AOH :: REYNOLD1.TXT|
On Osbourne Reynolds' Submechanics of the Universe (1/3)
| File Name : REYNOLD1.ASC | Online Date : 01/02/95 |
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The EXCELLENT Reynolds files are listed on KeelyNet as:
REYNOLDS1.ASC - Aether as a crystalline dilatant matrix to help
explain matter, energy, space, time and PSI pheomena
REYNOLDS2.ASC - the dilatant medium hypothesis as a bridge between
classical and modern physics
REYNOLDS3.ASC - envisions dynamic systems of negative dislocations
(holes) through which matter and energy manifest and
moves with tie-ins to explain UFOs
REYNOLDS.ZIP - All of the above files as bundled together
Also, you should download BUBBLE1.ZIP as explaining matter as a bubble in the
Origin: SNET - 0005 - PHYSICS-NEW
From: BRUCIFER@FAATCRL.FAA.GOV Public
Date: 12/19/94 at 21:41
Re: Osborne Reynolds' Aeth 01
Xref: world alt.sci.physics.new-theories:9742
From: email@example.com (Bruce Rosenberg)
Subject: Osborne Reynolds' Aether Theory
Date: 19 Dec 1994 21:41:30 GMT
Organization: FAA Technical Center, Pomona, NJ
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OSBORNE REYNOLDS' SUBMECHANICS OF THE UNIVERSE:
A STRUCTURED CONTEXT FOR MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME, AND PSI PHENOMENA
Bruce L. Rosenberg
Presented at the Atlantic University
February 18 and 19 1989
Virginia Beach, VA
February 17, 1989
23 North Chelsea Avenue
New Jersey, 08401 USA
Copyright (C) 1989 by Bruce L. Rosenberg, All Rights Reserved.
OSBORNE REYNOLDS' SUBMECHANICS OF THE UNIVERSE:
A STRUCTURED CONTEXT FOR
MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME, AND PSI PHENOMENA ABSTRACT
Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. (1842-1912) was a British engineer after
whom the fluid dynamics Reynolds number was named. He considered his
monograph, "The Submechanics of the Universe", (1, henceforth "SMU") published
in 1903, to be his greatest achievement. It advances a theory of a
structured, mechanical medium which accounts for all known physical phenomena.
My analysis of it shows that it is compatible with relativity, quantum theory
and elementary particle theory. Although Reynolds' theory is all but
forgotten today, similar theories are being proposed by some modern
theoretical physicists. Reynolds' theory provides a basis for long-range
order which eludes today's theorists.
Current theory pictures empty space with independent particles zooming around
in it. These particles interact via photons and fields. Reynolds' theory
pictures a structured, quasi-crystalline medium, in which elementary particles
exist as DISLOCATIONS. The particles interact via vibrations and stresses in
Reynolds' medium is a universal matrix within which all things exist. It is
analogous to the East's "unseen ground of existence". In place of
independence and chaos, Reynolds' theory provides dependency and order.
Intellectual understanding of cosmic unity resonates with the experiential
unity of self and makes whole what may have been disparate.
In this paper, I briefly review Reynolds' theory and show that it allows for
possibilities beyond those of currently accepted theories. I will explain how
this theory can provide a physical basis for understanding psi phenomena.
REVIEW OF OSBORNE REYNOLDS' SUBMECHANICS OF THE UNIVERSE
Reynolds begins his magnum opus, "Submechanics of the Universe", as follows:
"By this research it is shown that there is one, and only one,
conceivable purely mechanical system capable of accounting for all
the physical evidence, as we know it in the Universe.
The system is neither more nor less than an arrangement, of
indefinite extent, of uniform spherical grains generally in normal
piling so close that the grains cannot change their neighbors,
although continually in relative motion with each other; the
grains being of changeless shape and size; thus constituting, to a
first approximation, an elastic medium with six axes of elasticity
symmetrically placed." (1, p. 1).
Reynolds' popular lecture entitled, "On an Inversion of Ideas as To the
Structure of the Universe" (2) contains a nonmathematical exposition of his
theory. It is a good place for beginners to start.
Let me tell you how I got started in this subject. In 1968 while employed as
a research engineer at the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, I invented a device which consisted of a
dilatant fluid enclosed and sealed in a rubber sack. At the time I had no
idea what dilatancy was, so I asked some of my associates in the physics
department, got the basic vocabulary and set off to the Franklin Institute
Library to do some research. This was the beginning of my education in
rheology and the work of Osborne Reynolds.
