AOH :: SWEET4A.TXT Background for pursuing scalar electromagnetics
```

(word processor parameters LM=8, RM=75, TM=2, BM=2)
Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
PO BOX 1031
Mesquite, TX 75150

There are ABSOLUTELY NO RESTRICTIONS
on duplicating, publishing or distributing the
files on KeelyNet except where noted!

March 1, 1992

SWEET4A.ASC
--------------------------------------------------------------------
This file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Guy Resh.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
BACKGROUND FOR PURSUING SCALAR ELECTROMAGNETICS

T. E. Bearden
February 1992

Note

This informal  paper is  augmented and adapted from a letter to a
young senior in EE, who was planning to pursue his doctorate, and
area and  choosing either  physics or  EE as  a major.  The reply
back to  the student  enclosed several  formal background papers.
[1][2]  This paper is a sort of "executive summary" of scalar EM.

To Correspondent

Delighted to  see you  are interested  in the  material  and  the
approach; I  will try to give you some quick answers to your main
questions.

the Tesla Book Co., POB 12183, Chula Vista, CA 91912, phone (619)
426-8213.

Two Kinds of Electromagnetics

Specifically, you must understand that there are two kinds of EM.
One is  flawed and in the normal textbooks, and you will study it
in your  education process.   The  other  kind  is  not  in  your
textbooks at all, but it is in some good technical papers, if you
know what  they are,  what to read, and how to put them together.
By  the   time  you   get  your   doctorate,   hopefully   scalar
electromagnetics will  be in  fashion  at  most  of  the  leading
universities.

For the  second, unknown  kind of  EM, you  should read  the  two
Whittaker papers  bound in as Annexes to the Gravitobiology book.
[3][4]  They give you the basic theory you need, for the internal
EM and  for scalar EM potential interferometry.  Study them until

Page 1

Internal EM Structure of the Scalar Potential

Briefly, Whittaker  shows you  that  a  scalar  EM  potential  is
comprised of  bidirectional EM  wave pairs,  where the  pairs are
harmonics  and   phase-locked  together.      In   each   coupled
wave/antiwave pair,  a true  forward-time EM wave is coupled to a
time-reversal of  itself __ its phase conjugate replica antiwave.
The two waves are spatially in phase, but temporally they are 180
degrees out  of phase.   That  combined energy  thus stresses the
"time dimension',  and in  fact alters  the local rate of flow of
time itself.   Please  note how  fundamental that  statement  is.
Everything may be said to exist in time, or "move along in time,"
or to "be in linear motion along the time axis."  When you stress
and alter  the rate  of flow  of time,  you also affect all those
time-present things  such as  inertia of  an object,  mass of the
object, its  angular momentum,  clock rates,  etc.   You directly
engineer local  general relativity,  and you  electromagnetically
curve local spacetime.

Time Reversal and the Time-Reversed EM Wave

You must  understand time-reversal  and the time-reversed EM wave
[5] itself,  including the  theory of  the phase conjugate mirror
and of the pumped phase conjugate mirror (from nonlinear optics.)
Yariv  [6]   Chapter  16  and  Pepper  [7][8]  are  key  to  that
understanding.  Study these references also until the material is

Also study Sachs' overview of time reversal in physics. [9]  Here
you will  find that  time-reversal still isn't well understood at
all, but  Sachs does  a marvelous job in presenting what is known
and used.  You should also realize that a time-reversed (TR) wave
is seen by the observer in his own "forward time."  Hence he sees
the wave spatially reversed.  In short, he sees the same thing as
he would  see if  a movie  __ of  the wave expressed as a forward
time wave __ were simply reversed.  So the TR wave ever-converges
on its  course, rather  than diverges.   Convergence is the time-
reversal of  divergence.   Apply similar  TR processes  to  other
characteristics of  a normal  wave, by letting the movie film run
backward in  your mind.   Notice particularly what happens to the
forward-time entropy  of scattered waves __ it becomes negentropy
when you  time-reverse the  scattered waves.    You  can  recover
"order" or  "energy" even after it's been scattered in performing
work, by  phase conjugate  reflection.   And then  you can use it
again.   Remember, every  system is  driven, with continual input
and output  of energy.   We are not violating the conservation of
energy of  a closed  system, because  we are  not talking about a
closed system.

Destroy the Mystique of Entropy

Remove in  your mind  the neo-religious  mystique built up around
the entropy  concept.  The two serious postulations (assumptions)
of entropy  are (1)  every component  is a  forward-time critter,
with no  time-reversed critters  allowed, and (2) random variable
statistics is assumed a priori.  With the Whittaker decomposition
of the  scalar potential  into a surprising and perfectly ordered
set of  harmonic biwave  pairs, you  have blown  away the  random
variable  statistics  assumption.    By  phase  conjugate  mirror

Page 2

production of  time-reversed EM  waves, you  have blown  away the
forward-time assumption.   So  entropy isn't  what it used to be,
and  the   second  law  of  thermodynamics  is  not  a  mystical,
irrevocable law  of nature  at all.   To  believe that  it is, is
dogma, not  science.   Entropy can  be transformed  directly into
negentropy, and  negentropy can even be amplified.  Specifically,
the pumped phase conjugate mirror does exactly that.

