered by Browns' Gas. In that video, Mike says Brown claimed he
could run an automobile an entire year on 10 gallons of water.
As I understand it, since water is composed of two parts hydrogen to one part
oxygen, it always breaks down to this 33-1/3rd to 66-2/3rds relationship.
When it is burned, and it burns FULLY, it is called stoichiometric, without
any residue and resulting in a complete burn of ALL the fuel.
These gases produced by hydrolysis are in a monoatomic (single atom) form and
remain in that form as long as it is kept with other monoatomic hydrogen and
oxygen. When these monoatomic gases are exposed to outside air, they join
with 'free radicals - free floating gases' and become molecular hydrogen and
I know, it fits with the unusual properties of monoatomic elements which David
Hudson is working on. Perhaps when these monoatomic elements are taken
internally, as David claims, there is some kind of implosive recombination
which produces healing and rejuvenation. For those of us who have studied
Victor Schauberger and Walter Russell, we can recall that implosion is ALWAYS
linked with birth (rebirth) and explosion with death.
If these gases can be kept pure and without contamination from other gases to
produce their molecular cousins, you can do remarkable things with them. When
ignited as they exit from a welding torch, the monoatomic gases are recombined
BACK into their water form. They literally IMPLODE, taking anything in the
vicinity with them. I like to think of the Brown's Gas Welders as 'molecular
zippers' because of this implosive, centripetal, inward flowing action.
You can weld metal to brick and I have heard wood could also be bonded to
metal. When the flame is passed over the hand, it does not burn because heat
is an EXPLOSIVE process and this recombination is IMPLOSIVE. Interesting how
this also ties in with Sonne Wards plasma sphere which he believes is a large
scale implosive action. Because these monoatomic gases recombine into their
molecular form of water, that is your only residue from such a welding
Mike describes the circuit as wondrously simple. From the wall, you take the
two ends of the power line. One end connects to one side of a 24uF 120VAC
capacitor, the other side of the capacitor connects to one AC input of a
bridge rectifier. The other power line connects directly to the other AC
input of the bridge rectifier.
The positive and negative output of the bridge rectifier are connected to
stainless steel electrodes which are immersed in a bath of sodium hydroxide.
Mike says he uses a couple of tablespoons (dry sodium hydroxide), but I did
not get the size of the water tank. He says sodium hydroxide is safer to
handle and use than battery acid (sulphuric) and won't corrode the stainless
steel electrodes quite so rapidly.
Gary Hawkins says Yull Brown was trying to sue George Wiseman because he
published the essence of Brown's patent and in a highly simple and useable
form so that others could duplicate and experiment with it. But the patent
will expire in January of 1996 so Gary doesn't know how far that litigation
At any rate, I think Mike is onto something really great, especially if it can
be produced in a form that would run any internal combustion engine with
nothing more than a Browns gas generator. I am a bit unclear as to how he
gets the power and efficiency numbers, but Mike said it only required 1HP of
electrical energy (760 Watts) to drive the 5HP Briggs and Stratton engine.
That would be 3040 Watts (5HP X 760 = 3800 - 760 for power used = 3040) on the
output that would essentially be 'free'. The input power drawn was 30 amps at
2 volt which is only 60 Watts.
I asked how he was measuring the gas and Mike says he counts the number of
bubbles that appear on an electrode in a given time, muliplies their size by
gaseous volume and comes up with a combined total of about 9 liters per hour
using the 30 amp X 2 volt version.
One other point of interest, he found that a single 24uF (microfarad) 120VAC
capacitor could sustain 1 ampere of current. These can be connected in
parallel to produce the 30 amps. At the moment, it is not very cost effective
because these capacitors cost around $6 to $8 depending on source, so Mike is
actively looking for high farad capacitors that can take the 120VAC and
provide the current necessary for his welder project.
Because it is a pulsed AC coming off the bridge rectifier, the electrolyte
(water and sodium hydroxide combination) remains cool. You no longer have the
sustained resistance to the Direct Current flow because of the changing
polarities of the AC version.
Mike has offered to write up the results of his experiments so others can also
look into it. This article will include pictures and other details which he
might be able to get published in ESJ, Borderland, Nexus, Extraordinary
Science, SEA, NEN, etc.. There will definitely be a BBS version, mostly
circuit diagrams and/or construction details.
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