While researching the prior art in dilatancy, I was surprised and intrigued to
find, in a book on RHEOLOGY (3, p. 4), that Osborne Reynolds' had based an
entire theory of the universe on a DILATANT medium. I continued to pursue my
applications and subsequently received a patent on a toy called the
"Wackysack(R)" (4). Later, through the US Navy, I was granted a patent on an
impact absorber based on the same principle (5).
The rheologically dilatant suspension used in my patents has a critical shear
rate which can be kinaesthetically perceived on handling it. Below a critical
shear rate it behaves as a liquid, above this rate it behaves as a solid.
There seemed to be some analogy between this critical flow rate and
relativistic phenomena at the speed of light.
As an amateur physicist, I was thus fascinated with Reynolds' SMU model and
continued to study it and related topics over the past twenty years. I have
written two papers on the topic. The first deals with the theory in relation
to UFOs (6) and the second with a historical perspective on the theory (7).
DILATANCY OF BEACH SAND, GROUND COFFEE, AND GRAVITY
Reynolds' first aether-related works (8 and 9) appeared 18 years before
publication of his magnum opus. They describe a previously undiscovered
phenomenon; which Reynolds called "dilatancy".
Dilatancy refers to the shear-induced expansion of a mass of solid particles.
Reynolds' used dilatancy to explain the curious behavior of beach sand.
Walking on the beach is easy on the wet sand near the water, but difficult in
dry sand. When walking on wet beach sand, each time a heel strikes the
surface, the area surrounding the impact appears to turn dry or white. This
dry area appears to propagate from the point of impact like some sort of
field. According to Reynolds (2), it is in many ways analogous to a
When a close-packed mass of sand is subjected to a deforming force, the
particles attempt to slide past one another. This results in an expansion or
dilation of the deformed volume. The action of expansion or dilation can be
understood by making two fists, holding them in front of you and placing the
knuckles of one fist into the spaces between the knuckles of the other fist.
Your knuckles should now be "geared" to each other with the open spaces
(interstices) at a minimum. Now, if one set of knuckles is moved up or down
relative to the other, a point of maximum open "packing" is reached then the
top of one knuckle is directly on top of another. This represents the maximum
expansion or dilation of the volume containing the sheared "particles", i. e.,
In sand, for the sheared volume to expand, water must flow in to fill the
interstices. The sheared portion of sand underfoot therefore sucks water away
from the surrounding mass of wet sand and its surface turns white or dry.
This gearing action is responsible for the strength of the sand and also for
the rigidity of bricks of coffee packaged in flexible plastic foil bags.
Once the vacuum is broken, particles of coffee are no longer compressed or
interlocked and the brick becomes a floppy bag. Once the water is gone from
between the sand grains, the once solid surface becomes a soft, leg-tiring
treadmill. Although dilatancy is the key element in the SMU theory, there is
more to it than dilatancy.
DETAILED EXPLANATION OF REYNOLDS' THEORY
Reynolds' medium is granular, composed of uniform, independent, spherical
grains much smaller than subatomic particles and filling the entire universe.
In fact, it is the universe.
In matter-free space the grains are hexagonally arrayed and almost touching
(close-packed). Because they cannot normally exchange neighbors, they form a
quasicrystalline matrix. The grains are in relative, vibratory, gas-like
motion; but with a mean free path many orders of magnitude smaller than the
diameter of the grains (unlike a gas).
This jostling of the grains against one another produces a very high pressure
in the medium. Because of the gearing of the grains and the pressure, the
medium supports transverse disturbances (light waves) whose local propagation
rate depends on the local pressure and strains in the medium.
Reynolds says matter is strained regions of misalignment of the grains or
"singular surfaces", "negative inequalities", or simply, "holes". Elementary
particles are stable, dynamic configurations of holes; of places where the
aether grains are missing from the quasicrystalline matrix.
Matter, then, moves by means of displacement; much as a bubble moves upward by
an equal amount of liquid being displaced downward. For holes to move through
the medium, aether grains must move in the opposite direction.
Disturbances are propagated by the aether grains instantaneously transferring
their momentum by means of perfectly elastic collisions among them. It must
be emphasized that the hypothetical aether grains are idealized and must not
be thought of as ordinary matter.
The presence of holes in granular medium causes a reduction in the local
aether pressure. This reduction in pressure corresponds to gravitational and
inertial effects of matter. It is an inward, centrally acting strain gradient
in the medium. Two pieces of matter move toward each other because the aether
between them tends to move away at right angles from a line connecting them.