Statistical Gravitons and Coupled Photons

Then consider  the Whittaker EM biwave structure of the potential
again, from the particle viewpoint.  The wave is made of photons,
and the  antiwave is  made of  antiphotons.   Since the  wave and
antiwave in  each set  are perfectly  correlated, so  must be the
photons/antiphotons.   The waves  are passing through each other,
so to  speak, in  the time  dimension only.   They  are perfectly
coordinated spatially.   Thus so are the photon/antiphoton pairs.
That is, the photons and antiphotons are continually coupling and
decoupling,  in   each  wave/antiwave   pair.     Since  all  the
wave/antiwave sets  are phase-locked,  then one  has the  unusual
feature that  this potential  in the local spacetime has formed a
spacetime  lattice,   perfectly  organized   both  spatially  and
temporally.   Further, when  a photon and antiphoton are coupled,
the resulting  system has  helicity-2.   This spin-2  entity is a
graviton.   However, it  is not  a hard  particle, because  it is
continually forming  and unforming.   Hence  it is  a statistical
graviton.     Occasionally,  more   than  two   photons   couple;
occasionally  the   coupling  opportunity  is  missed.    We  are
interested in  the average  coupling's spin  value; that  may  be
either  integral  or  fractional.    What  is  happening  in  the
Whittaker  spacetime  lattice  __  with  respect  to  the  photon
coupling and decoupling __ is that energy is oscillating back and
forth between  expression as  EM energy/order (photons decoupled)
and expression as gravitational energy/order (photons coupled).

The statistical  graviton process  is not  confined to helicity-2
gravitons, since  the spin-2  value just  represents the  average
coupling.   Spin-2 statistical  gravitons represent  or produce a
flat local  spacetime,  since  the  lattice  has  no  surplus  or
shortage of either photons or antiphotons.  Indeed, we may regard
the coupled  photons and  antiphotons as a special sort of "Dirac
sea," similar  to the  Dirac sea  of negative  energy  electrons.
Depending upon  the helicity, the spacetime may have an excess of
deficiency of  photons, in  which case  it is  said to be curved.
Also, it  can thus  serve as  a source  or a sink, depending upon
whether the hidden photon sea has a surplus or a deficiency.

Graviton Helicity and Spacetime Curvature

Note that  we are  often using  the term "photons" to mean either
photons or antiphotons.

If in the statistical graviton we increase the photon coupling to
__ say  __ 2.1  photons average,  then this provides gravitons of
spin 2.1.   In  this case the local spacetime is curved, since it
has an  excess EM  energy density,  as compared to normal ambient
vacuum.   It has  an excess of photons, so to speak, and can thus
serve as  a photon source (an EM energy source).  If the averaged
coupling is  1.9, say,  then the local spacetime is curved in the

Page 3

opposite direction.   In  that case,  the vacuum  is deficient in
photons, and can act as a sink for EM energy.

An Asymmetrical Vacuum Violates Local Conservation

In a  locally curved  spacetime, then,  one may  have  either  an
energy source  or an energy sink, depending upon how one makes or
engineers  this  local  vacuum/spacetime.    In  a  curved  local
spacetime, the  local vacuum/spacetime  interacts directly with a
system placed  there, and  it can  be designed  to produce either
extra energy  in the  system or absorb energy from the system.  A
curved local spacetime is a locally asymmetrical spacetime.  With
this violation  of symmetry, most of the conservation laws can be
broken locally.  One can readily have magnetic monopoles also, in
such a  locally curved  system. [10]  These violated laws include
conservation  of  energy,  electrical  charge,  magnetic  charge,
momentum, etc.   The  vacuum itself becomes an engine, to perform
work upon the system.

Using the Inner Hidden EM Order of Entropy

With the pumped phase conjugate mirror concept, you can decompose
negentropic EM  scattering stress energy (even heat) into ordered
bidirectional sets  of Whittaker waves, use these Whittaker waves
as  pump  waves  inputting  to  a  phase  conjugate  mirror(PCM),
"tickle" the  PCM with  a very small "signal" wave input, and get
out all  of the  entropic pump energy back in perfect order, as a
powerfully amplified  time-reversed phase conjugate replica (PCR)
of the little signal wave.

If you  look in  that fashion  at Tesla's  magnifying transmitter
that he  built on  Long Island,  you will  see that  he really is
treating the earth itself as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, and
he is  using his  transmitter to provide a stimulus wave into the
earth.   When things are done right (there's also one or two more
requirements),  when   so  stimulated  the  scalar  EM  potential
represented by  the heat  and  pressure  energy  of  the  earth's
interior will  partially organize  itself internally  as sets  of
Whittaker  pump  waves.    The  combination  of  these  Whittaker
bidirectional EM  waves and  the highly nonlinear material of the
earth  then  become  a  pumped  phase  conjugate  mirror  (PPCM).
Tesla's transmitter  is furnishing  the "stimulus"  wave to cause
internal Whittaker bidirectional self-ordering to occur (actually
through nonlinear harmonic and subharmonic resonance).

