AOH :: BIGBANG.TXT|
Big Bang Debunked
BIG BANG DEBUNKED
Early in the 1900's Edwin Hubble discovered that there was
a direct relationship between a red shift in the light spectrum of
stars and their distance from the observer. Through the 1920's
Hubble struggled to pinpoint the exact relationship between this red
shift and distance. Hubble published articles and lectured frequently
about the progress of his work.
Georges Lemaitre, a Belgian Catholic priest, pounced upon
Hubble's publications and postulated the big-bang account of
creation in 1927. He described an expanding universe that
originated in an enormous explosion and cited the works of Edwin
Hubble and Willem de Sitter as evidence. With one stroke of
genius, Lemaitre upstaged the scientists and united religious
creation with the latest scientific observations of his day.
Born of a priest and a mule skinner, the big-bang
theory grew to plague the efforts of reasonable scientists.
Milton La Salle Humason began working at the Mount
Wilson Observatory as a mule driver in the early 1900's during the
time that Edwin Hubble did research there. Humason advanced in
status through dedication to hard work and began doing telescope
observations for Hubble's use. While he worked with Hubble,
Humason became a student of Lemaitre's work and began
advocating Lemaitre's account of creation.
Hubble pointed out that contrary to Lemaitre's ideas, the red
shift was probably not due to the Doppler effect. If it were, he
maintained, a projection of the present observations into the past
would place all observable mass in one spot about 2.5 billion years
in the past. This was much too little time to be compatible with
One of the main objections Hubble had to the big-bang
theory came from his study of the brightness of certain stars. He
maintained that if stars were receding at the rate indicated by their
red shift their brightness should seem diminished. He observed that
there was no such diminishing of brightness.
When Hubble died on Sept. 28, 1953, Humason was loosed
from Hubble's leash. He worked ardently with several others and
by 1956 they had worked some magic and changed Hubble's
constant by an order of magnitude to make it compatible with the
Hubble based the original value of Hubble's constant upon
scientific analysis. He measured distances to stars by several means
and then compared their red shift with these distances. He arrived
at a value of 500. Big bangers changed this value to, "somewhere
around 35 but certainly less than 50," to prevent conflict with the
big-bang version of creation.
When one uses a value of 50 for Hubble's constant the
distance to several galaxies discovered recently turns out to be 27
billion light years. Hubble's original value of 500 would put them at
270 billion light years. It is very strange that this number keeps
changing with each new discovery.
Humason advanced in stature with the acceptance of the
big-bang theory and finally became secretary of the Mount Wilson
and Palomar observatories. Until his death on June 18, 1972,
Humason continued to support the big-bang theory over all other
accounts of creation. Supporters of the big-bang theory had easy
access to the observational instruments controlled by Humason;
opponents of the big bang did not.
While he lived and was of sound mind, Hubble approached
the big-bang theory scientifically. He saw that the only evidence
directly supporting it was the observed red shift. He concluded that
this red shift could not be due to the Doppler effect because other
observations conflicted with that idea. But Hubble began losing his
memory in his early fifties and was never able to show the cause of
the red shift. After his death most scientists gradually accepted that
Hubble's red shift was caused by the Doppler effect.
Everything known to man changed with time, why could
light not also age?
The Steady-State theory was proposed by Thomas Gold,
Herman Bondi, and Fred Hoyle in 1948. They advocated that the
universe had existed in a steady state forever. It was expanding,
they suggested, but its density remained constant because new mass
was continuously created. They calculated the amount of new mass
that must be created to replace receding galaxies and found it to be
about one hydrogen atom per cubic mile each year.
Gamma ray photons from galaxies must interact to form
electrons in space just as they do in laboratories on earth. It does
not take a genius to see that the amount could easily be one atom
per cubic mile per year, but much less would actually be required if
the universe were not really expanding. It is very possible that light
moving through space continuously shifts toward a less energetic
state--red shift. We know very well that light does this in the
Compton effect where a photon bounces off an electron and loses
Sir Fred Hoyle's fame came mainly from his work in
showing that recycled stars could produce all the elements found in
nature. He showed in detail how atomic reactions would proceed
from the element hydrogen all the way through to the heaviest
elements known. He proved that there was no need for a big bang
to explain how nature formed the heavy elements.
The Photonics Universe is a non-expanding natural
orderly system that has existed forever.