Said differently, matter tends to move toward regions of lower aether pressure
due to the higher pressure of the surrounding aether.
In explaining gravitation with the SMU model, Reynolds writes (1, p. 3):
"Efforts, proportional to the inverse square of the distance, to
cause two negative inequalities to approach are the result of
those components of the dilatation (taken at first approximation
only) which are caused by the variation of those components of the
inward strain which cause curvature in the normal piling of the
medium. The other components of the strain being parallel,
distortions which satisfy the condition of geometrical similarity
do not affect the effort. If the grains were indefinitely small,
there would be no effort. Thus the diameter of a grain is the
parameter of the effort; and multiplying this diameter by the
curvature of the medium (underlining by B.R.) and again by the
mean pressure of the medium the product measures the intensity of
The dilation diminishes as the centers of the negative
inequalities approach, and work is done BY THE PRESSURE IN THE
MEDIUM, outside the singular surfaces, to bring the negative
The efforts to cause the negative inequalities to approach
correspond, exactly, to gravitation, if matter represents negative
Reynolds then shows the calculation which results in the model's correct
prediction of gravitational force at the surface of the earth, concluding:
"The inversion is thus complete. Matter is an absence of mass,
and the effort to bring the negative inequalities together is also
an effort on the mass (aether grain mass, that is, B.R.) to
recede. And since the actions are those of positive pressure there
is no attraction involved; the efforts being the result of the
virtual diminution of the pressure inwards."
As underlined above, Reynolds spoke of gravitational curvature of space more
than a decade before Einstein's general theory of relativity was published.
HOW MATTER MOVES FREELY THROUGH REYNOLDS' MEDIUM AND VICE VERSA
Reynolds' theory differs greatly from aether theories based on the solid-
elastic continuum model. Two requirements for the solid-elastic medium are:
1) to be stiff enough to transmit the extremely high frequency vibrations
of light on the one hand, yet
2) diaphanous enough to permit the unhindered movement of the heavenly
According to Reynolds' his SMU model avoids these paradoxical requirements (1,
"The difficulties in conceiving the free motion of the ether
through matter do not present themselves in the analysis of the
properties of the granular medium as now accomplished. This
follows from the analysis which has been effected in this and the
"... Whence it follows that the singular surfaces which correspond
to matter are free to move in any direction through the medium
without resistance, and vice versa the medium is free to move in
any direction through the singular surfaces without resistance.
And that the waves corresponding to those of light are instituted
and absorbed by the singular surfaces only. So that after
institution at the place where the singular surfaces are, the
motion of the waves depends solely on the mean motion of the
medium, and the rate of propagation is equal in all directions
until they again come to singular surfaces. Thus all paradox is
removed and the explanation of aberration is established on the
basis of the absence of any appreciable resistance to the medium
in passing through matter."
Thus besides the explanations by definite analysis of:
the potential energy,
the propagation of transverse waves of light,
the apparent absence of any rate of degradation of light,
the lack of evidence of normal waves,
the gravitation of matter,
which explanations render the purely mechanical substructure of
the universe indefinitely probable, we have by further analyses
Reynolds' theory is compatible with both relativity and quantum theories. It
is an aether which was not demolished by the Michelson-Morley (M-M)
experimental results. It is true that M-M results disproved some aether
theories; but far from being disproven, I have actually been able to show that
the mechanism whereby relativistic phenomena occur is inherent in the very
structure and dynamics of Reynolds' medium itself (6 and 7).
MODERN PHYSICS AND REYNOLDS' THEORY
Some modern theoretical physicists, notably Bohm (10), de Broglie and Vigier
(11) and Hiley (12), have postulated the existence of a subquantic medium,
which according to Bohm's early interpretation, is surprisingly similar to
Reynolds' quasicrystalline dilatant medium. Both theories envision a
structured matrix with a graininess much finer than the smallest subatomic
In Bohm's subquantic medium, elementary particles are analogous to
dislocations and disclinations in a crystalline matrix. That is, there are a
sufficient number of different types of dislocations and disclinations in
crystals to account for the number of types of known elementary particles.
The stress fields in the crystal are analogous to the electric, magnetic,
nuclear, or gravitational forces exerted by the particle. The particle cannot
exist without the stress fields nor the stress fields without the particle.