Now suppose  the earth has been "stimulated" in this fashion, and
has become a PPCM earth.  By standard, orthodox, nonlinear optics
theory, proved  by thousands  of experiments  and papers  in  the
literature, you  can then  input a  small "signal  wave"  from  a
distant transmitter  anywhere on  earth, at the distant locality,
and there  you will receive back from the PPCM earth an amplified
phase conjugate  replica (PCR)  wave, with  far more energy in it
than you  put in,  in your  signal wave.   So you can use Tesla's
approach to  directly organize  the enormous  heat  and  pressure
energy of  the  earth,  forming  them  (considered  as  a  scalar
potential) into  a giant  "standing Whittaker  pump wave"  in the
earth, and  tap that  Whittaker wave  anywhere else  in the world
that you  transmit in  another little signal wave.  In late April
to early  May of  1985, Frank  Golden detected  and measured  the

Page 4

Soviets doing  precisely that,  on  27  pairs  of  EM  pump  wave
frequencies,  12   kilohertz  apart.   [11]    Almost  incredible
electrical power  was being  extracted from  the earth,  to power
enormous Soviet  directed energy  weapons as  part of the May Day
celebrations for  the 40th anniversary of the end of World War II
against the Nazis.

Pumped Phase Conjugation as a Negentropic Process

In other words, you can defeat entropy disordering by this pumped
PCM means.  You do it by turning positive (scattering) (entropic)
energy of  the pump waves into negative (gathering) (negentropic)
energy of  the amplified  PCR wave.  Note that almost all of what
you were  taught about entropy assumes that all components of the
entropic system  are time-forward  components, and  that none  of
them are  time-reversed components.   It  would be  nice  if  the
leading thermodynamics  experts would do some real hard work with
Whittaker potentials,  internal EM  biwave structures  of  scalar
potentials,  PCMs,   pumped  PCMs,  and  time-reversed  waves  in
general, not  just at  optical frequencies,  and  not  just  with
obscure electro-optical devices.

Time Reversal and Correction of Disorder

Be sure  you  understand  Yariv's  statement  of  the  distortion
correction theorem.  [12]   The principle is awkwardly named, but
it contains the gist of engineerable negentropy.  Read it and say
it  over   and  over,   until  your  mind  grasps  its  fantastic
implications.   You can  easily make  a wave  that  will  restore
former order  after the  scattering of  that order.  Realize also
that the  time-reversed wave  is a  general solution  to the wave
equation.  Any kind of wave __ EM, sound, mechanical, whatever __
can be phase-conjugated/time-reversed in this manner.  In his New
York  lab,   Tesla  apparently  did  it  first,  with  mechanical
vibration waves,  before the turn of the century. [13]  His later
telegeodynamics  [14]   actually  envisioned  the  use  of  time-
reversed, laser-like  mechanical waves  that traveled through the
earth's crust  to a distant point.  He also understood the use of
two such  beams from separated separate transmitters, so that the
beams met  and crossed  at that distant point, to reproduce __ by
scalar interferometry  __ the  mechanical effects desired at that
point.  Whittaker's 1904 paper will show you that interference of
two such  scalar potentials  will indeed  produce ordinary  force
fields in  the interference zone.  You can fairly readily produce
force fields  at a  distance.   By calculation  of  the  form  of
potential needed,  you can  even produce  them in  the  geometric
patterns and  directions you  wish.  Ball lightning, e.g., is one
of   nature's   ways   of   using   distance-independent   scalar
interferometry to produce such stabilized geometrical forms of EM
energy.  Try finding any other laboratory-testable explanation of
ball  lightning   in  the   physics  and  electrical  engineering
curricula!

Whittaker and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

You must  also understand  what the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is.
Read carefully  the cited  AB 1959  paper. [15]   You  must  also
comprehend the  fact that  Whittaker's work  in 1903 and 1904 had
already anticipated  the AB  effect, and  drastically extended it

Page 5

engineerably and  in  a  distance-independent  manner,  into  the
macroscopic world,  far beyond  the several thousand angstroms to
which it has now been laboriously proven by modern physicists.

A Basic Knowledge of Atomic Nuclei

You  need  to  know  a  little  something  about  atomic  nuclei,
isotopes, isomers,  etc.    A  variety  of  introductory  nuclear
physics or  nuclear engineering books have the necessary material
in a few chapters.

Vacuum Is a Plenum, Not an Emptiness

You need  to also  understand what  the vacuum  is.  My own later
work will  give you  an overall  grasp of  that, and  for  deeper
understanding you  can check cited references that appeal to you.
[16][17][18][19][20]     I  warn  you  that  we've  all  been  so
conditioned  to   think  of   the  vacuum  as  "nothing"  and  an
"emptiness," that  it takes some doing to overcome that deep-set,
unconscious bias in one's own thinking.

The Major Physics Disciplines Are Inconsistent

You need  to be  aware  that  there  are  serious  conflicts  and
inconsistences    existing     between    general     relativity,
electromagnetics, and  quantum mechanics.  [21]   Physics is  not
unified, and  it is  not even  consistent.   No one, for example,
even knows  what a  photon really  is. [22]   It  is not  just  a
localized particle,  that much  is sure;  it's more  like a delta
appearing in the calculated constant of each frequency term in an
infinite Fourier  expansion series.  In fact we've got four major
photon models, all different, and we just plug in whichever model
has been  found to  give  the  right  answers  for  a  particular
application. [23]  As another example, the field concept is known
to be  fundamentally in  error, but  it  is  so  useful  that  it
continues to be widely utilized. [24]

Force Fields Versus Potentials

The conflict  between QM  and  EM  is  particularly  poignant  in
regards to  what causes  electromagnetic phenomena  in the  first
place.  [25]     In  classical  EM  theory  the  forcefields  are
considered the  primary causes,  and the potentials are just sort
of mathematical conveniences.  In quantum mechanics, however, you
have exactly  the contrary  view.   There, the potentials are the
primary causes,  and the  force  fields  are  secondary  effects,
created in the charged particle system itself by the interference
there of the potentials.  Vacuum is pure potential, nothing else.