According to photon theory the universe is an
electromagnetic structure comprised only of photons. These
photons exist free in space where they are observed as light, and
they also exist in phase-locked patterns, where they are observed as
When electrons and positrons collide they produce gamma-
ray photons. These photons may interfere with each other and
become phase-locked in patterns. They then become electrons and
When such collisions occur at very great speed, photon flux
of the collisions produce protons and neutrons. Neutrons are
unstable by themselves in space, and decay to become electrons and
protons in a few seconds. Protons produced in electron-positron
collisions collect electrons and become hydrogen atoms in
accordance with the rules of Quantum Electrodynamics.
Protons formed out of electron-positron collision debris
collect electrons to become hydrogen atoms and migrate toward
each other, attracted by their gravity. These atoms gather in huge
clouds and move toward other concentrations of mass. Currents
and eddies form in the clouds, causing lumps to accumulate. In the
lumps pressure builds to atomic fury fusing hydrogen atoms into
helium. A star is thus born.
Billions of stars gather to produce galaxies most of which
are about a hundred thousand light years in diameter. Stars in the
galaxy age and die in explosions creating the heavy elements by the
process that Sir Fred Hoyle discovered. Burnt-out stars gravitate
toward the center of the galaxy.
All mass in the Photonics universe gravitates toward the
center of the closest galaxy. Stars in the galaxy churn the mass into
increasingly heavier elements through atomic fusion. Fission and
fusion reactions continue as stars recycle their mass through birth
and death. Mass becomes light in star-rich galaxies and they spew
photons outward into space.
Photons and some small particles contain enough energy to
escape the galaxy. Others without enough energy to escape churn
through the process again and again until all mass eventually
becomes light; all light eventually becomes mass, and the cycle
continues throughout the life of the galaxy.
Photons and small particles that escape the galaxy gravitate
toward concentrations of mass. These repeat the cycle as they
become part of another huge cloud of debris and the process goes
on and on.
Big Bangers have become fewer with recent new
Halton Arp of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in
Munich, Germany wrote in a letter published in the July 27, 1991
issue of the AAAS publication, Science, "They [big-bangers]
overlook observational facts that have been piling up for 25 years
and that have now become overwhelming. Of course, if one
ignores contradictory observations, one can claim to have an
'elegant' or 'robust' theory. But, it isn't science."
Recent observations have turned up several new classes of
objects that violate the big-bang's most basic assumption. Many are
too distant to fit the big-bang age of the universe of about 20 billion
years. Others show that the universe is structured with vast ribbons
of galaxies that could not have reasonably formed in less than about
200 billion years. But, of course, Big Bangers abandoned
reasonableness as a test for reality long ago when Hubble's scientific
observations were changed by more than an order of magnitude to
make them fit the big-bang dogma.
Most scientists agree that the milky-way galaxy and the
solar system are now evolving. Some put the solar system about
midway through its life, others a little younger. Its farthest rocky
planet, Mars, seems to have cooled through a time of water-rich life
and now its second farthest, Earth, blossoms. In the future, Earth
should cool to be like Mars and Venus should cool to become the
planet where water-rich life evolves.
Those who believe that nature is controlled by an all-
powerful deity may consider that photons are the thoughts of God.
Since this idea can not possibly be proven false, it can not be
scientific. This is a condition the idea shares with all religions, none
of which are based upon true scientific thought. Philosophers
reason that only science must obey the rules of science, religious
ideas must be tested with their own rules.
If photons were the thoughts of God, all of nature would be
at His whim. And, since His thoughts are the universe, man can
only know one God.
Photon theory is therefore consistent with religious beliefs.
It does not insist upon them, but it also does not condemn them or
ban religious thought. It is not secular, all religions can fit within its
structure. In fact, photon theory provides a reasonable way for
believers to conceive of a true deity and hold that deity to be all
powerful in nature.
Recent discoveries at the University of Maryland show that
single photons trapped in resonant cavities behave just like the most
elementary particles of mass. They possess electrical charge and
inertia, and all other properties of mass that scientists can measure.
They even exhibit the relativistic distortion that all other massive
objects exhibit when scientists subject them to rapid motion.
All these things indicate that some form of photon theory
will dominate the physics of the 21st century. Students of science
see it easily, but old scientists ignore its obvious reality. Max
Planck pointed out that this is the normal way of scientific
processes. New ideas must wait for the old keepers of the faith to
die before they are accepted, but just surely as death must come to
the old, these new concepts will see their day in the sun.
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