Frank (13, pp. 131-134) has shown in a theoretical analysis that a Burgers
screw dislocation moving through a crystal experiences relativistic effects,
which can be determined by substituting the transverse velocity of sound in
the crystal for the speed of light. Thus, there is a modern trend moving in
the direction of Reynolds' theory.
Moving, propagating dislocations have much in common with the objects in John
Conway's game of Life. The objects in the game of Life are called "cellular
automata". It's not really a game, it's more a self-running demonstration or
simulation usually played out on the screens of personal computers. Certain
rules are set up on a computer, an initial configuration is input, and the
action is begun on the playing field.
Stable and oscillating immobile entities arise and some rarer moving entities,
called gliders and boats also appear on the field as the configuration
evolves. Certain starting configurations called "glider guns" are immobile
oscillators which every so many cycles shoot out a glider onto the field.
Although much simpler, in some respect Conway's 2 dimensional objects are
analogous to elementary particles in Reynolds' aether. In both cases, from a
set of relatively simple initial assumptions and generating rules, an entire
universe is constructed.
Le Corbeiller (14, p. 881) believes that, in light of the 32 possible crystal
classes and the 230 possible types of space arrangements of atoms in a
crystal, "It may not be very long before we obtain deductive knowledge, on the
basis of some few fundamental assumptions, of the main features of the
A proposal that one might deduce definable, mechanical structures for
elementary particles on a subquantic scale should cause Heisenberg to spin in
his grave. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle sets limits to certain kinds of
knowledge. It is a fuzzy electron which is measured by photons. It is a
fuzzy airplane which is measured by radar pulses. For certain purposes an
airplane is a "probability cloud" existing somewhere within a trumpet-shaped
volume of sky. However, this does not eliminate the fact that an airplane is
a complex mechanical structure, about which the crude radar pulses can tell us
very little. Deductive approaches such as Reynolds' theory just might let us
determine HOW AN ELECTRON IS BUILT OUT OF AETHER GRAINS.
One of the advantages of Reynolds' theory is that it makes possible
visualization of phenomena, which formerly were grasped mainly by mathematical
relationships. "Don't try to picture it; the equation is the whole reality",
is a point of view which promulgates mystery in physics. Reynolds' theory has
the potential of demystifying physics and bringing to bear, once again, that
powerful human faculty of visualization to the subject.
In this theory, the pressure of the aether, the interlocking structure of the
aether grains, and dilation effects resulting from strains in the medium are
the first order effects. The aether grains are the only truly 3 dimensional
objects. All of the known physical phenomena are higher order effects
deriving from these first order effects. Reynolds' quasicrystalline,
dilatant, subquantic medium can provide explanations for:
1. the mechanism of gravity,
2. the magnitudes of nuclear, electric/magnetic, and
gravitational forces as a function of distance,
3. the constant velocity of light,
4. the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction,
5. time expansion,
6. increase in mass with velocity,
7. nonradiating orbits of electrons around the nucleus,
8. the Pauli exclusion principle,
9. mass-energy interconversion (pair production and electron-
10. the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and
11. the wave-particle duality of EM radiation.
SPECULATIONS ON RELEVANCE OF REYNOLDS' THEORY TO PARAPSYCHOLOGY
Douglas Stokes in his fine review article "Theoretical Parapsychology" (15)
mentions resonance theories, Sheldrake's morphogenetic fields and Bohm's
implicate order as possible explanations for parapsychological phenomena.
Helmholtz demonstrated electromagnetic resonance by building identical, open
loops of wire and when these were in proper orientation to each other a spark
across the gap in the sender also occurred in the receiver. In some manner
the energy was transmitted across the space between them. We now know that
the transverse waves of electromagnetic radiation traveling through space at
the speed of light are the basis for what Helmholtz observed.
Are mental sparks transmitted from person to person? If so, what is the
nature of these mental sparks? What is the medium across which this occurs?
What might be resonating? The Ganzfeld phenomena, remote-viewing would appear
to involve a much more complex sort of transmission than transverse EM
Osborne Reynolds' longitudinal (or compression-rarefaction) waves are one
candidate. These travel at 2.4 times the speed of light, however they
interact very little with matter and have a relatively limited range of a few
Another candidate for psi transmission lies in the structural properties of
Reynolds' aether. Reynolds defines matter as regions of space within which
aether grains ARE MISSING from the normal packing. This produces an AETHER
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL which, basically, is a gravitational field.