[26]   The forcefields  do not even exist in the vacuum, but only
in  the  charged  particle   system  itself,   with   which   the
potentialized vacuum interacts.

You cannot  have the  classic EM  force field  in the  vacuum,  a
priori.   You can't  and don't have a force field except when you
introduce a charge into a potential gradient.  There's never been
an E-field  or a  B-field in  the vacuum as such; never has been,
and never will be.  The classical EM model is flat wrong on that.

Page 6

Even Feynman  pointed out  in his  three volumes  of physics that
only the  potential for  the forcefield exists in the vacuum, not
the forcefield itself. [27]  You've got to understand this point.
The inclusion  of vacuum  forcefields  is  a  major  screw-up  in
classical EM  that prevents  real understanding  of the  vacuum's
potentialization and local interaction with physical systems.

Take the  definition of  an E-field:  E = F/q, where q is charged
mass.   If you  don't have  any charged  mass, you can't possibly
have any  force per  unit charged  mass, from  the  definition  a
priori.   Try an analogy where E is the number of fish per bucket
of water,  F is  the number  of fish in all the buckets of water,
and q  is the number of buckets of water.  If you have no buckets
of water  at all,  for example, you cannot possibly have any fish
per bucket of water, a priori.  If you have a lot of fish around,
but no buckets of water, however, you have the potential for fish
per bucket  of water,  should you  bring in some buckets of water
and couple the fish to them (put them in the buckets of water).

The Quantum Mechanical Vacuum

To understand  what is  in the vacuum, you need to appreciate the
quantum mechanical view of the vacuum.  In that view, spontaneous
creation and  annihilation of  particles occur  at an  incredible
rate.   Each particle is formed, then disappears, so quickly that
it cannot  be individually  observed.  But it is real while it is
existing, because in quantum field theory the exchange of virtual
particles generates  all the  forces of  nature.   We call such a
fleeting or  ghostly particle  a virtual particle.  Of particular
interest is  that enormous numbers of virtual photons continually
appear and  disappear in the vacuum.  The vacuum is thus a fiery,
seething cauldron  of incredible  EM energy, but the EM energy is
essentially disintegrated.   At any rate, electromagnetically the
quantum  mechanical   vacuum  to   first  order  consists  of  an
incredible flux of virtual photons. [28]

So to  be more  precise, in  the quantum mechanical vacuum you do
not have observable charged mass, but you do have virtual charged
mass.   So you can have a virtual E-field in the vacuum, which is
just a  potential gradient  without the  presence  of  observable
charged mass particles. [29]  Let's look a bit deeper:

Detected EM Waves Are Electron Precession Waves

Because of  the spin  of the  electron/particle,  that  potential
gradient in  the vacuum __ that interacts, e.g., with an electron
in a  detector probe wire __ is actually oriented longitudinally,
at right  angles to  the present  notion of  a  transverse  wave.
Let's see why:  The conduction electron in the wire is relatively
constrained [30]  by all  the other conduction electrons ahead of
it pushing  back when  it tries to accelerate.  Being constrained
longitudinally  but  spinning,  it  acts  then  as  a  gyro,  and
precesses  laterally   (from  the  direction  of  the  disturbing
"force".   If a  vacuum potential gradient "virtual force" pushes
on that  spinning electron  gyro in  a wire  probe, the  spinning
electron must  move at  right angles  to  the  direction  of  the
virtual force, because its movement is mostly precession.

Page 7

Conduction electrons  thus  don't  move  down  the  wire  at  the
"disturbing  force's"  signal  velocity;  instead,  they  precess
sideways, and  occasionally "slip"  forward down  the wire  a bit
during their  precession.   They thus "drift" along down the wire
at centimeters  per second  or so  __ not  even  approaching  the
signal velocity (i.e., the velocity of the change in potential as
the change  moves down  the wire).   The signal velocity down the
wire is  only slightly  less than  the speed  of light in vacuum,
which is  about 300,000,000  meters per  second.  [31][32]    The
lateral or  transverse EM  forcefield waves  we  measure  in  our
probes and  instruments __ and erroneously model in our theory as
existing in the vacuum __ are actually electron translation waves
in the  charged particle  system  (the  detector).    Since  that
translation is  precession, the  measured EM transverse waves are
actually electron  precession waves.  They are not at all what is
in the  vacuum.  Instead, they are what is in the electron gas in
the wires and circuits of our detectors and instruments.

EM Waves in the Vacuum Are Longitudinal

Since the  interacting/disturbing virtual  E-field (the  massless
potential gradient)  "force" in  the vacuum  must be  oriented at
right  angles   to  the   detected  precession  movement  of  the
electrons, then  the EM  waves in  vacuum are  actually "waves of
potential gradients"  and are  longitudinal.    It  appears  that
Nikola Tesla  was quite  correct on  this, you  see, and  all the
modern textbooks are quite wrong. [33]

So you  cannot have an observable E-field in the vacuum, contrary
to what  classical EM  theory and  your physics  text  prescribe,
because it  would require  the  presence  of  observable  charged
particles, none of which are there.  It would in fact require the
presence of  the mechanical  ether, a  notion that  was destroyed
before the turn of the last century.  You do have virtual charged
particles present  in  the  vacuum,  and  the  gradients  in  the
vacuum/virtual domain are longitudinal, not transverse.

