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Borderland: Constitution of Sun and Stars - Kraft
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE SUN AND STARS
Carl Frederick Krafft
According to the accredited science of today, the sun and stars are gaseous
bodies with temperatures of millions of degrees inside. The scientific profession is
so sure of this that anybody who thinks otherwise is simply not given a chance to be
heard, although a simple calculation under the gas laws will show that any celestial
body similar to the sun, and with a density approximately equal to that of ocean
water, would explode immediately if heated to a temperature of millions of degrees
Our sun is just an average star, and a mere glance at it should be sufficient to
convince anybody that it cannot be gaseous inside. A ball of gas would not have a
sharp circular outline like the periphery of the sun. Gaseous clouds do exist
elsewhere in the universe, but they do not appear as suns or stars. The periphery of
the sun does, however, bear a remarkable resemblance to a horizon of ocean water.
This conclusion is further corroborated by the density of the sun which is just
slightly greater than that of ocean water--exactly what would be expected if the sun
consists mainly of water, but with a solid core at the center.
If the heat from the sun really came from a hot interior, then as the late Dr.
Hermann Fricke of Germany has pointed out, sunspots should be incandescent and not
dark. Numerous photographs have been taken of sunspots from all angles, and these
photographs show beyond any possibility of a doubt that sunspots are nothing else
than splashes in the luminous layer. The luminous material is thrown to the sides,
leaving a wide open hole at the center through which the dark interior of the sun can
be viewed--perhaps not absolutely dark, but much darker that the luminous surface
with its temperature of 6OOO degrees. According to all authentic science of today,
we are supposed to believe that within this dark interior there is raging a
temperature of 5O,OOO,OOO degrees! It is just too much for the writer to swallow.
The heat of the sun is probably generated by bombardment of its outer atmosphere
by cosmic rays consisting of subatomic particles drawn in by the gravitational force
of the sun. We have a similar heated layer in the upper atmosphere of our earth
where cosmic ray intensity is much greater and the temperature is hundreds of degrees
higher than at the surface of the earth. Since the gravitational force at the
surface of the sun is thirty times that at the surface of the earth, it is not
difficult on this basis to account for the 6OOO degree temperature at the surface of
the sun, without making any fantastic assumptions of interior temperatures of
millions of degrees.
A hot outer atmosphere would not necessarily heat up the interior of the sun, as
has often been argued. Heat can travel only by radiation, conduction, or convection.
Radiation is stopped immediately by even the thinnest layers of opaque material, and
conduction through thousands of miles of poorly conducting material is a very slow
process. There remains then only convection, and in a gravitational field the effect
of convection is always to produce stratification--the hotter masses rising to the
top and the cooler masses sinking to the bottom. If now we make the reasonable
assumption that the effect of convection is greater than the combined effect of
radiation and conduction, then any large celestial body with sufficient water on it
should act like an automatic refrigerator--its interior remaining cool indefinitely
notwithstanding the generation of heat on its surface. Some of the water on the
surface of the sun will undoubtedly be evaporated by the intense heat, and may even
become dissociated into oxygen and hydrogen, but the reverse of these processes will
also occur, until a condition of equilibrium has been established. The ultimate
result will be a gigantic turbulence on the surface of the sun, such as can be
observed any time, but which will leave the interior of the sun unaffected.
The cosmic rays which are drawn in by gravitational force consist mainly of
subatomic particles such as protons, electrons and neutrons. If these are clusters
of vortex rings which were produced in the interstellar ether by the turbulence of
light and heat waves, then we have here a cyclic process which could go on
indefinitely. The energy which leaves the sun and stars in the form of light and
heat radiation is again returned to them in the form of cosmic ray particles, and any
matter which is annihilated during this process is similarly returned from
Annandale, Virginia February, 1961.
NOTE: Sunspots are not caused by explosions from inside the sun because they
would then be covered by huge clouds similar to the mushroom clouds of atomic
Recent photographs taken from a high altitude balloon have shown most clearly
that sunspots are definitely splashes, and a well defined splash cannot be produced
in a gas but only on the surface of a liquid. The surface of the sun, except for its
gaseous atmosphere, must therefore be liquid.
The darkness of sunspots has at times been attributed to large masses of
condensate plunging into the hot gaseous surface of the sun and cooling the gases
locally. If this were the true explanation, then it would be difficult to explain,
not only the splash itself, but also the granular formation of the luminous material
which has every appearance of clouds in the sun's atmosphere. If the heat and light
of the sun really does come from its interior, then it would be the spaces between
the clouds which should be luminous, and not the clouds themselves. Photographs
however have clearly shown that whenever adjacent clouds (luminous granules) leave
tiny openings between them, the space behind them thus exposed is always relatively
dark--never luminous or incandescent.
The luminosity of these cloudlike granules is probably produced by cosmic
protons and neutrons drawn into the sun's outer atmosphere by gravitational force and
condensing into helium ions or atoms. We do not need to assume that such cosmic
protons and neutrons are in every respect identical with the protons and neutrons
that have been produced in physical laboratories, and the extreme conditions of
temperature, pressure, electrification and neutron concentration that exist on the
surface of the sun have never been duplicated simultaneously or even approximated
artificially. Let us therefore not be so rash as to say the formation of helium in
the atmosphere of the sun from cosmic protons and neutrons would be impossible.
From THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM by Carl Frederick Krafft, BSRF, 1987.^Z
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