This field produced by a physical object persists so long as that object
exists. The field extends indefinitely into space and its intensity falls off
according to the square of the distance. Along with the amorphous, purely
quantitative gravitational field, it may be possible that objects produce a
structured field containing more information than simply the amount of mass
contained therein, which I will call "corporeal fields".
Interactions of these corporeal fields extending into space might provide a
physical basis for some classes of psi phenomena. Such "transcorporeal
resonances" might produce subliminal or liminal experiences on a physical,
tactile, body sensation level. It is not easy for many (especially the males
in our culture) to be aware of, to be sensitive to, bodily sensations and
"feelings". Individual differences in corporeal sensitivity could account for
differences in psychic abilities.
The information in a corporeal field might be more than simply the physical
configuration of a human body; it could include thoughts, sensations,
feelings, and mental images. Perhaps Jung's archetypes are modes of
transcorporeal resonances and the universal unconscious is a name for this
corporeal field information being shared via Reynolds quasicrystalline aether.
I want to emphasize the difference between the above view and that of one
person sending "thought waves" to another. The corporeal fields of all of us
exist throughout the aether. Our corporeal fields in this room are coexisting
and interpenetrating via the structured aether.
Our bodies are the major source of these informational fields. Our bodies are
separated by skin, clothing and air from other bodies in this room but we are
intimately connected via the aether which provides the medium within which our
bodies (and the rest of the universe) exists. Subtle features of the field
could enable resonances or interactions among them which would be detectable
at the source. So, I am talking about corporeal fields exchanging
configurational information rather than transmission of messages through
modulated electromagnetic radiation.
THE FUTURE OF PHYSICS AND REYNOLDS' THEORY
The first three decades of the twentieth century were rich with theoretical
advances in physics. Since that time, technology has developed the practical
applications of these new theories. It seems that the lands charted by these
theories have all been explored and cultivated. There remain few new vistas.
Reynolds' theory offers a new perspective, a revitalized vision of the
physical world, a new mastery over the physical universe. It allows for the
1. signal propagation at 2.4 times the speed of light,
2. control of gravity or levitation of physical objects,
3. control of the inertia or mass of physical objects,
4. control of the rate of passage of time within a volume of
5. control of the local metric of space,
6. a space drive not requiring the expulsion of reaction mass,
7. an inexhaustible source of energy, and
8. a physical basis for understanding psi phenomena.
Considerable theoretical and applied research will be necessary to realize any
of these possibilities. But just knowing that they exist will be enough to
infuse new vitality into not only our physics; but also our entire
civilization. Osborne Reynolds' quasicrystalline dilatant aether theory is a
paradigm upon which a new physics for the third millennium may be built.
METAPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS: A PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY
Reynolds' interlocking aether grains provide a basis for long range order and
structure in the universe. Macroscopic structure in past theories was based
on molecular configurations and arose from the electromagnetic interactions
among atoms by means of photon interchanges between electron orbitals.
With the SMU these interactions themselves are based on a structured medium.
Structure is no longer an accident, but is innate in the very ground of
existence. Instead of an amorphous empty space we have a highly structured
matrix of high energy and high information content. Instead of particles
having an independent existence, we have a total embedment and
The medium is inside of and outside of all things. The medium is all things.
Without it, nothing exists. All matter exists as dislocations in a
structured, mechanical medium. All interactions between matter occur through
vibrations and stresses in this structured medium. Suddenly, with Reynolds'
Theory, we have a cozier universe.
For me, finding such an explanatory paradigm has changed my life. I'm
basically a simple person. I like to be able to visualize things. This is why
a mechanical medium appeals to me. When I say mechanical, it is important to
keep in mind that although Reynolds' medium allows for the existence of
matter, it itself is not ordinary matter. It has negative mass, perfect
elasticity and other characteristics that everyday matter does not possess.
Perhaps lifeforms have found ways of using this structured medium to enhance
their survival potential.
ATMAN IS BRAHMAN, BRAHMAN IS ATMAN
This means: "The individual spirit is the universal spirit, the universal
spirit is the individual spirit." What this means to me on a more personal
level is that there is a unity behind the diversity of experience, the
connectedness of all things, is given substance with Reynolds subquantic,
The metaphysical implication of Osborne Reynolds' subquantic medium is that it
is a universal matrix within which all things exist, out of which all things
appear or emerge and into which all things dissolve or fade away. To use Bohm
and Peat's terminology (16) it is the ultimate implicate order from which the
explicate order unfolds.
The words "mother", "mater", "matrix", "hugging", "oneness", "enfoldment",
"embedment" I see as descriptive of Osborne Reynolds' medium and the universe.