Why Maxwell Assumed Transverse EM Waves

When Maxwell  wrote his theory, he used a mechanical model of the
ether. [34]   In  that model, thin but observable mass "fluid" is
assumed to  comprise and  fill the  vacuum.  Accordingly, Maxwell
assumed observable  forcefields and  transverse EM waves to exist
also, since  that is  what is measured in the electron gas in our
probes and  detectors.   The electron had not been predicted yet,
and electricity  was considered  to be  a thin material fluid, as
was the  "luminiferous ether."   Decades  later, the  notion of a
mechanical ether was destroyed experimentally, [35] but Maxwell's
mechanical-ether-based  EM   model  __   as  by  then  long-since
"interpreted" from  quaternions into  vectors, by  Heaviside  and
Gibbs __  was not  changed accordingly.  With respect to the form
of EM  waves in vacuum, the Heaviside/Gibbs vector interpretation
model has been in error a long time __ just as was its Maxwellian
quaternionic predecessor  __ and it's still in error, contrary to
what they taught you in your textbooks and classes.

There Is a Mechanism for the Flow of Time

Note in  passing that  the scattering interaction of the external

Page 8

EM with  the electron shells of atoms primarily creates the basic
quantum changes that in turn create and control the nature of the
macroscopic flow  of time.  In other words, a quantum consists of
action, or  "energy times  time."  It carries not only a piece of
energy, but  also a piece of time. [36][37][38]  Keep that firmly
in mind for the following:

A photon is freed EM energy.  Its thing is to travel at the speed
of light.     Mass is  trapped EM  energy.   Its thing is to trap
photons and  sit there  and hold  them as  a densely  packed mass
potential.  (more on that later).

In the  ubiquitous photon  interaction  with  mass  __  continual
photon absorption  by matter  and photon  emission from it __ the
energy portion  in the  absorbed quantum (photon; free EM energy)
turns into  mass (trapped EM energy).  Simply divide the photon's
energy by  c-squared to  get the  amount of extra resulting mass.
However, absorption  of the  energy portion  of the photon leaves
its "time  portion" or "time tail" attached to the "excited" mass
that absorbed  the photon.   Thus  that (formerly)  mass __  that
absorbed the  energy portion  of the  photon __ is now "masstime"
and not mass.

Note that  mass does  not exist  in time.   Masstime  does.  Each
constituent particle  of the atom thus is alternately existing as
mass, masstime,  mass, masstime,  etc.   Or in  other words, it's
flipping between  atom, atom-time,  atom, atom-time, etc. states.
Think deeply  about that.    Things  don't  "flow  through  time"
continuously in  the manner  universally assumed.   To  the macro
observer, of  course, the flipping is so rapid that he cannot see
it.   So he sees the macro world as solid and continuous.  At the
micro level,  physical reality  is being created and annihilated,
quantum by quantum but at an incredible rate.

Shortly after  absorbing the  photon, photon  emission from  that
excited atom-time  occurs, and a bit of the atom-time's mass (the
trapped EM  energy) is reconverted back to a new energy part of a
photon (freed  EM  energy).    In  the  photon  freeing/formation
process, this  freed "photon  energy part" absorbs/joins the time
tail of  the atom-time  as part  of itself.  The emission of this
photon "tears  off and  carries away  the  time  tail"  from  the
mass/atom-time,  leaving   behind  mass/atom   again,   and   not
(mass/atom)-time.    So  a  mass  is  continually  changing  into
masstime, then  mass, then  masstime, then  mass, etc.   The mass
"moves through time" in little jumps, so to speak, at a very high
"jumping rate."

The result  is that the "time dimension" connected to the mass of
the observer  or instrument is not continuous, but discontinuous.
It's rather like a switch being repeatedly thrown back and forth,
between off and on states.  A mass's "passage through time" is in
that vein.  The "time dimension" is continually being created and
destroyed, for  each particle of mass in the observer/instrument,
by photon  interaction.  By the creation portion, things exist in
time, producing  causality and  a future  and a  past.    By  the
destruction portion, the future and the past are disconnected and
"lost."   That's why  you can look in a corner, and see the three
length (spatial)  dimensions, but try as you will, you cannot see
the time  dimension at right angles to them.  It doesn't exist as

Page 9

a continuous  dimension; otherwise,  you could  see into the past
and into the future.

Play around  with multiple  masses and multiple time flows a bit,
and you'll  discover that  there are ways to "see into the future
and the  past," but's that's way beyond the scope of this present
discussion!   [Suffice it  to say that I know one physicist (PhD)
who has extensively experimented with that, and another scientist
who has  also experimented  with it,  but I  am not at liberty to
discuss the results.].

External and Internal Electromagnetics

But to  return.   To understand  scalar EM,  as we said, you must
understand that there are actually two kinds of electromagnetics.
One is __ so to speak __ only on the external "surface magnitude'
of the  vacuum potential, and the other is in the interior of the
vacuum potential.   The  exterior kind  is spatial in nature; the
interior kind is hyperspatial in nature.

(1) The  exterior kind  of  EM  is  caused  or  due  to  the
potential magnitudes  and their  gradients, interacting with
charged particles   (forcefields); that's the "normal" kind.
In that  kind the  theoretical EM  model's focus  is on  the
forcefields as  causes, with  the potentials themselves just
regarded  as  mathematical  conveniences.    Certainly  that
"normal" EM  does not  contain  any  sort  of  organized  EM
structure inside,  and composing,  the scalar  EM potential.
It just  models  the  scalar  potential  at  a  point  as  a
magnitude,  and  the  vector  potential  at  a  point  as  a
magnitude and  direction.   Notice it thus models only local
action; it  does not model any sort of action at a distance.
The  EM  action  is  considered  __  and  described  in  the
classical EM  model __  as existing  at a point in space and
time.  Further, the local spacetime itself is considered not
to have any direct causative EM interaction there.  In other
words, there are assumed to be no local vacuum engines __ no
Whittaker activation of mass or the local vacuum.

(2) There's  also an internal EM, normally completely inside
the scalar  potential, which  exists as  "infolded" harmonic
sets of EM antiparallel wave/antiwave pairs.  Whittaker 1903
describes that  kind  of  EM.    This  internal  EM  was  in
Maxwell's  original  quaternion  equations,  hidden  in  the
scalar  component   resultant   that   remained   when   the
directional components  of quaternions  interacted  to  form
directional zero resultants.  The scalar component resultant
of the interaction often still remained, and infolded inside
itself (i.e.,  it  then  consisted  of)  scalar  and  vector
functions  of   the  yet-present-and-interacting   component
vectors. [39]

Today that part of Maxwell's original theory just appears in
classical  EM   Heaviside/Gibbs  theory  as  a  vector  zero
resultant, which  is erroneously  discarded as  if it were a
complete absence  of EM.   It is no such thing; it is merely
the absence  of EM  translation of  charged particles.    It
indeed is  a patterned  EM-induced gravitational  stress  in
local spacetime,  and it is a little "vacuum engine" capable

Page 10

of working  directly on  the atomic nucleus.  If you want to
know  what   all  the  fuss  about  the  difference  between
Maxwell's 200-odd  quaternion equations  EM theory  [40] and
the     Heaviside/Gibbs      four      vector      equations
curtailment/subset, just  look at  the difference  between a
zero  vector  result  and  a  quaternion  resultant,  in  an
interaction where  the vector  resultant  is  zero  but  the
scalar  component   of  the  quaternion  resultant  remains.
Specifically, look mathematically at the internal functional
nature of that remaining scalar resultant __ the part that's
thrown away in the present theory.

(3) Note  that the  internal EM is more than just a model of
conditions at a point.  In addition to that, it prescribes a
hyperspatial,  bidirectional  flow  of  EM  transverse  wave
energy at  the point,  into and out of it, into it from afar
and away  from it  back to  afar, on  an infinite  number of
phase-locked frequencies.   In  other words, the internal EM
energetically  connects   conditions   at   a   point   with
essentially all  the other points in the universe.  And when
we interfere  two such  scalar potentials,  we are  actually
interfering both  of those  sets of  an infinite  number  of
bidirectional EM  waves.   (See  Whittaker's  second  paper,
1904). [41]   It  doesn't matter where the interference zone
occurs; it  can be  a million  miles away,  or a  light-year
away.    The  interference  accomplishes  "outfolding,"  and
creates "normal" or "exterior" EM effects.  Specifically, it
creates force fields and patterns of them __ both static and
dynamic __  on charged  particle systems.   The  internal EM
thus  prescribes  and  models  action  at  a  distance,  and
incorporates the  "normal" exterior  EM as a special case of
local scalar  interferometry.   Whittaker rigorously  proved
this mathematically.

Zero-Translation-Vector-Resultant Systems

You must  also do  some thinking about the scalar envelope nature
of a  series of  finite, nonzero, interacting translation vectors
which result  in a  zero-vector resultant  for translation.  They
still form  an internally  active system, and their action cannot
be ignored if one is to grasp the total physics of the situation.
Not all  vector zeroes  are equal  __ it  is a serious fallacy of
vector analysis to equate them, and also to equate all of them as
"total absences." [42]  There's a great deal of difference in two
identical tanks,  one of  which is  truly empty, and one which is
filled  with   a  gas   under  enormous  pressure.    Neither  is
translating, but  which one  would you  prefer to cut into with a
cutting torch?   As  an example,  the  resultant  system  of  two
equally forceful  elephants pushing  fiercely against  each other
may not  translate, so  they will do no external translation work
on an  external system.   But  they do  struggle fiercely against
each other,  and put  a lot  of stress  in  there,  and  each  is
constantly working  furiously. The  system isn't  doing  external
translation work,  but it's  doing a  whale of  a lot of internal
work, of  one elephant  on the  other.  [That, after all, is what
internal stress  is __  it's a  condition of  internal work being
continually performed  on the parts of a system, without external
translation of the system.]