A Universal Matrix can be considered the Universal Mater or Mother. I see a
fundamental relationship between the East's "unseen ground of existence" and
Reynolds' medium, which provides the implicate order, the "active
intelligence", the subtle guidance which is necessary to explain hitherto
unexplained physical phenomena.
As we move through the experience of life, from embedment in the womb, to
embedment in the family, to embedment in the larger world of school and work,
it is conceptually satisfying to see everything within which all this took
place as itself embedded in the universal, subquantic, interstellar medium.
This understanding at the highest theoretical, intellectual level of a
graspable, visualizable grand unifying theory of everything has provided me
with a ... not really faith ... how can I put it, has set my mind to rest.
The subjective experience of oneness, of me, as the unifying principle of my
personal universe has a theoretical correlate in Reynolds' medium as the
unifying principle of the physical universe. It now all makes sense, it
coheres, it is aesthetically satisfying.
Our physical bodies are conceived, born, grow, age, die and disperse. Each of
us is a physical entity --- yet there is more than just these bodies. There
is awareness, sensitivity to people and the world around us. There is the
struggle for understanding of ourselves and our universe, the ultimate
refinement of the struggle for survival, which I see as our springboard to
1. Reynolds, 0., Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Vol. III, The
Sub-Mechanics of the Universe, Cambridge: at the University Press, 1903.
2. Reynolds, 0., On an Inversion of Ideas as to the Structure of the
Universe (The Rede Lecture, June 10, 1902), Cambridge: at the University
3. Blair, G. W. S., A Survey of General and Applied Rheology, Pitman
Publishing Corp, 1944.
4. Rosenberg, B. L., Amusement Device Employing Dilatant Suspension Filler,
U.S. Patent 3,601,923 granted 31 Aug. 1971, filed 7 Oct. 1968.
5. Rosenberg, B. L., Non Linear Energy Absorption System U.S. Patent No.
3,833,952, Granted 10 Sept 1974, filed 18 Jan 1973, assigned to the
U.S.A. as represented by the Secretary of the Navy.
6. Rosenberg, B. L., UFOs, Osborne Reynolds and the One Wind: A New Look at
an Old Theory, Submitted as an entry in the Cutty Sark scientific paper
competition to promote understanding of the UFO phenomenon, Atlantic
City, NJ, June 1979.
7. Rosenberg, B. L., Osborne Reynolds' Submechanics of the Universe: A
Bridge between Classical and Modern Physics, Submitted to the Joint
Anglo-American Conference on the History of Science, Manchester, England,
8. Reynolds, O. "Experiments Showing Dilatancy, A Property of Granular
Material, Possibly Connected with Gravitation". Proceedings of the Royal
Institution of Great Britain, Read February 12, 1886, Reprinted in Papers
on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Reprinted from Various Transactions
and Journals, Vol. II: 1881 - 1900, Cambridge: at the University Press,
9. Reynolds, 0., "On the Dilatancy of Media Composed of Rigid Particles in
Contact, With Experimental Illustrations", Philosophical Mag., 20 (S5),
469-481, Dec. 1885.
10. Bohm, D. J., "Problems in the Basic Concepts of Physics", Satyendranath
Bose 70th Birthday Commemoration Volume, Part II, Kalipada Mukherjee at
Eka Press, Calcutta, 1966.
11. de Broglie, L. and Vigier, J. P., Introduction to the Vigier Theory of
Elementary Particles, Elsevier Publishing Co., 1963.
12. Hiley, B. J., "A Note on Discreteness, Phase Space and Cohomology
Theory", in Quantum Theory and Beyond: Essays and Discussions Arising
from a Colloquium, Ted Bastian, Ed., Cambridge: at the University Press,
13. Frank, F. C., "On the Equations of Motion of Crystal Dislocations", in
The Proceedings of the Physical Society, Sec. A, from Jan. 1949 to Dec.
1949, Vol. 62.
14. Le Corbeiller, P. "Crystals and the Future of Physics", in The World of
Mathematics, Volume Two, pp. 871-881, James R. Newman, ed., Simon and
Schuster, New York, 1956.
15. Stokes, D. M. "Theoretical Parapsychology" in Advances In
Parapsychological Research, pp. 77-189, Stanley Krippner, ed., McFarland
and Company, 1987.
16. Bohm, D. and Peat, F. D., Science, Order, and Creativity, Bantam Books,
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