Page 11

Internal EM Energy As Continual Internal Work

Now two  matched fleas pushing together would be the same sort of
"zero vector  translation" system  as the  system of  two matched
elephants.  But if one thinks that all vector zero resultants are
really equal, and really are the total absence of work and force,
just try  standing between  the elephants  and then  between  the
fleas, and  compare your  two  experiences.    I  think  you  can
immediately see  a great  difference in  the two systems!  I also
think you  can see that you really shouldn't neglect the internal
energy trapped  in that  zero-translation-vector  system.    Many
learned professors challenged with standing between two straining
elephants, to  test their notion that the zero vector system is a
"total absence  of force"  type of  zero  and  is  to  be  simply
discarded, just  don't seem  to see the humor in the issue posed.
Instead, they  are quite  apt to  become rather  furious  at  the
suggestion  of   putting  the  issue  to  such  a  practical  and
definitive test.   Ah,  me!   They really  will not  submit their
pronouncements to  scientific verification  or  validation  by  a
simple experiment!   [I  am particularly  fond of challenging the
ones who  call me  all the  dirty names,  to test it with the two
elephants.]

But in a physical system, you might ask, how can the system, just
sitting there doing nothing externally, be continually performing
internal work,  which requires  continual  scattering  of  energy
inside itself?   Simple.  All systems are open, driven systems __
driven by  the VPF  of vacuum.   Such a system, in equilibrium in
its  driving  flux  exchange  flows,  can  easily  be  constantly
performing  internal   work.     Again,  it's   like  sticking  a
the shaft.   The  system will  just sit  there and continually do
internal work,  but it will not be doing any external translation
work.   Nontranslating systems  are just  "idling" systems, so to
speak, driven by the VPF exchange with the vacuum.  The vacuum is
driving everything, everywhere, anyway.

What Electrical Charge Really Is

Nowhere in  classical EM  does it tell you what electrical charge
is or  what causes  it.   For that question, you will have to dig
the answer  out of  quantum mechanics  and quantum  field theory.
Briefly, the  electrical charge  of a  mass is really its violent
exchange of virtual photons with the vacuum.  The charged mass of
the particle  is continually  absorbing virtual  photons from the
surrounding vacuum,  and re-emitting  them back  to  the  vacuum.
Actually, the  magnitude of  the electrical  charge is  simply  a
measure of  the volumetric  intensity of this virtual photon flux
(VPF) exchange.   Also,  it is  fixed only for a fixed vacuum VPF
intensity, in  which it  is embedded.   It's really discrete, not
quantized.  If you change the local vacuum VPF flux intensity (by
simply adding,  e.g., a positive or negative electrostatic scalar
potential), you  create a  "locally excited  vacuum," a  "locally
curved spacetime,"  and an  altered magnitude  of the charge on a
fundamental   charged    particle   located   in   that   excited
(potentialized) vacuum.   If  you want to get a Nobel prize, then
perform some experiments along this line, to demonstrate that the
electrical charge  of a  particle is discretized as a function of
local vacuum VPF intensity, but it is not quantized, and write it

Page 12

up and publish it in a leading journal.  Of course if you do your
experiments in an unexcited (i.e., normal ambient) vacuum, you'll
get the  same answer  everyone  else  has  before  you.    Tesla,
however, certainly held a very different view, and considered the
electron as  having a  variable charge.  [43]  A lot of things in
your EE book were simply assumed, back there at the beginning.

What Unorthodox Researchers Mean By "Free Energy"

Regarding your  present "free  energy is  impossible"  education,
don't believe  a lot  of what you were told.  If they didn't even
get the  definition of  energy correct __ and they didn't __ then
you might  suspect they really are not too sure just what kind of
energy is free for the taking and what kind is not.  Many of them
certainly don't seem to recognize that there's absolutely no such
thing as  a closed  system, anywhere in the universe.  Everything
is open  to a virtual particle flux exchange with the vacuum, and
every system  is driven  by that  flux and  its energy.   Indeed,
every system  is just  a complex order in equilibrium in that VPF
of vacuum,  with violent  input and  output continually.   All we
mean by  "free energy  device" is a device that incorporates some
sort of  "gating mechanism" to gate out a bit of that violent VPF
energy circulation  in and  out of  the system.   We just wish to
gate some  of the  vacuum energy  that runs  in to the nucleus __
catch it  there before it runs back out to the vacuum, and "gate"
it out  to the external circuit and the load before it is allowed
to scatter  and run  back permanently  to the  vacuum.   It's  no
different than  wishing to  put a  paddlewheel in a river, with a
sluice-box arrangement to divert some of the river's water to the
before the  water is  allowed to spill off the paddles and return
permanently back to the river.

Local Energy Conservation Can Be Legitimately Violated

"Conservation of  energy" ruthlessly  depends upon time symmetry;
if    time     stress    is     made    asymmetrical    (as    in
potentialization/curvature  of  the  local  vacuum/spacetime  and
deliberately  altering   its  Whittaker  structure),  then  local
conservation of  energy is  violated, and  the local  vacuum will
serve as  a sink  or a  source, depending  upon  which  way  it's
potentialized.   You can  easily violate  local  conservation  of
energy by  curving local spacetime, if you understand Whittaker's
two papers.  [44]  He already shows you that, in the potential at
a point, you've got bidirectional EM wave flows of energy, in and
out, from  all the  rest of  the vacuum  in the  universe.   That
exchange of  the vacuum  is mostly  with the nucleus of the atom,
for that's  where most of the mass potential is.  If you "gate" a
little bit  of the  inflowing EM Whittaker wave energy out to the
external circuits of a device, you will extract and use EM energy
directly from the vacuum source.  As I showed in the Sweet vacuum
triode write-up,  there's at  least one  major way  of doing just
that sort of gating __ and the device proves it.

On Self-Powered Permanent Magnet Devices

And they told you a magnet won't turn itself, didn't they?  Well,
that's  not   always  true.    They  never  heard  of  a  kinetic
(activated) magnet, which by definition traps-in a special vacuum

Page 13

engine function  to drive  it.  Floyd Sweet activates the magnets
in his  vacuum triode  by a  special proprietary  process,  after
which it can gate energy out of the vacuum into the external load
circuit.     Until  the  nuclei  are  activated  to  function  as
controlled vacuum  engines, the  device is  just an  inert, solid
state pattern  of materials,  and quite  useless as  a generator.
Also, check  the Einstein-de  Haas effect  for rigorous  proof of
additional considerations in a magnet other than magnetic forces.
[45]   In the  standard Einstein-de Haas experiment using a coil,
substitute the  linear field region between two permanent magnets
for the  coil's field  region, and you will see what I mean.  The
Einstein-de Haas  effect is  only a  little bitty white crow, but
it's quite sufficient to prove that not all crows are black.  But
what if you could make the crow grow?

Further, Howard Johnson goes after a self-powered permanent motor
in a slightly different fashion.  Imagine a "rotary wheel" motor,
where one  permanent bar  magnet is  used on the rotor and one on
the stator.   Suppose the stator magnet has its north pole facing
the rotor,  and the  rotor  magnet  has  its  south  pole  facing
outward.   As the rotor magnet's south pole approaches the stator
magnet's north pole, it is magnetically attracted and accelerates
toward  it,  producing  forceful  torque  and  shaft  horsepower.
During the  approach phase,  energy is  stored in the flywheel as
mechanical energy.   Now  just as  the magnetic south pole on the
rotor is  passing the  stator's  north  pole,  suppose  you  have
cleverly produced or "activated" a little region of time-reversal
on the  back side  of the  stator's "north"  pole.   In the time-
reversed region, the north pole of the stator functions precisely
as if it were a south pole, to an external observer (to the just-
departing rotor  south pole,  for example.).   Consequently,  the
rotor finds itself repelled on away from the stator, accelerating
yet again  in the  same rotational  direction as  before.    This
stores additional  energy in  the flywheel.   As can be seen, you
are now  in an  "over-unity" condition,  and  you  can  power  an

In a  real-world device,  you may  not get total time-reversal at
the backside  of the stator magnet's north pole, but only partial
time reversal.   So  to the  departing south  pole of  the  rotor
magnet, the  north pole backside of the stator magnet will appear
to be  a much-weakened  north pole.   It  will still extract back
some of the shaft energy previously stored in the flywheel during
the approach phase, but not all of it.  Hence the device is still
in an "over-unity" condition, and energy __ though not as much as
before __  can be  continually extracted  from  it  to  power  an

In both  cases, using  time-reversal we  have created a region of
local time  asymmetry, so  we can locally violate conservation of
energy.   In this fashion, you can legitimately build a permanent
magnet motor  that appears  to be  "self-powered."    The  entire
secret is  how you  achieve the  time asymmetry  in  the  exactly
needed place.   But  even with this over-unity condition, you are
not violating  overall conservation  of the  universe as a whole.
Remember, all  systems are  driven.   This self-powered permanent
magnet motor  is actually  extracting and  gating energy from the
local now-asymmetrical  flux exchange  of the atoms/nuclei of the
magnet material  with the  vacuum.   It's still a special sort of

Page 14

paddlewheel in a special sort of river.  Time asymmetry, achieved
by using  a time-reversing  material and  process, furnishes  the
stream __ and standard techniques will furnish the "paddlewheel."

Remember the principle: Conservation of energy ruthlessly depends
upon  time   symmetry.    If  you're  going  to  locally  violate
conservation of  energy, you  must establish  and utilize a local
time asymmetry.   And  that can be done; at our present elemental
level of  knowledge of vacuum engineering, it's quite tricky, and
everything must  be precisely  so and  highly nonlinear __ but it
can be  done.   And it's  really no  more mystical than putting a
sluice-box arrangement in a flowing stream, diverting some of the
water to a waterwheel, and extracting shaft horsepower.

We emphasize,  however, that  you cannot,  cannot, cannot  make a
self-powered permanent  magnet motor  with "ordinary" magnets and
an "ordinary"  time-symmetrical vacuum,  no matter how strong the
magnets, or  what exotic  form you twist them into.  You can make
one with  activated magnets  and  an  extraordinary  asymmetrical
vacuum, which have locked-in time asymmetry regions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

If you have comments or other information relating to such topics
as  this paper covers,  please  upload to KeelyNet or send to the
Vangard  Sciences  address  as  listed  on the  first  page.
Thank you for your consideration, interest and support.

Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

--------------------------------------------------------------------
If we can be of service, you may contact
Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Page 15
Call THC BBS: +1 604 361 1464 HST   1:340/26   Over 6,200 Text Files!
"Reach for the edges of your mind"

```

The entire AOH site is optimized to look best in Firefox® 3 on a widescreen monitor (1440x900 or better).